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Encyclopedia > Polycrates
For the bishop, see Polycrates of Ephesus.

Polycrates (Gk. Πολυκράτης), son of Aeaces, was the tyrant of Samos from c. 538 BC to 522 BC. Image File history File links Artpolycrates. ... Polycrates of Ephesus was a bishop (chief pastor) in Ephesus in the late 2nd century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ...


He took power during a festival of Hera with his brothers Pantagnotus and Syloson, but soon had Pantagnotus killed and exiled Syloson to take full control for himself. He then allied with Amasis II, pharaoh of Egypt, as well as the tyrant of Naxos Lygdamis. With a navy of 100 penteconters and an army of 1,000 archers, he plundered the islands of the Aegean Sea and the cities on the Ionian coast of Asia Minor, defeating and enslaving the navies of Lesbos and Miletus. He also conquered the small island of Rhenea, which he chained to nearby Delos as a dedication to Apollo. In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hera (IPA pronunciation: ; Greek or ) was the wife and older sister of Zeus. ... Amasis II (also Ahmose or Ah-mes) was a pharaoh (570 - 526 BC) of the 26th dynasty, the successor of Wahibre. ... Pharaoh is a title used to refer to any ruler, usually male, of the Egyptian kingdom in the pre-Christian, pre-Islamic period. ... Naxos is the largest island (428 km² ) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean Sea, which separates Greece and Turkey. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... In Target Archery, the object is to hit targets such as this to score points. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (now in Turkey) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Lesbos, shown off the coast of the Anatolian peninsula (Asiatic Turkey), northwest of Ä°zmir. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus, as it was on August 6, 2005. ... Rineia or Rhenea is a Greek island in the Cyclades. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a statue of a male youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery...


He had a reputation as both a fierce warrior and an enlightened tyrant. On Samos he built an aqueduct, a large temple of Hera (to which Amasis dedicated many gifts), and a palace later rebuilt by the Roman emperor Caligula. In 522 BC he celebrated an unusual double festival in honour of the god Apollo of Delos and of Delphi; it has been suggested that the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, sometimes attributed to Cynaethus of Chios, was composed for this occasion.[1] Polycrates was certainly a patron of the poet Anacreon, and of the Crotonian doctor Democedes. Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41 AD), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from AD 37 to AD 41. ... Lycian Apollo, early Imperial Roman copy of a fourth century Greek original (Louvre Museum) In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (Ancient Greek , Apóllōn; or , Apellōn), the ideal of the kouros (a statue of a male youth), was the archer-god of medicine and healing, light, truth, archery... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Delphi (Greek Δελφοί — Delphee) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Cynaethus or Cinaethus (Κιναιθος or Κυναιθος), of Chios, a rhapsodist, who was gene­rally supposed by the ancients to have been the author of the Homeric hymn to Apollo. ... Anacreon roman copy , Rome in Palazzo dei Conservatori Anacreon (also Anakreon) (born ca. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Democedes of Croton, described in The Histories of Herodotus as the most skillful physician of his time. // Democedess Background Democedes was a Greek physician and a part of the court of Darius I. He was born in Croton, part of present-day Italy. ...


According to Herodotus, Amasis thought Polycrates was too successful, and advised him to throw away whatever he valued most in order to escape a reversal of fortune. Polycrates followed the advice and threw a jewel-encrusted ring into the sea; however, a few days later, a fisherman caught a large fish that he wished to share with the tyrant. While Polycrates' cooks were preparing the fish for eating, they discovered the ring inside of it. Polycrates told Amasis of his good fortune, and Amasis immediately broke off their alliance, believing that such a lucky man would eventually come to a disastrous end. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It is more likely that the alliance was ended because Polycrates allied with the Persian king Cambyses II against Egypt. By this time, Polycrates had created a navy of 40 triremes, probably becoming the first Greek state with a fleet of such ships. He manned these triremes with men he considered to be politically dangerous, and instructed Cambyses to execute them; the exiles suspected Polycrates' plan, however, and turned back from Egypt to attack the tryant. They defeated Polycrates at sea but could not take the island. They then sailed to mainland Greece and allied with Sparta and Corinth, who invaded the island. After 40 days they withdrew their unsuccessful siege. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... Cambyses II (Persian Kambujiya), was the name borne by the son of Cyrus the Great. ... A Greek trireme Triremes (Greek Τριήρεις) are several different types of ancient warships. ... Coordinates 37°4′ N 22°26′ E Country Greece Periphery Peloponnese Prefecture Laconia Population 18,184 source (2001) Area 84. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...

In another attempt to rid himself of possible opponents, he caused the gymnasia to be destroyed in an attempt to put an end to pederastic friendships which had the reputation of being dangerous to tyrants. However, what he forbade to others he did not deny to himself. He kept an eromenos of his own, a boy named Smerdis. When the poet Anacreon, a guest of the tyrant at the time, was taken with the youth's spiritual qualities and Smerdis returned the poet's friendship, Polycrates became jealous and had the youth's long hair cut off, an incident that occasioned a poem by Anacreon.[2] Image File history File links Polycrates. ... In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Anacreon roman copy , Rome in Palazzo dei Conservatori Anacreon (also Anakreon) (born ca. ...


Herodotus also tells the story of Polycrates' death. Near the end of the reign of Cambyses, the governor of Sardis, Oroetes, planned to kill Polycrates, either because he had been unable to add Samos to Persia's territory, or because Polycrates had supposedly snubbed a Persian ambassador. In any case, Polycrates was invited to Sardis, and despite the prophetic warnings of his daughter, he was assassinated. The manner is not recorded by Herodotus, as it was apparently an undignified end for a glorious tyrant, but he may have been crucified. A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, (also Sardes, Greek: Σάρδεις), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, and... Crucifixion of St. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Walter Burkert, 'Kynaithos, Polycrates and the Homeric Hymn to Apollo' in Arktouros: Hellenic studies presented to B. M. W. Knox ed. G. W. Bowersock, W. Burkert, M. C. J. Putnam (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1979) pp. 53-62.
  2. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia, 9.4

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ...

See also

In Psychology, a Polycrates Complex is a desire to be punished. ...

External links

  • Livius, Polycrates of Samos by Jona Lendering

 
 

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