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AffinityAttachmentBondingCohabitationCompersion ConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower/-ryFriendshipFamilyHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romance PassionPartnerPederastyPlatonic lovePsychology of MonogamyRelationship abuseSexualitySpouseSlaverySeparationWeddingWidowhoodWife Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond, or more generally human bonding, refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... “Living in sin” redirects here. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... A family in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family consists of a domestic group of people (or a number of domestic groups), typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by analogous or comparable relationships — including domestic partnership, cohabitation, adoption, surname and (in some cases) ownership (as occurred in the... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ... Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoning passion or love; addictive love. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An affair is a form of nonmonogamy. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many families. ... Slave redirects here. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

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In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. Cultural anthropology, also called social anthropology or socio-cultural anthropology, is one of four commonly recognized fields of anthropology, the holistic study of humanity. ... Sociobiology is a synthesis of scientific disciplines that explains behaviour in all species by considering the evolutionary advantages of social behaviours. ...


The form of polyandry in which two (or more) brothers marry the same woman is known as fraternal polyandry, and it is believed by many anthropologists to be the most frequently encountered form. Adelphogamy (from the Greek adelphos - brother), or fraternal polyandry, is a form of marriage in which two or more brothers share one wife or more. ... See Anthropology. ...

Contents

Definition

In social anthropology, polyandry refers to a form of polygamous marriage (which simply means "multiple spouses."). Polyandry is the specific form of polygamy in which a woman is married to more than one husband simultaneously. On the other hand, polygyny is when a man has multiple wives. The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Wives are a hardcore/punk trio from Los Angeles, California, USA consisting of guitarist Randy Randall, bassist/vocalist Dean Spunt, and drummer Jeremy Villalobos. ...


Polyandry in nature

In the field of behavioural ecology polyandry is a type of breeding adaptation in which one female mates with many males. Another similar breeding system to this is polygyny in which one male mates with many females (e.g., lions, deer, some primates and many systems where there is an alpha male). In social animals, the alpha male or alpha female is the individual in the community whom the others follow and defer to. ...


A common example of this can be found in the Field Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus of the invertebrate order Orthoptera (containing crickets, grasshoppers and groundhoppers). The unusual thing about polyandry in nature in general is that mating is costly: in other words, why mate with more than one male when you could be better spending your time foraging? Females in this species will mate with any male close to them, including siblings. Related to sexual conflict, possible explanations for polyandry evolving in this species include: 1. It is easier to ensure reproductive success (i.e. it is more likely that the female will have offspring) 2. Females may be encouraging sperm competition between males post-copulation 3. Females may receive food offerings from prospective mates inciting copulation 4. Because males can't be sure if they are or aren't their offspring and won't risk destroying their own DNA, mating with multiple males increases the survival of the female's offspring. Polyandry also occurs in some primates (eg, marmosets ), other mammal groups (eg, the marsupial "mouse" genus Antechinus), some bird species (in around 1% of all bird species, eg, jacanas), insects (such as honeybees), and fish (such as pipefish). In effect polyandry will reduce the effective population size of a given population (closed). Binomial name Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer, 1773 // can be discriminated from other Gryllus species by the two dot-like marks on the base of its wings. ... Sexual conflict is a form of evolutionary conflict where males and females share different interests. ... marmosts fuck all the time. ... Type Species Antechinus stuartii Macleay, 1841 Species See text. ... Species Microparra capensis Actophilornis africana Actophilornis albinucha Irediparra gallinacea Hydrophasianus chirurgus Metopidius indicus Jacana spinosa Jacana jacana The Jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. ... Genera See text. ...


Occurrence

Polyandry has occurred in Tibet (see Polyandry in Tibet), the Canadian Arctic, Zanskar, Nepal, Ladakh, the Jaunsar region in Uttarakhand, India, Toda of South India,the Nymba, Nishi and Sri Lanka. It is also encountered in some regions of Mongolia, China (especially Yunnan- the Mosuo people), and in some Subsaharan African and American indigenous communities. The Guanches, the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands, also practiced it until their disappearance. In other societies, there are people who live in de facto polyandrous arrangements that are not recognized by the law[citation needed]. Tibet (older spelling Thibet; Tibetan: བོད་; Wylie: Bod; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Simplified and Traditional Chinese: 西藏, Hanyu Pinyin: XÄ«zàng; also referred to as 藏区 (Simplified Chinese), 藏區 (Traditional Chinese), ZàngqÅ« (Hanyu Pinyin), see Name section below) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Polyandry in Tibet was a traditional marriage practice that existed within a milieu whereby a woman could have several husbands. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... Zanskar is a region in the Kargil district, part of the north-west Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Karakoram mountain range to the north and the Himalayas to the south. ... The Toda (Tudavar) people are a tribe living in the Nilgiri Mountains of Tamil Nadu in southern India. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... A Nishi tribal wearing the traditional head-dress having a hornbill beak Nishis A Nishi house The Nishi tribe principally inhabit the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; Pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Guanches (also: Guanchis or Guanchos) were the first known inhabitants of the Canary Islands. ... Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


With traditional polyandry, the most common source of friction is rivalry between the fathers and their children for the attention of their wife/mother. This causes tension for the already heavily burdened wife.


Polyandry in primates and other mammals is usually correlated with reduced or reverse sexual dimorphism. When males of a species are much larger than females, polygyny is usually practiced. As size difference decreases, or the females are larger than males, a species is more likely to practice monogamy or polyandry. The great apes (gorillas, orangutans, and chimpanzees) are highly dimorphic and practice polygyny. Male and female gibbons (lesser apes) are similar in size and form monogamous pairs. Human males and females are less dimorphic (aroused)in body size than other polygynous great apes, and are often monogamous. For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... In monogamy (Greek: monos = single/only and gamos = marriage) a person has only one spouse at a time (as opposed to polygamy). ...


Paternal investment is often high in polyandrous species. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ...


Controversy

Polyandry is a controversial subject among anthropologists. For instance, Pennsylvania anthropologist Stephen Beckerman points out that at least 20 tribal societies accept that a child could, and ideally should, have more than one father, referring to it as "partible paternity". On the other hand, in Tibet, which is the most well-documented cultural domain within which polyandry is practiced, the testimony of certain polyandrists themselves is that the marriage form is difficult to sustain. However, certain monogamists say the same thing about monogamous marriage[citation needed]. Partible Paternity is where the nurture of a child is shared by multiple fathers, a form of polyandry. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


With particular regard to the supposed failure rate of polyandry (and polygamy in general), it is important to note that there are high rates of infidelity and divorce in "monogamous" societies, so that it is possible to argue that polyandry is not somehow uniquely unworkable. In Tibet polyandry has been outlawed, which means that it is difficult to measure the incidence of polyandry in what may have been the world's most "polyandrous" society. In a religious context, infidelity is an absence of faith in the beliefs or teachings of a religion, such that one who lacks such faith is an infidel. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ...


In other parts of the world, most traditional societies have been drastically altered or destroyed, so the incidence of polyandry in the past may not be accurately known. In India, among Tibetan refugee groups who fled the Chinese invasion of their country, polyandry is seldom encountered.


Causes

Some forms of polyandry appear to be associated with a) the perceived need to retain aristocratic titles or agricultural lands within kin groups, and/or b) frequent male absence, for long periods, from the household. As to the former variety, consider that in Tibet where the practice is particularly popular among the wealthy Sakya priestly nobility as well as poor small farmers who could ill afford to divide their small holdings. As to the latter variety, as some males return to the household, others leave for a long time, so that there is usually one husband present. Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kin has multiple meanings: It can refer to family. ... Sakya is one of four major schools (Nyingma, Sakya, Kagyu and Gelug) in Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ...


Sociobiology

The term has gained some currency in sociobiology, where it refers, analogously, to a mating system in which one female forms more or less permanent bonds to more than one male. It can take two different forms. In one, typified by the Northern Jacana and some other ground-living birds, the female takes on much the same role as the male in a polygynous species, holding a large territory within which several males build nests. Subsequently, the female lays eggs in all the nests, and plays little part in parental care. In the other form, typified by the Galápagos Hawk, a group of two or more males (which may or may not be related) and one female collectively care for a single nest. The latter situation more closely resembles typical human fraternal polyandry. In sociobiology and behavioural ecology, the term mating system is used to describe the ways in which animal societies are structured in relation to sexual behavior. ... Species Microparra capensis Actophilornis africana Actophilornis albinucha Irediparra gallinacea Hydrophasianus chirurgus Metopidius indicus Jacana spinosa Jacana jacana The Jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Binomial name Buteo galapagoensis (Gould, 1837) The Galápagos Hawk Buteo galapagoensis is one of the Galápagos Islands few predators. ...


These two forms reflect different resource situations: polyandry with shared parental care is more likely in very difficult environments, where the efforts of more than two parents are needed to give a reasonable chance of rearing young successfully.


Honeybees are said to be polyandrous because a queen typically mates with multiple males, even though mating is the only interaction that they have (the males die off, while the queen uses stored sperm for eggs she fertilizes). Species Apis andreniformis Apis cerana, or eastern honey bee Apis dorsata, or giant honey bee Apis florea Apis koschevnikovi Apis laboriosa Apis mellifera, or western honey bee Apis nigrocincta Apis nuluensis Honey bees are a subset of bees which represent a far smaller fraction of bee diversity than most people...


Polyandry in some New World Monkeys

Some New World monkeys, for example Callimicos, have been observed living in polyandrous groups. Although groups may contain more than one female, the dominant female suppresses ovulation in subordinates, causing her to be the only one capable of reproduction. A Callimico female regularly births more than one offspring, and her eggs are separately fertilized by more than one male. Paternal investment is high in Callimicos, and males often carry infants on their backs, even when they are not the father. It has been suggested that multiple male mates were related, and therefore cooperation in caring for each other's young is adaptive; however, researchers tagged and tracked Callimicos over time, and noticed that unrelated males migrated to new groups to cooperate with non relatives as well as with relatives to care for young. It has also been suggested that females select cooperative males, and that the multiple offspring of Callimicos require paternal care for survival. Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae The New World monkeys are the four families of primates that are found in Central and South America: the Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae and Atelidae. ...


Current research suggests that Polyandry is the dominant social structure in a subfamily of New World monkeys called Callitrichids, which include Tamarins, Marmosets, and other monkeys. Species 18 species, see text The Marmosets are the genus Callithrix of New World monkeys. ... For the TV show Monkey see Monkey (TV series) Cynomolgus Monkey at Batu Caves, Malaysia A monkey is any member of two of the three groupings of simian primates. ...


Polyandry in Religion

Islam and Judaism ban polyandry completely. In Islam the verse from the Quran that is typically used for a proof in this matter is Surah Nisa’ Chapter 4 verses 22 to 24, which gives the list of women with whom one cannot marry and it is further mentioned in Surah Nisa’ Chapter 4 verse 24. Although a woman may not have more than one husband, polygyny is allowed, where men can marry up to four wives. Nikah Ijtimah, a pre-Islamic tradition of polyandry, was forbidden by Islam. The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... Nikah Ijtimah (English: Combined marriage ) is a form of polyandry that existed in the Pre-Islamic period in the Arabian peninsula. ...


There is at least one reference to polyandry in the ancient Hindu epic, Mahabharata. Draupadi marries the five Pandava brothers. This ancient text remains largely neutral to concept of polyandry, accepting this as her way of life. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Draupadi. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ...


See also

This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... The term polygamy (many marriages in late Greek) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... Adelphogamy (from the Greek adelphos - brother), or fraternal polyandry, is a form of marriage in which two or more brothers share one wife or more. ... Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ...

Reference

  • Peter, Prince of Greece, A Study of Polyandry, The Hague, Mouton, 1963

Further readings

  • Smith, E.A. (1998). Is Tibetan polyandry adaptive? Methodological and metatheoretical critiques. Human Nature 9(3):225-261. Full text
  • Lodé Thierry (2006) La Guerre des sexes chez les animaux. Eds O Jacob, Paris.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polyandry - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
Polyandry is to be carefully differentiated from communal marriage, where the woman is the property of any and every member of the tribe.
Two distinct kinds of polyandry are practised: one, often called Nair, in which, as among the Nairs of India, the husbands are not related to each other; and the second, the Tibetan or fraternal polyandry, in which the woman is married to all the brothers of one family.
Polyandry is practised by the tribes of Tibet, Kashmir and the Himalayan regions, by the Todas, Koorgs, Nairs and other peoples of India, in Ceylon, New Zealand, by some of the Australian aborigines, in parts of Africa, in the Aleutian archipelago, among the Koryaks and on the Orinoco.
Buzzsaw Haircut (0 words)
However, only a few of us realize that there is another marriage system-known as "polyandry" when a single woman is married to two or more husbands: not marrying one person after another; it is the simultaneous marriage of two or more men to a woman at the same time in the same house.
However, when reviewed from outside of the society and culture where polyandry is practiced, we are compelled to believe that it is one of the logical choices that other cultures have made under the given circumstances.
Studies conducted by anthropologists at the University of California and Kansas State University have shown that one of the places where polygamous marriage is most commonly practiced is at the remote northwest corner of Nepal, near the Tibetan border among the Tibetan communities living in the high, arid Himalayas.
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