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AffinityAttachmentBondingCasualCohabitationCompersion ConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower, dowry and bride priceFriendshipFamilyHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romance PassionPartnerPederastyPolygamyPlatonic lovePsychology of monogamyRelationship abuseRomanceSexualitySeparationWeddingWidowhoodWife Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Suitor redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the family of the bride to the family of the groom at the time of their marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... For other uses, see Friendship (disambiguation). ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoning passion or love; addictive love. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

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Polyamory (from Greek πολυ (poly, literally “multiple”) and Latin amor (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. Polyamorous perspectives differ from monogamous perspectives, in that they respect a partner's wish to have second or further meaningful relationships and to accommodate these alongside their existing relationships. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Look up relationship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term polyamory is sometimes abbreviated to poly, especially as a form of self-description, and is sometimes described as consensual and/or responsible non-monogamy.


Polyamory is usually taken as a description of a lifestyle or relational choice and philosophy, rather than of individuals' actual relationship status at a given moment. It is an umbrella term that covers many orientations and modes of relationship. There is fluidity in its definition to accommodate the different shades of meaning which might be covered. Polyamorous relationships are themselves varied, reflecting the choices and philosophies of the individuals concerned. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ...


Polyamory is distinct from polygamy, being closer to a personal outlook than a predefined bonding system. It is grounded in such concepts as choice, trust, equality of freewill, and the more novel idea of compersion, rather than in cultural or religious tradition. Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... A personal relationship may result in a psychological bond. ... Free will is the philosophical doctrine that holds that our choices are ultimately up to us. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ...

Contents

Overview

Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004.
Source: A good third party source on polyamory is the paper "Polyamory - What it is and what it isn't" (Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Volume 6, Feb. 27, 2003 online version) which reviews some of the core beliefs, perspectives, practicalities and references in polyamory

Because of its fluid nature, polyamory is not clearly defined. Though there is no general agreement on its exact boundaries, people who identify as polyamorous typically reject the view that sexual and relational exclusivity are always necessary for long-term loving relationships. Those who are open to, or emotionally suited for a polyamorous lifestyle, may at times be single, or in monogamous relationships, but are more typically involved in multiple long term relationships. Image File history File links Polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... Image File history File links Polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An intimate relationship is a interpersonal relationship where there is a great deal of physical or emotional intimacy. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... A relationship whether it be romantic or friendly, which has lasted, subjectively, a long period of time. ...


Polyamorous relationships, in practice, are highly varied and individualized. Ideally they are built upon values of trust, loyalty, negotiation, and compersion, as well as rejection of jealousy, possessiveness, and restrictive cultural standards.[1] Such relationships are often more fluid than the traditional "dating and marriage" model of long-term relationships, and the participants in a polyamorous relationship may not have preconceptions as to duration. Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... Look up trust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Jealous redirects here. ... The term date can refer to: A day according to a calendar; see calendar date. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


Sex is not necessarily a primary focus in polyamorous relationships. Polyamorous relationships commonly consist of groups of more than two people seeking to build a long-term future together on mutually agreeable grounds, with sex as only one aspect of their relationship.


Terminology

Polyamory is a hybrid word: poly is Greek for many (or multiple) and amor is Latin for love. The word has been coined, seemingly independently, by several people, including Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, whose article "A Bouquet of Lovers" (1990) is widely cited as its source [2] (but see below), and Jennifer Wesp who created the Usenet newsgroup alt.polyamory in 1992. [13] However, the term has been reported in occasional use since the 1960s [citation needed], and even outside polygamous cultures such relationships existed well before the name was coined; for one example dating from the 1920s, see William Moulton Marston. There are no verifiable sources showing the word "polyamory" in common use until after alt.polyamory was created. The older term polyfidelity, a subset of polyamory, was coined decades earlier at Kerista. Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... Etymologically, a hybrid word is a word that has one part derived from one language and another part derived from a different language. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart is a Neo-Pagan poet and Priestess of Shamanic Arts, having researched the many myths and legends of ancient Goddesses from all human cultures. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Dr. William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947) was a psychologist, feminist theorist, and comic book writer who created the Wonder Woman character with his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston. ... Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ... Kerista was a new religion that was started in New York City in 1956 by Bro Jud Presmont. ...


Most definitions center on the concepts of being open to, or engaging in, a lifestyle that potentially encompasses multiple loving relationships (of whatever form) where all parties are informed and consenting to the arrangement. However, no single definition of "polyamory" has universal acceptance; two common areas of difference arise regarding the degree of commitment (when does swinging become polyamory?) and whether it represents a viewpoint or a relational status quo (is a person open to the idea, but without partners at present, still "polyamorous"?). Similarly, an open relationship in which all participants are long-term friends might be considered "polyamorous" under broader usages of the word, but excluded from some of the tighter usages, since polyamorous relationships may or may not also be polyfidelitous (non-open, or faithful within the relationship). See also open marriage. ... Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ...


In 1999, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart was asked by the editor of the Oxford English Dictionary to provide a definition of the term (which the dictionary had not previously recognized). The words "polyamory/ous/ist" were formally added to the OED in 2006.[3] The Ravenhearts defined and expanded the term as follows: This article is about the year. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...

The practice, state or ability of having more than one sexual loving relationship at the same time, with the full knowledge and consent of all partners involved.

This term was meant to be inclusive, and in that context, we have never intended to particularly exclude "swinging" per se, if practitioners thereof wished to adopt the term and include themselves... The two essential ingredients of the concept of polyamory are more than one; and loving. That is, it is expected that the people in such relationships have a loving emotional bond, are involved in each other's lives multi-dimensionally, and care for each other. This term is not intended to apply to merely casual recreational sex, anonymous orgies, one-night stands, pick-ups, prostitution, "cheating," serial monogamy, or the popular definition of swinging as "mate-swapping" parties. Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is non-monogamous sexual activity, treated much like any other social activity, that can be experienced as a couple. ... Whore redirects here. ...

Ravenhearts FAQ on Polyamory [4]

The terms primary (or primary relationship(s)) and secondary (or secondary relationship(s)) are often used to indicate a hierarchy of different relationships or the place of each relationship in the speaker's life. Thus, a woman with a husband and another partner might refer to the husband as her "primary". (Of course, this is in addition to any other term of endearment). Some polyamorous people use this as an explicit hierarchy of relationships, while others consider it insulting to the people involved, believing that a person's partners should be considered equally important. Another model, sometimes referred to as intimate network, includes relationships that are of varying significance to the people involved, but are not explicitly labeled as "primary" or "secondary." Within this model, any hierarchy may be fluid and vague, or nonexistent. For the 1983 romantic-drama film, see Terms Of Endearment (movie). ...


Symbols of polyamory

A red interlaced with a blue is one symbol of polyamory.

Although people who are polyamorous have adopted a number of symbols, none has universal recognition. The most common symbol is the red and white heart () combined with the blue infinity sign (). Image File history File links Polyamory. ... Image File history File links Polyamory. ... For other uses, see heart (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see heart (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ...

Jim Evans designed the poly pride flag, consisting of three equal horizontal colored stripes, blue, red, and black, with a gold π in the center. This design is in the public domain.[5][6]

The poly pride flag consists of three equal horizontal colored stripes with a symbol in the center of the flag. The colors of the stripes, from top to bottom, are as follows: blue, representing the openness and honesty among all partners with which people who are polyamerous conduct their multiple relationships; red, representing love and passion; and black, representing solidarity with those who, though they are open and honest with all participants of their relationships, must hide those relationships from the outside world due to societal pressures. The symbol in the center of the flag is a gold Greek lowercase letter “pi” (π), as the first letter of "polyamory" . The letter's gold color represents the value that people who are polyamerous place on the emotional attachment to others, be the relationship friendly or romantic in nature, as opposed to merely primarily physical relationships.[5] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Π, lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

A variation on Pi-and-the-three-colors is the symbol of ILIC (Infinite Love in Infinite Combinations) that is also public domain.[6]

The symbol of ILIC (Infinite Love in Infinite Combinations) is a reference to the Star Trek kol-ut-shan or symbol of philosophy of Vulcan IDIC (Infinite Diversity in Infinite Combinations).[6][7] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Vulcan Idic Symbol TPol holds an IDIC symbol while in mourning for her clone child, Elizabeth In the fictional Star Trek universe, the Vulcan IDIC is an ornamental piece of jewelry in the form of a pendant on a chain or pinned to a vestment. ...

Ray Dillinger placed the parrot graphic in the public domain for use as a poly mascot.[8]

Another is the image of a parrot, since "Polly" is a common name for these birds.[8][9][10] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and...


Forms of polyamory

Forms of polyamory include:

Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ... Primary and secondary (and occasionally tertiary) are words used by some polyamorists to distinguish between different degrees of relationship and to describe participants in those relationships (e. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... For other uses, see Stranger in a Strange Land (disambiguation). ... Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1973. ... Friday is a 1982 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Robert Henry Rimmer (March 14, 1917 – August 1, 2001) was the author of several books, most notably The Harrad Experiment. ... Starhawk (born Miriam Simos in St. ... The Fifth Sacred Thing (ISBN 0553373803) is a post-apocalyptic novel by Starhawk written in 1993. ... Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ...

The fringes and outliers of polyamory

The expression open relationship denotes a relationship (most often between two people, although there are also open group marriages) in which participants may have sexual connections with others, within the context of the existing relationship's negotiated agreements. When a married couple makes such an agreement, it may be termed an open marriage. "Open relationship" and "polyamorous" are not identical in meaning. Some forms of polyamorous relationship are not "open" (e.g. polyfidelity). And some self-identified open relationships may be open only sexually, while exclusive emotionally. However there is broad overlap between open relationships and polyamory. Start of polyamory contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... See also open marriage. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ...


Polyamory is not an exclusive identification; it is possible for a person with polyamorous relationships to also engage in casual sex, traditional swinging, sexually but not emotionally open relationships, or even to patronize sex workers. Sometimes polyamorous people have been known to engage in infidelities or secret affairs, although this is no better accepted in polyamorous communities than in monogamous ones. A sex worker is anyone who earns their living by providing sexual services. ...


There is some disagreement within polyamory as to whether somebody in a sexually and romantically exclusive dyadic relationship should be considered polyamorous if they have additional non-sexual but emotionally intimate friendships. Many monogamous people have close emotional ties to friends and relatives without finding that incompatible with societal monogamous values, so long as sexual and romantic elements are excluded, and thus feel no need for a non-monogamous identity. The transgressive aspect which definitively separated polyamory from monogamy and led to a the need for distinguishing terminology and subculture was the sexual or romantic element of those additional relationships. However, some people in sexually exclusive relationships but with additional close emotional friendships do self-identify as polyamorous, and as they often share many subcultural values, the community accepts such people.


There is some ambiguity about whether polyamory is a description of current practice as objectively observable, or is an underlying attitude or "orientation" similar to, for example, heterosexuality. Some people identify as polyamorous because of what they seek or are open to, even if at present they are in relationship with only one other person, or have no sexual loving relationships. And some self-identified polyamorists could agree to a monogamous relationship with a partner with whom that works best, or could be open to a polyamorous relationship with a different partner. That is, they in essence define "polyamorous" in broader terms of being compatible with and open to the option of polyamory in some relationships, rather than a narrower sense of being incompatible with monogamy and requiring polyamory in all relationships. One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ...


See also forms of nonmonogamy for other types of nonmonogamous relationship. Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ...


Related groups and concepts

The definitions of polygamy (when that word is being used as a synonym for polygyny) and polyamory allow a great deal of overlap: any loving polygamous relationship could also be considered polyamorous, and many polyamorists consider themselves to be married to more than one person. In current practice, however, connotation often separates the words: "polygamy" is more often used to refer to codified forms of multiple marriage (especially those with a traditional/religious basis), while "polyamory" implies a relationship defined by negotiation between its members, rather than by cultural norms. Modern polyamory is culturally rooted in such concepts as choice and individuality, rather than in religious traditions.[11] Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ... The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ...


Polyamory is more closely associated with values, subcultures and ideologies that favor individual freedoms and equality in sexual matters — most notably, those reflected by sexual freedom advocacy groups such as Woodhull Freedom Foundation & Federation [14], NCSF [15] and ACLU [16]. However, polygamy advocacy groups and activists and polyamory advocacy groups and activists can and do work together cooperatively (see LovingMorePolyactive[17] and PolyLegal[18] and Principle Voices[19]). In addition, the two communities have many common issues (poly parenting, dealing with jealousy, legal and social discrimination, etc.), the discussion and resolution of which are of equal interest to both communities regardless of any cultural differences that may exist. Moreover, there is considerable cultural diversity within both communities. Religiously motivated polygamy has its Islamic, Mormon fundamentalist, and other subcommunities; similarly, modern polyamory encompasses everything from polyfidelity to intimate networks, and many polyamorists also have cultural ties to Naturism [20], Neo-Pagans[12], BDSM, Modern Tantra, and other special interest groups. For example, a significant degree of overlap exists between practitioners / advocates of polyamory and those of BDSM. The two groups often face similar challenges (e.g. negotiating the ground rules for unconventional relationships, or the question of coming out to family and friends) and cross-pollination of ideas takes place between the two. [13] The Woodhull Freedom Foundation & Federation (WFF), which works through research, advocacy, and public education to affirm sexual freedom as a fundamental human right, is a global sexual freedom advocacy organization named in honor of early American suffragist Victoria Woodhull. ... The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF) is a pro-BDSM political lobby founded in 1997, by a group under Susan Wright. ... The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Mormon fundamentalism is a conservative movement of Mormonism that believes or practices what its adherents consider to be the fundamental aspects of Mormonism. ... Polyfidelity, a form of polyamory, is the restricting of ones sexual activities nonpreferentially to a single group of people, each of whom follows the same rules and has sex only within the group. ... The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... A collar is a common symbol in BDSM Female bottom in bondage with leather monoglove BDSM is any of a number of related patterns of human sexual behavior. ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ... A collar is a common symbol in BDSM Female bottom in bondage with leather monoglove BDSM is any of a number of related patterns of human sexual behavior. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... Cross pollination is a form of pollination in which pollen from one plant pollinates another. ...


Legal status

In most countries, it is legal for three or more people to form and share a sexual relationship (subject sometimes to laws against homosexuality). However, most jurisdictions do not permit marriage among more than two people. Nor do they give strong and equal legal protection (e.g. of rights relating to children) to non-married partners — the legal regime is not comparable to that applying to married couples. Individuals involved in polyamorous relationships are considered by the law to be no different from people who live together, or "date", under other circumstances. Usually one couple, at most, can elect to be treated as "married". Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Bigamy is the act of marrying one person while already being married to another, and is legally prohibited in most jurisdictions. Some bigamy statutes are broad enough to potentially encompass polyamorous relationships involving cohabitation, even if none of the participants claim marriage to more than one partner. For instance, under Utah Code 76-7-101, "A person is guilty of bigamy when, knowing he has a husband or wife or knowing the other person has a husband or wife, the person purports to marry another person or cohabits with another person." Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... This article is about a living arrangement. ...


Having multiple non-marital partners, even if married to one, is legal in most jurisdictions; at most it constitutes grounds for divorce if the spouse is non-consenting (or claims to be), or feels that the interest in a further partner has destabilized the marriage. There are exceptions to this: in North Carolina, a spouse can sue a third party for causing "loss of affection" in or "criminal conversation" (adultery) with their spouse [14], and more than twenty states in the US have laws against adultery [15] although they are infrequently enforced. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


New Jersey's 2004 Domestic Partnership Act could in theory be used to legally connect more than two persons (albeit imperfectly), perhaps using a combination of marriage and domestic partnership. However, no case law in support of this theory as yet exists. International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live...


At present, the extension to multiple-partner relationships of laws that use a criterion similar to that adopted in the UK, i.e. "married or living together as married" remains largely untested. That is, it is not known whether these laws could treat some trios or larger groups as common-law marriages. Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ...


If marriage is intended, most countries provide for both a religious marriage, and a civil ceremony (sometimes combined). These recognize and formalize the relationship. Few countries give either religious or legal recognition — or permission—to marriages with three or more partners. While a recent case in the Netherlands was commonly read as demonstrating that the Netherlands permitted multiple-partner civil unions, [16], this belief is mistaken. The relationship in question was a samenlevingscontract, or "cohabitation contract," and not a registered partnership or marriage (Dutch-language source, English-language source). The Netherlands' law concerning registered partnerships provides that: As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law...

  1. A person may be involved in one only registered partnership with one other person whether of the same or of opposite sex at any one time.
  2. Persons who enter into a registered partnership may not at the same time be married.
(source)

When a couple split up, non-consensual non-fidelity ("cheating") is often grounds for an unfavorable divorce settlement, and non-fidelity generally could easily be seized upon as a prejudicial issue by an antagonistic partner. Married people with partners external to their marriage might need to consider carefully the laws in their jurisdiction, to ensure that they are complied with, and consider how to ensure that the mutuality of their decision within their marriage is clear. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


Legal theory

There is an ongoing discussion among polyamory activists regarding a legal model of polyamorous marriage (i.e., the extension of the legal concept of marriage to include polyamorous families). The debate centers around the relative merits of an all-with-all approach to marriage (whereby three or more persons are all joined together at the same time within a single marriage) and dyadic networks (whereby existing laws against bigamy are revised such that people are perfectly free to be concurrently married to multiple other persons, provided that each such new marriage is preceded by a legal notification regarding the pending new marriage to all those to whom one is already married; failure to provide that legal notification would then constitute the updated crime of bigamy).


Dyadic networks would result in what might be thought of as a "molecular" family structure — one which might be best represented by the molecular diagrams commonly used in chemistry. In this way, marriage would remain a dyadic relationship (i.e., a relationship between two persons), thus minimizing any changes to the existing system of legal marriage, but the introduction of concurrency would provide access to legal marriage for polyamorous families. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


Dyadic networks can correctly represent any situation associated with the "all-with-all" paradigm, as well as many situations that the "all-with-all" paradigm cannot deal with. A "complete" dyadic network would take the form of a complete graph, in which every person is (pairwise) married to every other person, thus correctly representing any situation associated with the "all-with-all" paradigm. A dyadic network may also represent situations in which some persons are (pairwise) married to some members of the dyadic network but not to all of them ("V" and "N" geometries, for example) — these are situations that the "all-with-all" marriage paradigm is unable to accurately represent. In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple graph where an edge connects every pair of distinct vertices. ...


The "all-with-all" marriage paradigm assumes that everyone is equally involved with everyone else in the group — one global marriage agreement has to fit every participant at the same time. But dyadic network marriages separately define the terms of each specific 2-person relationship, and these dyadic marriages do not typically happen at the same time (A marries B, B marries C ("V" structure), C marries D ("N" structure), etc. — thus, the shape of the dyadic network dynamically changes over time). Participants in a dyadic network need not even be aware of the specific terms of marriage agreements existing elsewhere within the same dyadic network.


Under the "all-with-all" marriage paradigm, when irreconcilable differences arise there can be no alternative to a complete separation — one person cannot divorce another without ending the entire marriage agreement for everyone involved. But dyadic networks can function in much the same way as watertight compartmentalization functions in naval vessels, i.e., to limit and contain damage. An intense disagreement between two persons takes place within the context of their marriage, and need not greatly involve (or threaten) the relationships between other participants. Within a well-connected dyadic network, a divorce between two persons need not result in a complete separation of the network — for example, a dyadic network with triangle geometry would simply turn into a dyadic network with "V" geometry.


An "all-with-all" marriage can only exist or cease to exist. In contrast, the shape of a dyadic network can dynamically change over time. Divorces subtract connections, and marriages add connections. The dyadic network itself either changes shape, separates into two dyadic networks, or merges into another dyadic network, depending on the precise nature of the newly added or subtracted connection.


The maximum size of an "all-with-all" marriage is limited by the fact that every participant must be aware of the existence of every other participant (otherwise the global marriage contract would be invalid, because it could not satisfy the legal condition known as a "meeting of the minds"). But since a dyadic network relies only upon every participant's local knowledge of his or her own direct partners, its size is theoretically unlimited. The dyadic network paradigm is so powerful that it is theoretically capable of managing a situation in which every adult on earth is legally joined together in a single enormous dyadic network. Thus, with the dyadic network model, the idea of "many loves" is directly translated into a practical reality, and the "infinity" symbol (representing love without limits) is directly matched by a marriage model capable of handling an infinitely large number of participants.


Polyamory as a lifestyle

Separate from polyamory as a philosophical basis for relationship, are the practical ways in which people who live a polyamorous lifestyle arrange their lives, the issues they face, and how these compare to those living a traditional monogamous lifestyle.


Values within polyamory

Relationships classed as polyamorous involve an emotional bond and often a longer term intent, though these distinctions are a topic open to debate and interpretation. Many people in the swinging and polyamory communities see both practices as part of a broader spectrum of open intimacy and sexuality. Polyamory, the lifestyle or choice of having multiple mutually aware and consenting loving relationships, often requires a degree of negotiation and individual choice to reach a solid basis for relationships. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ...


Also note that the values discussed here are ideals. As with any ideals, their adherents sometimes fall short of the mark — but major breaches of a polyamorous relationship's ideals are taken as seriously as such breaches would be in any other relationship. Common values cited within such relationships include:[citation needed]

  • Fidelity and loyalty: Many polyamorists define fidelity as being faithful to the promises and agreements they have made, rather than in terms of per se sexual exlusivity. Having a secret sexual relationship which violated one's negotiated agreements would be seen as lacking fidelity. Polyamorists generally base definitions of commitment on considerations other than sexual exclusivity, e.g. "trust and honesty" or "growing old together".[17]
  • Trust, honesty, dignity and respect: Most polyamorists emphasize respect, trust and honesty for all partners.[18][19] A partner's partners should be accepted as part of that person's life rather than merely tolerated, and a relationship that requires deception, or where partners are not allowed to express their individual lives, is often seen as a poor model.
  • Mutual support: This requires that each partner will support, and not undermine, the other, and will not deliberately use a secondary relationship to harm another party or relationship.
  • Communication and negotiation: Because there is no "standard model" for polyamorous relationships, and reliance upon common expectations may not be realistic, polyamorists often advocate explicitly deciding the ground rules of their relationships with all concerned, and often emphasize that this should be an ongoing process of communication and respect. Polyamorists usually take a pragmatic approach to their relationships; they accept that sometimes they and their partners will make mistakes and fail to live up to these ideals, and that communication is important for repairing any breaches.[18][19]
  • Non-possessiveness: Polyamorists believe that restrictions on other deep relationships are not for the best, as they tend to replace trust with a framework of ownership and control. They tend to see their partner's partners in terms of the gain to their partner's life rather than the threat to their own (see compersion). Poly relationships do vary and some can be possessive or provide for the primary partner's veto or approval, whilst others are asymmetrical—possessive one way, but not the other.

Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ...

Sharing of domestic burden

Claimed benefits of a polyamorous lifestyle include the following:[20]

  • The ability for parties to discuss issues with a (separate) partner within the relationship itself, tending to add mediation and stabilization to a relationship, and reduce polarization of viewpoints.
  • Emotional and similar support structure provided by other committed adults within the family unit.
  • A wider range of experience, skills, resources, and perspectives that multiple adults bring to a relationship.
  • The ability to share chores and child supervision, reducing domestic and child rearing pressure upon adults' time without needing to pay for outside child carers.
  • Greatly reduced per capita cost of living.
  • Increased financial stability—the loss of one income is not the entirety of the family income (if only one parent works), or half the family income (if both parents work), but may be far less.

Specific issues affecting polyamorous relationships

Polyamorists cite the human tendency towards jealousy and possessiveness as major hurdles in polyamory, and also as personal limitations to overcome:[1] Jealous redirects here. ...

"Possessiveness can be a major stumbling block, and often it prevents what could be a successful polyamourous relationship from forming. When people are viewed, even inadvertently, as possessions, they become a commodity, a valuable one at that. Just as most people are reluctant to let go of what little money that they have, people are also reluctant to "share" their beloved. After all, what if [their beloved] finds someone else who is more attractive/intelligent/well-liked/successful/etc.. than [themselves], and decides to abandon the relationship in favor of the new lover? These sorts of inferiority complexes must be resolved, completely, before a polyamorous relationship can be truly successful" [21]

An editorial article on the polyamory website Polyamoryonline.org as at 2006 proposes the following issues as being worthy of specific coverage and attention: [22]

  • Helping children cope with "being different."
  • "Coming out" as polyamorous (and explaining polyamory) to children.
  • Polyamorous parental interactions.
  • Polyamory social settings (involving children).
  • Legal (parenting) issues.

The author, herself in a polyamorous relationship of three adults, comments that: For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ...

"The kids started realizing that there were three adults in the house that they had to answer to. **Big Shock** Then came the onslaught of trying to 'befriend' a particular adult and get what they wanted from that one adult. Another big shock when they found that it didn’t work and that we all communicated about wants or needs of any given child. After this was established, we sort of fell into our patterns of school, practices, just normal life in general. The kids all started realizing that there were three of us to care for them when they were sick, three of us to get scolded from, hugs from, tickles from; three of us to feed the small army of mouths and three of us to trust completely in. After trust was established, they asked more questions. Why do we have to live together? Why can’t I have my own room? ... Why do you guys love each other? Why do I have to listen to them (non-biological parent)? We answered them as truthfully as we could and as much as was appropriate for their age. I found that it was more unnerving for me to think about how to approach a new kid and their parents than it ever was for the kids."

Polyamory in a same-sex setting

Polyamory is "a well-accepted part of gay subculture", although "often viewed by some therapists as problematic";[23] somewhere between 30%[24] and 65%[25] of men in male couples report being in a sexually non-monogamous relationship. According to Coleman & Rosser (1996), "although a majority of male couples are not sexually exclusive, they are in fact emotionally monogamous."[26] Shernoff states that: See labrys, black triangle. ...

"One of the biggest differences between male couples and mixed sex couples is that many, but by no means all within the gay community have an easier acceptance of sexual nonexclusivity than does heterosexual society in general [....] Research confirms that nonmonogamy in and of itself does not create a problem for male couples when it has been openly negotiated." [27]

Polyamory and parenting

Many polyamorists have children, either within the relationship(s) or from a previous relationship. Like other elements of polyamory, the way in which children are integrated into the family structure varies widely. Some possibilities are:

  • Parents are primarily responsible for their own children (biological, adoptive, or step-), but other members of the relationship act as an extended family, providing assistance in child-rearing.
  • Adults raise children collectively, all taking equal responsibility for each child regardless of consanguinity.
  • Parents are wholly responsible for their own children, with other members of the relationship relating to the children as friends of the parents.
  • Children treat parents' partners as a form of step-parent.

The choice of structures is affected by timing: an adult who has been present throughout a child's life is likely to have a more parental relationship with that child than one who enters a relationship with people who already have a teenage child. (The issues involved often parallel those of step-parenting.) Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... “Stepmom” redirects here. ...


The degree of logistical and emotional involvement between the members of the relationship is also important: a close-knit triad already living under one roof with shared finances is far more likely to take a collective approach to parenting than would a larger, loose-knit group with separate living arrangements:

"Some poly families are structured so that one parent can be home to care for the children while two or more other adults work outside the home and earn an income, thus providing a better standard of living for all concerned. More adult caretakers means more people available for child care, help with homework, and daily issues such as transportation to extracurricular activities. Children thrive on love. The more adults they have to love them who are part of the family, the happier and more well-adjusted they are. There is no evidence that growing up in a poly family is detrimental to the physical, psychological or moral well being of children. If parents are happy in their intimate relationships, it helps the family. Happy families are good for children."[28]

Whether children are fully informed of the nature of their parents' relationship varies, according to the above considerations and also to whether the parents are "out" to other adults.[citation needed] For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ...


In one possible case indicative of the law related to parenting and polyamory in the United States, the Pennsylvania State Supreme Court in 2006 voted 5-1 that a father in a custody case had the right to teach his child (age 13) about polygamy (and hence possibly by implication about other multiple partner relationships), and that this right "trumped" the anti-bigamy and other laws which might apply and was not deemed inherently harmful to the child. (Note: this decision was made in the context of religious freedom, but religious freedom would not apply if there was harm to the child.)[29]


Custody ramifications

Parents involved in polyamorous relationships often keep it a secret because of the risk that it will be used by an ex-spouse, or other family member, as grounds to deprive them of custody of and/or access to their children. The fear is that it will be used in family disputes much as homosexuality has been used in the past. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


In 1998, a Tennessee court granted guardianship of a child to her grandmother and step-grandfather after the child's mother April Divilbiss and partners outed themselves as polyamorous on MTV. After contesting the decision for two years, Divilbiss eventually agreed to relinquish her daughter, acknowledging that she was unable to adequately care for her child and that this, rather than her polyamory, had been the grandparents' real motivation in seeking custody.[30] The Tennessee case is not necessarily normative for the entirety of the United States, since family law varies significantly from state to state, and sometimes even within a state. US state law is, of course, not normative for laws of other countries. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century the term acquired an additional meaning: taking someone out of the closet - that is, publicising that someone is gay. ... This article is about the original U.S. music television channel. ...


Geographical and cultural differences

Social views on polyamory vary by country and culture. For example, a 2003 article in The Guardian by Helena Echlin argues that "British people are if anything more tolerant than in America which is perhaps why British polys are less in need of support groups", and quotes a UK source as stating: "We have a tradition of people minding their own business here. People might disapprove, but they won't try to mess up your life. In America, they might call social services."[31]


Polyamory explosion in Germany

On 2007-11-02 the German daily newspaper taz.de titled: "They love several partners simultaneously. Will Polyamory lead to happiness?" with a full-page feature on the tiny minority of a few hundred polyamories in Germany and polled their readers' (n=1467) opinions afterwards: nearly half, 47.5%, were convinced that monogamy is an unnatural restriction, while 30.6% objected that jealousy would always play a role and 21.9% that two loves cancel each other.[32]


Philosophical aspects

As with many lifestyles, there is considerable active discussion about philosophical approaches to polyamory.


In Echlin's article in The Guardian, five reasons for choosing polyamory are identified: a drive towards female independence and equality driven by feminism; disillusionment with monogamy; a yearning for community; honesty and realism in respect of relational nature of human beings; human nature; and individual non-matching of the traditional monogamous stereotype. Jim Fleckenstein, director of the Institute for 21st-Century Relationships, is quoted as stating that the polyamory movement has been driven not only by science fiction, but also by feminism: "Increased financial independence means that women can build relationships the way they want to." The disillusionment with monogamy is said to be "because of widespread cheating and divorce". The longing for community is associated with a felt need for the richness of "complex and deep relationships through extended networks" in response to the replacement and fragmentation of the extended family by nuclear families. "For many," Echlin writes, "it is a hankering for community …we have become increasingly alienated, partly because of the 20th century's replacement of the extended family with the nuclear family. As a result, many of us are striving to create complex and deep relationships through extended networks of multiple lovers and extended families". Others speak of creating an "honest responsible and socially acceptable" version of non-monogamy — "since so many people are already non-monogamous, why not develop a non-monogamy that is honest, responsible and socially acceptable? …It seems weird that having affairs is OK but being upfront about it is rocking the boat." "Polys agree that some people are monogamous by nature. But some of us are not, and more and more are refusing to be shoehorned into monogamy."[31] Feminists redirects here. ... Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ...


A sixth reason, a couple's response to a failure of monogamy, by reaching a consensus to accept the additional relationship, is identified by other authors.[33]


Because of the heightened trust and self-determination required for a polyamorous relationship, some[attribution needed] who practice polyamory consider it a superior form of relating to people. Monogamist opponents of polyamory often claim that it weakens, or is a failure to adhere to, the values that others in society uphold.[citation needed] Many who practice polyamory would probably prefer not to philosophize, but simply hold that polyamory works for them.[citation needed] Faithfulness redirects here. ...


Research

Research into polyamory has been limited. A comprehensive government study of sexual attitudes, behaviors and relationships in Finland in 1992 (age 18-75, around 50% both genders) found that around 200 out of 2250 (8.9%) respondents "agreed or strongly agreed" with the statement "I could maintain several sexual relationships at the same time" and 8.2% indicated a "lifestyle that best suits" at the present stage of life would involve more than one steady partner. By contrast, when asked about other relationships at the same time as a steady relationship, around 17% stated they had had other partners whilst in a steady relationship (50% no, 17% yes, 33% refused to answer). [21] (PDF)


Polyamory in a clinical setting

There is little research at present into the specific needs and requirements for handling polyamory in a clinical context. A notable paper in this regard is Working with polyamorous clients in the clinical setting (Davidson, 2002),[34] which addresses the following areas of inquiry:

  1. Why is it important that we talk about alternatives to monogamy now?
  2. How can therapists prepare to work with people who are exploring polyamory?
  3. What basic understandings about polyamory are needed?
  4. What key issues do therapists need to watch for in the course of working with polyamorous clients?

Its conclusions, summarized, were that "Sweeping changes are occurring in the sexual and relational landscape" (including 'dissatisfaction with limitations of serial monogamy, i.e. exchanging one partner for another in the hope of a better outcome') ... that clinicians need to start by "recognizing the array of possibilities that polyamory encompasses" and "examine the culturally based assumption that only monogamy is acceptable" and how this bias impacts on the practice of therapy ... the need for self-education about polyamory" ... basic understandings about the "rewards of the poly lifestyle" and the common social and relationship challenges faced by those involved ... and the "shadow side" of polyamory -- the potential existing for coercion, strong emotions in opposition, and/or jealousy.


The paper also states that the configurations a therapist would be "most likely to see in practice" are individuals involved in primary-plus arrangements, monogamous couples wishing to explore non-monogamy for the first time, and poly singles.


The decision to explore polyamory

Morin (1999) states that a couple has a very good chance of adjusting to nonexclusivity if at least some of the following conditions exist: [35]

  • Both partners want their relationship to remain primary.
  • The couple has an established reservoir of good will.
  • There is minimal lingering resentments from past hurts and betrayals.
  • The partners are not polarized over monogamy/nonmonogamy.
  • The partners are feeling similarly powerful and autonomous.

Green & Mitchell (2002) state that direct discussion of the following issues can provide the basis for honest and important conversations: [36]

  • Openness versus secrecy
  • Volition/equality versus coercion/inequality
  • Clarity/specificity of agreements versus confusion/vagueness
  • Honoring keeping agreements versus violating them
  • How each partner views nonmonogamy.

According to Michael Shernoff[37] if the matter is discussed with a third party, such as a therapist, the task of the therapist is to "engage couples in conversations that let them decide for themselves whether sexual exclusivity or nonexclusivity is functional or dysfunctional for the relationship."


Criticisms

Religious objections

Many religions discourage sex outside marriage (or, in some cases, a committed relationship closely resembling marriage). As a consequence, those religions effectively prohibit or permit polyamory to the same degree that they prohibit or permit polygamy. Even where polygamy is permitted, it is often limited to a rigidly-defined form of plural marriage — most commonly polygyny. The term polygyny (neo-Greek: poly+gune Many + Wives) is used in related ways in social anthropology and sociobiology. ...


At the beginning of the 21st century, polygyny remained common in some parts of the Islamic world but was not recognized by most branches of Christianity and Judaism. There are many scriptural references in the Original Testament to polygyny, such as the story of King Solomon, an important figure to all three major Abrahamic religions. Buddhism and Hinduism do not take a stance for or against, but are filled with many people who participate in it. For further discussion and some exceptions see Polygamy and religion. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Polygamy has been a feature of human culture since earliest history. ...


While most religions offer guidance about sex and family, religious leaders have said relatively little about polyamory, possibly due to its low public profile compared to other relational/ethical issues such as homosexuality. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Moral objections

In a 2007 editorial by the Chinese newspaper the Shanghai Daily, the moralistic argument was advanced that marriage, a vehicle for true love, should engender the "obligation to give themselves totally and exclusively, to this one person" in order to have meaning, and in consequence of this, all extra-marital activity was "worse than immoral. It's unashamed… Mutual conspiracy", and that the concept of mutual consent was "not worth refutation". Even if the partners were honest and supportive of each other, the writer stated that "marriage is considered the consecration of true love", and there was a spirit of marriage which had been betrayed. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Shanghai Daily is the first English-language newspaper in Mainland China, started in October 1999. ... True love can refer to: True love, the emotion of love True Love (Asimov), a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov True Love (Fumiya Fujii song), a 1993 song by Fumiya Fujii. ...


The editorial was in response to the case of a Chinese female ex-police officer who ran a swingers website, and discussed various forms of open marriage: Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ...

"Then what about polyamory—a lifestyle of having more than one love/sex partner? If it is understood as an alternative to monogamous marriage, it is of the same ilk as swinging. It could be the case that sexual fun and passion are shared by more than two people. But true love and marriage require exclusive mutual fidelity in one couple."[38]

Division of love

In The Ethical Slut, Dossie Easton and Janet Hardy (writing as 'Catherine Liszt') described an argument against polyamory to the effect that, when one's love is divided among multiple partners, the love is lessened. They referred to this as a "starvation economy" argument, because it treats love as a scarce commodity (like food or other resources) that can be given to one person only by taking it away from another. This is sometimes called a "Malthusian argument", after Malthus' writings on finite resources. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Ethical Slut The Ethical Slut: A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities (ISBN 1-890159-01-8), is an English language non-fiction narrative written by Dossie Easton and Catherine A. Liszt (a pseudonym of Janet Hardy). ... Book cover for The New Topping Book Dossie Easton is a San Francisco, California based family therapist. ... Categories: Stub | BDSM | Writers ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ...


Many polyamorists, including Easton and Hardy, reject the idea that dividing love among multiple partners automatically lessens it. A commonly-invoked argument uses an analogy with a parent who has two children—the parent does not love either of them any less because of the existence of the other.[39]


A more common view is that since each relationship requires time and energy, most polyamorists do not simply acquire relationships open-endedly.[citation needed]


Another viewpoint is that the love from the third is just added to the total amount of the couple, and therefore, the amount of love is increased because all parties are providing it to all other parties.


Perceived failure rates

Polyamorous relationships are often criticised as "not lasting", for example, Stanley Kurtz takes this as axiomatic when he says "Not only would legally recognized polyamory be unstable…"[40]


The problem of confirmation bias makes it impossible to accurately gauge the stability of polyamorous relationships without carefully-conducted scientific investigation. It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ...


The complex nature of polyamory presents difficulties in structuring such research. For instance, polyamorists may be reluctant to disclose their relationship status due to potential negative consequences, and researchers may be unfamiliar with the full range of polyamorous behaviours, leading to poorly-framed questions that give misleading results. (Note that the American Psychological Association has identified these same issues as potential causes of error in the context of gay/lesbian/bisexual populations.[41]) The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ...


In general terms, nonexclusivity lowers the cost of entering into, and exiting, romantic relationships. More sexual relationships creates more competition for longer-term relationships. While some researchers may assume this would cause higher failure rates, the additional outlets and support may offset this to some degree. Researchers may also assume an inherently more complex structure is more prone to failure. [original research?]


While predating the term polyamory, some research has been done on the stability of some forms of what might be considered polyamorous relationships in the Netherlands. Weitzman[42] lists a study by Rubin and Adams in 1986 which found no differences in marital stability based on sexual exclusivity in married relationships.


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b For example: When two just won't do, Helen Echlin, The Guardian, November 14 2003: "For most people, the biggest stumbling block to polyamory is jealousy. But polys try to see jealousy less as a green-eyed monster than as an opportunity for character-building." Retrieved March 27, 2007.
  2. ^ CAWeb. Church of All Worlds Clergy. Retrieved on 2006-10-14.
  3. ^ New edition: pleb to Pomak. Quarterly updates to OED Online (2006-09-14). Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  4. ^ The Ravenhearts. Frequently-Asked Questions re: Polyamory. Retrieved on 2006-07-18.
  5. ^ a b Evans, Jim (1999-07-06). Jim Evans' Polyamory Pride Flag. ISOMEDIA - Business Solutions from Internet to eMedia 1. ISOMEDIA, INC.. Retrieved on 2006-02-08. “The poly pride flag consists of three equal horizontal colored stripes with a symbol in the center of the flag. The colors of the stripes, from top to bottom, are as follows: blue, representing the openness and honesty among all partners with which we conduct our multiple relationships; red, representing love and passion; and black, representing solidarity with those who, though they are open and honest with all participants of their relationships, must hide those relationships from the outside world due to societal pressures. The symbol in the center of the flag is a gold Greek lowercase letter 'pi', as the first letter of 'polyamory'. The letter's gold color represents the value that we place on the emotional attachment to others, be the relationship friendly or romantic in nature, as opposed to merely primarily physical relationships. This design is in the public domain. If you decide to use it, credit to Jim Evans would be nice, but is not required.”
  6. ^ a b c West, Alex (2001-02-06). A List of Poly Symbols. Retrieved on 2002-05-11. “variations on Pi-and-the-three-colors the ILIC symbol. … The symbol that started this category, Jim Evans' Poly Pride Flag. He has put this image in the public domain. … "ILIC" stands for Infinite Love in Infinite Combinations (a reference to Star Trek's IDIC credo --- the D in the Star Trek version stands for "Diversity"). When I first listed this symbol, I did not have a copy of this image archived locally (even though the author said on his site that the symbol was public domain)”
  7. ^ Terry Windell (Direcor) Tim Russ (Actor). (1999-02-03). 'Star Trek:Voyager “Gravity” [Television production]. Los Angeles, California: Paramount Pictures. "kol-ut-shan"
  8. ^ a b Dillinger, Ray (1997-06-08). alt.polyamory home page. Retrieved on 2007-10-09. “Parrot graphic by Ray Dillinger, placed in the public domain for use as a poly mascot.”
  9. ^ PolyOz states in its polyamory glossary that "The parrot is a common poly "mascot" or symbol. Punning on 'poly wanna X'".
  10. ^ A 2003 article in The Guardian states "Today America has more than 100 poly email lists and support groups. Their emblem, which marks the table when they meet in restaurants, is the parrot (because of their nickname Polly)."
  11. ^ From PolyOz glossary on polygamy, polygyny, polyandry and latter day saints: - "The Mormons originally practiced a form of polygamy (specifically polygyny - multiple husbands was not OK, only multiple wives). A few renegades still do. This is culturally not part of the polyamorous movement; it's yet anther alternative to monogamy." Also "These are anthropological terms, not much used within the poly movement." [1]
  12. ^ From PolyOz glossary on the book Stranger in a Strange Land which "served as an inspiration to many poly folks before the term "polyamory" was even invented...[and] ... also inspired the Neopagan Church of All Worlds, which has been a long term poly hotbed" [2]
  13. ^ For instance, Dossie Easton and Janet Hardy, co-authors of The Ethical Slut, are equally well-known as authors on BDSM; in the introduction to The New Bottoming Book, Hardy describes herself as "a standard-issue Northern California bisexual polyamorous switch".
  14. ^ RUBY DEATON PHARR, Plaintiff, v. JOYCE W. BECK, Defendant
  15. ^ Punishing Adultery in Virginia by JOANNA GROSSMAN
  16. ^ First Trio "Married" in The Netherlands by Paul Belien, Brussels Journal Online
  17. ^ Cook, Elaine (2005). Commitment in Polyamorous Relationships. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.
  18. ^ a b From PolyOz glossary: "Not in the [linguistic roots of the term] but very important is the commitment to honesty with all partners, and openly negotiated ground rules." [3]
  19. ^ a b From sexuality.org: "Two of the cultural cornerstones of the polyamory community are honesty and communication: it's expected that you and your existing long-term partner(s) will have talked over what you're comfortable with and what you aren't comfortable with, and that nobody is going around behind anyone else's back."
  20. ^ PolyamoryOnline Polyamory 101: Consensual Non-Monogamy for the 21st Century "In a polyamourous relationship, this ['A burden shared is a burden lessened'] is doubly true. If you are having problems with one of the people in the relationship, often you can talk to another participant about it, with the added advantage of having a confidant with a good perspective on the relationship. When one person has problems, everyone else is there to help them through it. Child rearing benefits greatly in a polyamourous setting as well. Children are exposed to a wide range of viewpoints and experiences. To use a personal example, children raised in my Family… are exposed to my experiences growing up in rural Illinois, two of our Family's childhoods in the city of Chicago, and my fiancee's childhood in South Carolina. Perhaps one day we will have a Family member from outside the United States, offering an entirely different perspective. This also makes it easier to supervise a child. When many people live in the same household, they can take turns supervising the children, offering the rest of the members of the household a chance to catch up on chores, do homework, or simply go out for a while. Try doing that in a two-parent household without paying for a babysitter. On a purely practical note, having ten incomes in a household is much more flexible than just two. If one of the family suffers a loss of income, the others can help to make up for it. It is much easier to get by after losing one tenth of household income than it is after losing one half. Expenses are also significantly reduced in a polyamourous household, as they are in any situation when multiple adults occupy the same house."
  21. ^ Poly 101
  22. ^ A few insights (FAQ)
  23. ^ Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006 [4])
  24. ^ "70% of men in male couples reported being in a monogamous relationship" - Campbell, 2000 (cited by Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006 [5])
  25. ^ "approximately one third of male couples are sexually exclusive" - Bryant & Demian, 1994; Wagner et al, 2000; Advocate Sex Poll, 2002; LaSala, 2004 (cited by Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006 [6])
  26. ^ Cited by Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006 [7])
  27. ^ Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006 [8])
  28. ^ Polyamory Online.
  29. ^ Shepp v. Shepp, J-97-2004, 2006, PA supreme court. The opinion stated that: the state's interest in enforcing the anti-bigamy law "is not an interest of the 'highest order"' that would trump a parent's right to tell a child about deeply held religious beliefs, and that a court may prohibit a parent from advocating religious beliefs that amount to a crime if doing so jeopardizes the child's physical or mental health or safety, or potentially creates significant social burdens, but that in this case it was not felt that discussing multiple partner relationships as a parents' preference or presenting or advocating them as desirable to the parent, was harmful.
  30. ^ Divilbiss Families Case Ends, Polyamory Society].
  31. ^ a b ECHLIN, Helena. Women, The Guardian, 2003.
  32. ^ http://czyborra.com/pedofiles/pressespiegel/poly-vote.html
  33. ^ Polyamory The New Love without Limits by Dr Deborah Anapol (ISBN 1-880789-08-6) has a chapter called "Making the transition to polyamorous relating", which deals with broken monogamous commitments from both perspectives.
  34. ^ Paper delivered to the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Western Regional Conference, April 2002, and available online: Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Volume 5, April 16, 2002 [9]
  35. ^ Cited by Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006, in the context of same-sex relationships [10]
  36. ^ Cited by Michael Shernoff, Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006, in the context of same-sex relationships [11]
  37. ^ Family Process, Vol.45 No.4, 2006, in the context of same-sex relationships [12]
  38. ^ Shanghai Daily.
  39. ^ McCullough, Derek; Hall, David S (February 27, 2003). "Polyamory: What it is and what it isn't". Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality 6. Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality. Retrieved on 2006-07-10. 
  40. ^ Kurtz, Stanley (June 05, 2006). Polygamy Versus Democracy: You can't have both. Weekly Standard. Retrieved on 006-07-10.
  41. ^ Herek, Gregory M. (September 1991). Avoiding Heterosexual Bias in Psychological Research. American Psychological Association. Retrieved on 2006-08-15.
  42. ^ Weitzman, Geri D. (March 12, 1999). What is known about the psychological and social functioning of polyamorous individuals?. What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory. Retrieved on 2006-07-10.

is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... Production company refers to a company responsible for the development and physical production of performing arts, film, radio or a television program. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see Stranger in a Strange Land (disambiguation). ... Book cover for The New Topping Book Dossie Easton is a San Francisco, California based family therapist. ... Categories: Stub | BDSM | Writers ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Ethical Slut The Ethical Slut: A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities (ISBN 1-890159-01-8), is an English language non-fiction narrative written by Dossie Easton and Catherine A. Liszt (a pseudonym of Janet Hardy). ... In the field of human sexuality, a switch is someone who can change from one sexual role to another. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polyamory is the desire, practice or acceptance of more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time, with the full knowledge and consent of all involved. ... Living Apart Together (abbreviation: LAT) is a term for couples who, whilst committed to each other, decide to have separate homes rather than one shared residence. ... Monamory (also monoamory) is a word occasionally used to denote the opposite of polyamory; namely, the desire to engage in only one romantic relationship at one time. ... Poly relationship (from polygamy, polyamory et al. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... Plaçage was an recognized extralegal system by which predominantly wealthy and white Creole men in Louisiana entered into the equivalent of common-law marriages with women of both African and white Creole descent known as placées (from the French word placer which means to place with). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Safe sex (also called safer sex) is a term describing practices designed to reduce the risk of sustaining or imparting sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) (also known as sexually-transmitted diseases or STDs in the US). ... Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Ethical Slut The Ethical Slut: A Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities (ISBN 1-890159-01-8), is an English language non-fiction narrative written by Dossie Easton and Catherine A. Liszt (a pseudonym of Janet Hardy). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up Polyamory in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Polyamory

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Informational Websites

At Protest at Temelin Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic 1996. ...

Online Communities

  • PolyMatchMaker.com Online Community for meeting polyamorous people and discussing polyamory.
  • Polyamorous Percolations An online resource and community about Polyamory, Polyamorous relationships & lifestyles.
  • World Polyamory Association A synergistic network of polyamorists.
  • PolyOz - Polyamory Resources Australia Online Community providing Resources, Information and Support Network for Australians - by Australians
  • Polyamorous NYC "...an organization designed to nurture a prosperous polyamorous community in New York City"
  • TorontoPoly.ca "An online resource for Toronto's polyamorous community"

Polyamory Related Media

Research and Articles

  • Monogamy's Law: Compulsory Monogamy and Polyamorous Existence, by Elizabeth F. Emens, analyzes social and legal perspectives on polyamory.
  • Free Love Grows Up - The Boston Phoenix, October 15 - 22, 1998, a comprehensive article on the poly lifestyle and community.
  • Therapy with Clients Who Are Bisexual and Polyamorous, a paper by Geri Weitzman, PhD
  • The Challenge Of Post-Modern Polygamy: Considering Polyamory Research analyzing monogamy, polygamy, polyfidelity and polyparenting and considers how polyfidelitous marriage might fit into Western culture within a Hegelian framework.
  • newgroup control message creating alt.polyamory, May 29, 1992, as archived at ftp.uu.net (primary source for the Usenet control message archive)
  • A love triangle? Try a hexagon - St. Petersburg Times news article (February 18, 2007) by Leonora LaPeter.
  • Love Me Two (Or More) Times - Orlando Weekly article by Deanna Sheffield
  • National Coalition for Sexual Freedom Polyamory Sound Bites Includes some data on frequency of nonmonogamy and psychiatric health of the polyamorous.
  • The Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, published by the Institute for Advanced Study of Human Sexuality, San Francisco, California, has produced several articles examining aspects of polyamory. To date these include:
  1. Working with polyamorous clients in the clinical setting - Davidson (Volume 5, April 16, 2002, also delivered to the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality, Western Regional Conference, April 2002)
  2. Polyamory - What it is and what it isn't - McCullough and Hall (Volume 6, Feb. 27, 2003)
  3. Commitment in polyamory - Cook (Volume 8, Dec. 12, 2005)

Elizabeth F. Emens (born September 19, 1972, Columbus, Ohio) is a legal scholar and currently an Associate Professor of Law at Columbia University. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ...

Advocacy and awareness

  • Unitarian Universalists for Polyamory Awareness
  • What Psychology Professionals Should Know About Polyamory A guide for mental health professionals which is favorable to polyamory.
  • Poly-Friendly Professionals mental health and other professionals tolerant of or supportive of polyamory

  Results from FactBites:
 
PAARC - Polyamory Awareness and Acceptance Ribbon Campaign (503 words)
Polyamory is about love, without constraint by the dictates of society, defined only by the parameters that we, as individuals, impose upon it.
And while sex is as important to polyamory as it is to monogamy, the true emphasis is the same as that of monogamy: love.
Polyamory is not "cheating." It is a relationship structure built with the knowledge and approval of all partners involved.
Polyamory lifestyles - are they for you? (4235 words)
Polyamory is allowing you to be open to possible opportunity, if it comes along, not running away from commitment, because something better will come along.
Polyamory requires the consent of all involved, so be sure of your current relationship before you dive in feet first.
The major fear for polyamory people is intolerance; people who do not want to understand what polyamory is and are so high on their moral ground, that in some cases they can be a threat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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