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Encyclopedia > Polonization

Polonization (Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. It may be regarded as a subclass of a historically ubiquitous process of assimilation. Such assimilation has commonly accompanied the evolution of empires, broadly construed. Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... A speculatively rooted phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, as described initially by Carl Woese. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Polonization was especially noted in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or Republic, when Polish drew to itself the upper classes of the Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian communities, leading to those classes' lesser or greater alienation from their ethnic roots. One of the features of Polonization was the promotion of the Roman Catholic Church at the expense of the Orthodox Churches. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that The republican form of government be merged into this article or section. ... The term upper class refers to a group of people at the top of a social hierarchy. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Alienation is estrangement or splitting apart. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Bishop of Rome (commonly called the Pope). ... ...


As a consequence of the process of Polonization, disputes sometimes occur as to the ethnicities of notable persons such as Tadeusz Kościuszko, Adam Mickiewicz and Ignacy Domeyko, who are claimed as national celebrities by Poles, Belarusians and Lithuanians alike. Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura KoÅ›ciuszko (pronounced: []) (1746-1817) was a Polish national hero, general and a leader of that nations uprising against Russia in 1794. ... A portrait of Adam Mickiewicz Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (December 24, 1798 – November 26, 1855) was one of the most well-known Polish poets and writers, considered the greatest Polish poet besides Zygmunt KrasiÅ„ski and Juliusz SÅ‚owacki. ... Ignacy Domeyko Ignacy Domeyko (Belarusian: ; also spelled Domejko in Polish language); July 31, 1802 - January 23, 1889, Santiago de Chile) was a famous 19th century geologist and mineralogist from the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...

Contents


Second Polish Republic

During the times of Second Polish Republic, when Poland regained territories of Western Belarus, Western Ukraine and the Wilno region, linguistic assimilation was considered as a major factor of unifying the state by National Democrats. For example, Stanisław Grabski, Polish Minister for Religion and Public Education in 1923-1926 wrote that "Poland may be preserved only as the state of Polish people. If it were a state of Poles, Jews, Germans, Rusyns, Belarusians, Lithuanians, Russians, it would lose its independence again." Some other officials rejected the existence of Ukrainian and Belarusian nations altogether. And Grabski again: "It is impossible to make nation of those who does not have the 'national self-identification', who calls themself "local" (Tutejszy)". Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... West Belarus is the name used by Russian and Belarusian government to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between World War I and World War II. The term is used mostly in historic context. ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... Wilno Voivodship // Wilno Voivodship (1922-1939) Wilno Voivodship (Polish Województwo wileÅ„skie) was one of the Voivodships in the 1922-1939 period. ... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... Poleszuk (Polish), Poliszuk or Polishchuk (local Ukrainian dialect), Palyashchuk (Belarusian), or Poleshchuk (Russian) is the name given to the people who populated the swamps of Polesie. ...


A law issued in 1924 banned usage of any language but Polish in governmental and municipal paperwork. It the area of public education it was postulated that state schools could be only Polish language schools. Local populations could have private local language schools an only in territories "loyal to Polish state". Specifically with respect to the Eastern territories (known as Kresy Wschodnie, or ""Eastern Borderlands") it was recognized that "shools can become an instrument of the cultural development in Eastern lands only if Polish teachers will work there". However in reality it turned out to be infeasible for implementation and, in particular, bilingual schools (Polish: szkoły utrakwistyczne) were proposed. The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands, or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to the eastern part of Poland before the II World War. ...


After the 1930 elections in Poland, Belarusian representation in Polish parliament was reduced and since early 1930's Polish government started to introduce policies intended to Polonize the minorities. In 1938 about 100 Orthodox churches were destroyed or converted to Roman Catholic in the eastern parts of Poland.[1] The use of Belarusian language was discouraged. Not a single Belarusian school survived until spring of 1939, and only 44 schools teaching Belarusian language still existed in Poland at the beginning of World War II. 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Belarusian (беларуская мова) is the language of the Belarusian people. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War (sometimes WW2 or WWII), was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as...


Post World War II

Ethnic Germans still living in the western territories gained by Poland in the aftermath of World War II (e.g. Silesia) were denied the use of their language in public by the Communist regime and they had to adopt the Polish language to evade discrimination and insult. Their situation changed in modern democratic Poland, when the were awarded a privileged status as an ethnic minority.


Notes

  1. ^  Mironowicz, p. 109

References

  1. Orest Subtelny, Ukraine. A History, University of Toronto Press (1994)
  2. Eugeniusz Mironowicz, "Białoruś" (in Polish language), Trio, Warszawa, 1999, ISBN 8385660828

See also

Germans execute Poles against a prison wall, Leszno, Poland, October 1939. ... Bambrzy (Poznańskie Bambry, ger. ... Tablet inscription in Polish (left) and Ukrainian: In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of Operation Wisła, 1947-1997. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

  • The Polonization of the Ukrainian Nobility
  • Polish Issues of education of Belarusin population in Second Republic

  Results from FactBites:
 
Polonization - definition of Polonization in Encyclopedia (150 words)
Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute.
Polonization was especially noted in the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or Republic, when the relatively more developed Polish civilization drew to itself the upper classes of the Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian communities, leading to those classes' lesser or greater alienation from their ethnic roots.
One of the features of Polonization was the promotion of the Roman Catholic Church at the expense of the Orthodox Churches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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