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Encyclopedia > Polonium
84 bismuthpoloniumastatine
Te

Po

Uuh
General
Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84
Chemical series metalloids
Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p
Appearance silvery
Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 9.196 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 9.398 g·cm−3
Melting point 527 K
(254 °C, 489 °F)
Boiling point 1235 K
(962 °C, 1764 °F)
Heat of fusion ca. 13 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 102.91 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K)       (846) 1003 1236
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic
Oxidation states 4, 2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 812.1 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 190 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 135 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) (α) 0.40 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K)  ? 20 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.5 µm·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7440-08-6
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of polonium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
208Po syn 2.898 y α 5.215 204Pb
ε, β+ 1.401 208Bi
209Po syn 103 y α 4.979 205Pb
ε, β+ 1.893 209Bi
210Po syn 138.376 d α 5.407 206Pb
References

Polonium (pronounced /pəˈloʊniəm/) is a chemical element that has the symbol Po and atomic number 84. A rare and highly radioactive metalloid,[1] polonium is chemically similar to tellurium and bismuth, and it occurs in uranium ores. Polonium has been studied for possible use in heating spacecraft. It is unstable; all isotopes of polonium are radioactive. General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... By Greatpatton [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Polonium User:Femto/elements e7 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The chalcogens are the name for the periodic table group 16 (old-style: VIB or VIA) in the periodic table. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat, is the measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius Van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Polonium (Po) Has no stable isotopes. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Polonium (Po) Has no stable isotopes. ...

Contents

Notable characteristics

Polonium is a radioactive element that exists in two metallic allotropes.[2] This article is about metallic materials. ... Allotropy (Gr. ...


Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of polonium

Polonium has 25 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive. They have atomic masses that range from 194u to 218u. 210Po (half-life 138.376 days) is the most widely available. 209Po (half-life 103 years) and 208Po (half-life 2.9 years) can be made through the alpha, proton, or deuteron bombardment of lead or bismuth in a cyclotron. Polonium (Po) Has no stable isotopes. ... Polonium (Po) Has no stable isotopes. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... A modern Cyclotron for radiation therapy For other uses, see Cyclotron (disambiguation). ...

210Po

210Po is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.376 days; it decays directly to its daughter isotope 206Pb. A milligram of 210Po emits about as many alpha particles per second as 4.5 grams of 226Ra. A few curies (1 curie equals 37 gigabecquerels) of 210Po emit a blue glow which is caused by excitation of surrounding air. A single gram of 210Po generates 140 watts of power.[3] Because it emits many alpha particles, which are stopped within a very short distance in dense media and release their energy, 210Po has been used as a lightweight heat source to power thermoelectric cells in artificial satellites; for instance, 210Po heat source was also used in each of the Lunokhod rovers deployed on the surface of the Moon, to keep their internal components warm during the lunar nights.[4] Some anti-static brushes contain up to 500 microcuries of 210Po as a source of charged particles for neutralizing static electricity in materials like photographic film.[5] 210Po was also used as a murder weapon in the Alexander Litvinenko poisoning Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... For other uses, see Becquerel (disambiguation). ... After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state to a higher energy excited state. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles or alpha rays are a form of particle radiation which are highly ionizing and have low penetration. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Lunokhod (Russian for Moon walker) 1 and 2 were a pair of unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ...


The majority of the time 210Po decays by emission of an alpha particle only, not by emission of an alpha particle and a gamma ray. About one in 100,000 alpha emissions causes an excitation in the nucleus which then results in the emission of a gamma ray.[6] This low gamma ray production rate (and the short range of alpha particles) makes it difficult to find and identify this isotope. Rather than gamma ray spectroscopy, alpha spectroscopy is the best method of measuring this isotope. An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ...


Solid state form

The alpha form of solid polonium has a simple cubic crystal structure with an edge length of 3.352 Å. In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ...


The beta form of polonium is rhombohedral; it has been reported in the chemical literature, along with the alpha form, several times. A picture of it is present on the web.[7] In crystallography, the rhombohedral (or trigonal) crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ...


Two papers report X-ray diffraction experiments on polonium metal.[8][9] The first report of the crystal structure of polonium was done using electron diffraction.[10] The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Chemistry

The chemistry of polonium is similar to that of tellurium and bismuth. Polonium dissolves readily in dilute acids, but is only slightly soluble in alkalis. The hydrogen compound PoH2 is liquid at room temperature (M.P. -36.1°C to B.P. 35.3°C). Halides of the structure PoX2, PoX4 and PoX6 are known. The two oxides PoO2 and PoO3 are the products of oxidation of polonium.[11] General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ...


210Po (in common with 238Pu) has the ability to become airborne with ease: if a sample is heated in air to 328 K (55°C, 131°F), 50% of it is vaporized in 45 hours, even though the melting point of polonium is 527 K (254°C, 489°F) and its boiling point is 1235 K (962°C, 1763°F).[12] More than one hypothesis exists for how polonium does this; one suggestion is that small clusters of polonium atoms are spalled off by the alpha decay. Plutonium 238, is an isotope of plutonium with a half-life of 86. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... In general, spallation is a process in which fragments of material are ejected from a body due to impact or stress. ...


It has been reported that some microbes can methylate polonium by the action of methylcobalamin.[13][14]This is similar to the way in which mercury, selenium and tellurium are methylated in living things to create organometallic compounds. As a result when considering the biochemistry of polonium one should consider the possibility that the polonium will follow the same biochemical pathways as selenium and tellurium. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Methoxide is an organic salt, in pure form a white powder. ... Chemical structure of Vitamin B12 The term vitamin B12 (or B12 for short) is used in two different ways. ... This article is about the element. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... Organometallic have classically been compounds having bonds between one or more metal atoms and one or more carbon atoms of an organyl group. ...

The alpha form of solid polonium.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (781x724, 109 KB) Summary Alpha lattice of Po metal, note it is not interpenitrated a myth exists which started many years ago that the alpha phase is of three cubic interlinking lattices Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (781x724, 109 KB) Summary Alpha lattice of Po metal, note it is not interpenitrated a myth exists which started many years ago that the alpha phase is of three cubic interlinking lattices Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release...

Compounds

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

History

Also tentatively called "Radium F", polonium was discovered by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie in 1898[15] and was later named after Marie Curie's native land of Poland (Latin: Polonia), and not for the Hamlet character, Polonius.[16][17] Poland at the time was under Russian, Prussian, and Austrian partition, and did not exist as an independent country. It was Curie's hope that naming the element after her native land would publicize its lack of independence. Polonium may be the first element named to highlight a political controversy.[18] Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Polonius is a character from William Shakespeares Hamlet. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


This element was the first one discovered by the Curies while they were investigating the cause of pitchblende radioactivity. The pitchblende, after removal of the radioactive elements uranium and thorium, was more radioactive than both the uranium and thorium put together. This spurred the Curies on to find additional radioactive elements. The Curies first separated out polonium from the pitchblende, and then within a few years, also isolated radium. For the band, see Pitchblende (band). ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ...


Detection

Intensity against photon energy for three isotopes.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 5 KB) I drew it I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 5 KB) I drew it I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Gamma counting

By means of radiometric methods such as gamma spectroscopy (or a method using a chemical separation followed by an activity measurement with a non-energy-dispersive counter), it is possible to measure the concentrations of radioisotopes and to distinguish one from another. In practice, background noise would be present and depending on the detector, the line width would be larger which would make it harder to identify and measure the isotope. In biological/medical work it is common to use the natural 40K present in all tissues/body fluids as a check of the equipment and as an internal standard. Gamma spectroscopy is a radiochemistry measurement method that determines the energy and count rate of gamma rays emitted by radioactive substances. ... Look up Activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Activity may refer to— in chemistry, the effective concentration of an ion or other solute for the purposes of chemical reactions and other mass action. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...

Intensity against alpha energy for four isotopes, note that the line width is narrow and the fine details can be seen.
Intensity against alpha energy for four isotopes, note that the line width is wide and some of the fine details can not be seen. This is for liquid scintillation counting where random effects cause a variation in the number of visible photons generated per alpha decay.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 13 KB) I drew it, this is a simulated alpha spectrum of four radioisotopes I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 13 KB) I drew it, this is a simulated alpha spectrum of four radioisotopes I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 7 KB) I drew it, this is a simulated alpha spectrum of four radioisotopes with broadening I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (979x598, 7 KB) I drew it, this is a simulated alpha spectrum of four radioisotopes with broadening I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Alpha counting

The best way to test for (and measure) many alpha emitters is to use alpha-particle spectroscopy as it is common to place a drop of the test solution on a metal disk which is then dried out to give a uniform coating on the disk. This is then used as the test sample. If the thickness of the layer formed on the disk is too thick then the lines of the spectrum are broadened, this is because some of the energy of the alpha particles is lost during their movement through the layer of active material. An alternative method is to use internal liquid scintillation where the sample is mixed with a scintillation cocktail. When the light emitted is then counted, some machines will record the amount of light energy per radioactive decay event. Due to the imperfections of the liquid scintillation method (such as a failure for all the photons to be detected, cloudy or coloured samples can be difficult to count) and the fact that random quenching can reduce the number of photons generated per radioactive decay it is possible to get a broadening of the alpha spectra obtained through liquid scintillation. It is likely that these liquid scintillation spectra will be subject to a Gaussian broadening rather than the distortion exhibited when the layer of active material on a disk is too thick. One method for testing for (and measureing) many alpha emitters is to use alpha-particle spectroscopy. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Gaussian broadening refers to broadening effects in spectral lines, these can be produced by Doppler broadening and natural broadening. ...


A third energy dispersive method for counting alpha particles is to use a semiconductor detector.


From left to right the peaks are due to 209Po, 210Po, 239Pu and 241Am. The fact that isotopes such as 239Pu and 241Am have more than one alpha line indicates that the nucleus has the ability to be in different discrete energy levels (like a molecule can). This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ...


Occurrence and production

Polonium is a very rare element in nature because of the short half-life of all its isotopes. It is found in uranium ores at about 100 micrograms per metric ton (1 part in 1010), which is approximately 0.2% of the abundance of radium. The amounts in the Earth's crust are not harmful. Polonium has been found in tobacco smoke from tobacco leaves grown with phosphate fertilizers.[19][20] Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... In the metric system, a microgram is 1/1,000,000 of a gram, or 1/1000 of a milligram, is one of the smallest units of weight/mass commonly used. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Tobacco smoking is the act of smoking tobacco products, especially cigarettes and cigars. ...


Neutron capture

Synthesis by (n,γ) reaction

In 1934 an experiment showed that when natural 209Bi is bombarded with neutrons, 210Bi is created, which then decays to 210Po via β decay. The final purification is done pyrochemically followed by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.[21][22] Polonium may now be made in milligram amounts in this procedure which uses high neutron fluxes found in nuclear reactors. Only about 100 grams are produced each year, practically all of it in Russia, making polonium exceedingly rare.[23] [24] Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ...


Proton capture

Synthesis by (p, n) and (p,2n) reactions

It has been found that the longer-lived isotopes of polonium can be formed by proton bombardment of bismuth using a cyclotron. Other more neutron rich isotopes can be formed by the irradiation of platinum with carbon nuclei.[25] For other uses, see Proton (disambiguation). ... A modern Cyclotron for radiation therapy For other uses, see Cyclotron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


Applications

When it is mixed or alloyed with beryllium, polonium can be a neutron source: beryllium releases a neutron upon absorption of an alpha particle that is supplied by 210Po. It has been used in this capacity as a neutron trigger or initiator for nuclear weapons.[citation needed] Other uses include the following. Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon content between 0. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... A neutron source is a device, used in solid state physics (see neutron diffraction), particle physics and to start nuclear chain reactions, that emits neutrons. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...

  • Devices that eliminate static charges in textile mills and other places.[26] However, beta particle sources are more commonly used and are less dangerous. A non-radioactive alternative is to use a high-voltage DC power supply to ionise air positively or negatively as required.[27]
  • 210Po can be used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials.[citation needed]
  • Because of its very high toxicity, polonium can be used as a poison (see, for example, Alexander Litvinenko poisoning).
  • Polonium is also used to get rid of dust on film.[citation needed]

For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Thermoelectricity is the conversion from heat differentials to electricity or vice versa. ... On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ...

Toxicity

Image File history File links Skull_and_crossbones. ...

Overview

By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the actual LD50 for 210Po is about 1 microgram for an 80 kg person (see below) compared to about 250 milligram for hydrogen cyanide[28]). The main hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha emitter), which makes it very difficult to handle safely: one gram of Po will self-heat to a temperature of around 500 °C. Even in microgram amounts, handling 210Po is extremely dangerous, requiring specialized equipment and strict handling procedures. Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage organic tissue easily if polonium is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed (though they do not penetrate the epidermis and hence are not hazardous if the polonium is outside the body). R-phrases , , , , . S-phrases , , , , , , , , . Flash point −17. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... In the metric system, a microgram is 1/1,000,000 of a gram, or 1/1000 of a milligram, is one of the smallest units of weight/mass commonly used. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... In the metric system, a microgram is 1/1,000,000 of a gram, or 1/1000 of a milligram, is one of the smallest units of weight/mass commonly used. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ...


Acute effects

The median lethal dose (LD50) for acute radiation exposure is generally about 4.5 Sv.[29] The committed effective dose equivalent 210Po is 0.51 µSv/Bq if ingested, and 2.5 µSv/Bq if inhaled.[30] Since 210Po has an activity of 166 TBq (4486.5 Ci) per gram[30] (1 gram produces 166×1012 decays per second), a fatal 4.5 Sv (J/kg) dose can be caused by ingesting 8.8 MBq (238 microcuries), about 50 nanograms (ng), or inhaling 1.8 MBq (48 microcuries), about 10 ng. One gram of 210Po could thus in theory poison 20 million people of whom 10 million would die. The actual toxicity of 210Po is lower than these estimates, because radiation exposure that is spread out over several weeks (the biological half-life of polonium in humans is 30 to 50 days[31]) is somewhat less damaging than an instantaneous dose. It has been estimated that a median lethal dose of 210Po is 0.015 GBq (0.4 millicuries), or 0.089 micrograms, still an extremely small amount. [32][33] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ... The Committed effective dose equivalent or CEDE is an estimate of the radiation dose to a person resulting from inhalation or ingestion of a given amount of radioactive substance. ... For other uses, see Becquerel (disambiguation). ... The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... The nanogram is an SI unit of mass (symbol ng) defined as: 1 ng = 1 × 10-12 kilogram (1 × 10-9 gram) A nanogram is one billionth (1/1,000,000,000) of a gram. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Long term (chronic) effects

In addition to the acute effects, radiation exposure (both internal and external) carries a long-term risk of death from cancer of 5–10% per Sv.[29] The general population is exposed to small amounts of polonium as a radon daughter in indoor air; the isotopes 214Po and 218Po are thought to cause the majority[34] of the estimated 15,000-22,000 lung cancer deaths in the US every year that have been attributed to indoor radon.[35] Tobacco smoking causes additional exposure to Po.[36] For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ...


Regulatory exposure limits

The maximum allowable body burden for ingested 210Po is only 1,100 Bq (0.03 microcurie), which is equivalent to a particle massing only 6.8 picograms. The maximum permissible workplace concentration of airborne 210Po is about 10 Bq/m³ (3 × 10-10 µCi/cm³).[37] The target organs for polonium in humans are the spleen and liver.[38] As the spleen (150 g) and the liver (1.3 to 3 kg) are much smaller than the rest of the body, if the polonium is concentrated in these vital organs, it is a greater threat to life than the dose which would be suffered (on average) by the whole body if it were spread evenly throughout the body, in the same way as caesium or tritium (as T2O). BQ may mean: Aeromar Lineas Aereas Dominicanas: IATA airline designator Bachelor quarters, in military parlance Be quiet Bene quiescat, Latin for May he rest well Bicycle Queensland Bloc Québécois, a political party of Canada Broadcast quality Navassa Island: FIPS PUB 10-4 territory code Boston Qualifier Behaviour Quotient... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ...


210Po is widely used in industry, and readily available with little regulation or restriction. In the US, a tracking system run by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will be implemented in 2007 to register purchases of more than 16 curies of polonium 210 (enough to make up 5,000 lethal doses). The IAEA "is said to be considering tighter regulations... There is talk that it might tighten the polonium reporting requirement by a factor of 10, to 1.6 curies."[39]


Famous poisoning cases

Notably, the murder of Alexander Litvinenko, a Russian dissident, in 2006 was announced as due to 210Po poisoning [40][41] (see Alexander Litvinenko poisoning). According to Nick Priest, a radiation expert speaking on Sky News on December 2, Litvinenko was probably the first person ever to die of the acute α-radiation effects of 210Po.[42] The Polonium Restaurant (a Polish restaurant in Sheffield, England) experienced increases business as a result of internet searches on the collocation polonium restaurant. [43] [44] Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, alleged agent of MI6[3] , and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... On November 1, 2006, former lieutenant colonel of the Russian Federations Federal Security Service Alexander Litvinenko suddenly fell ill and was hospitalised. ... Sky News is a 24-hour British domestic and international television news channel that started broadcasting on 5 February 1989 as part of the then four-channel Sky Television service, as well as a hourly news radio service in the UK. Broadcast of a 24-hour radio service is due... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


It has also been suggested that Irène Joliot-Curie was the first person ever to die from the radiation effects of polonium (due to a single intake) in 1956.[45] She was accidentally exposed to polonium in 1946 when a sealed capsule of the element exploded on her laboratory bench. A decade later, on 17 March 1956, she died in Paris from leukemia which may or may not have been caused by that exposure. Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


According to the book The Bomb in the Basement, several death cases in Israel during 1957-1969 were caused by 210Po.[46] A leak was discovered at a Weizmann Institute laboratory in 1957. Traces of 210Po were found on the hands of Prof. Dror Sadeh, a physicist who researched radioactive materials. Medical tests indicated no harm, but the tests did not include bone marrow. Sadeh died from cancer. One of his students died of leukemia, and two colleagues died after a few years, both from cancer. The issue was investigated secretly, and there was never any formal admission that a connection between the leak and the deaths had existed.[citation needed] The Weizmann Institute of Science (מכון ויצמן למדע) is an institute of higher learning and research in Rehovot, Israel. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Treatment

It has been suggested that chelation agents such as British Anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol) can be used to decontaminate humans.[47][48] In one experiment, rats were given a fatal dose of 1.45 MBq/kg (8.7 ng/kg) of 210Po; all untreated rats were dead after 44 days, but 90% of the rats treated with the chelation agent HOEtTTC remained alive after 5 months.[49] Chelation therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. ... British Anti Lewisite, often referred to by its acronym BAL, is a compound developed by the British biochemists of Oxford University during World War II . ...


Commercial products containing polonium

No credible nuclear authority has asserted that a commercial product was a likely source for the poisoning of Litvinenko. However, as Prof. Peter D. Zimmerman says, "Polonium 210 is surprisingly common. ...Polonium sources with about 10 percent of a lethal dose are readily available — even in a product sold on Amazon.com." [4] In commerce, a product is a good economics and accounting good or service which can be bought and sold. ...


Potentially lethal amounts of polonium are present in anti-static brushes sold to photographers.[50] Many of the devices are available by mail order. General Electric markets a static eliminator module with 500 microcuries (20 MBq), roughly 2.5 times the lethal dose of 210Po if 100%-ingested, for US $71;[51] Staticmaster sells replacement units with the same amount (500 mCi) of 210Po for $36.[52] In USA, the devices with no more than 500 mCi of (sealed) 210Po per unit can be bought in any amount under a "general license" [5] which means that a buyer needn't be registered by any authorities: the general license "is effective without the filing of an application with the Commission or the issuance of a licensing document to a particular person." Mail order is a term which describes the buying of goods or services by mail delivery. ... GE redirects here. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the forces exerted by a static (i. ...


If these sources were used to collect the amount of polonium likely used in the poisoning—and one could devise a method of separating the polonium from its protective casing—it would take 10-100 modules for price of US $360 to $7,100. That such a thing could be done is extremely difficult according to the manufacturers and would be highly dangerous to anyone attempting to do so without some special equipment like a glovebox. A common form of glovebox. ...


Sometimes sources of polonium used in industry are stolen or lost. According to the National Regulatory Commission, there were registered at least 8 cases of loss of control of potentially lethal polonium sources in the USA during 2006.[6]. Tiny amounts of such radioisotopes are sometimes used in the laboratory and for teaching purposes — typically of the order of 4–40 kBq (0.1–1.0 μCi), in the form of sealed sources, with the Po deposited on a substrate or in a resin or polymer matrix—are often exempt from licensing by NRC and similar authorities as they are not considered hazardous. Small amounts of 210Po are available to the public in the United States by mail order from a company called United Nuclear as 'needle sources' for laboratory experimentation. It would require about 15,000 210Po of these sources at a total cost of about $1 million to obtain a toxic quantity of Polonium. They typically sell between 4 and 8 sources per year.[53][54] Robert Scott Lazar (born 26 January 1959) is a highly controversial figure in discussions about UFOs. ...


According to some estimates,[55] the cost of the quantity of pure Polonium-210 used to kill Litvinenko would be around £20 million (US $39 million).[56] However, this estimation is based on retail prices of commercially available demonstration radiation sources with very small activities and cannot be considered as reasonable.


See also

  • Polonium - Radon Decay Chain [7]
  • Polonium halo

References

  1. ^ Chemical Elements.com - Metalloids
  2. ^ Gary L. Miessler; Donald A. Tarr. Inorganic Chemistry, 3, 285. ISBN 0-13-120198-0. 
  3. ^ Polonium, Argonne National Laboratory
  4. ^ Andrew Wilson, Solar System Log, (London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd, 1987), p. 64.
  5. ^ Staticmaster
  6. ^ 210PO a decay
  7. ^ The beta Po (A_i) Structure
  8. ^ R.J. Desando and R.C Lange, Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, 1966, 28, 1837-1846.
  9. ^ W.H Beamer and C.R. Maxwell, Journal of Chemical Physics, 1946, 14, 569-569.
  10. ^ M.A. Rollier, S.B. Hendricks and L.R. Maxwell, Journal of Chemical Physics, 1936, 4, 648-652.
  11. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  12. ^ Bogdan Wąs, Ryszard Misiak, Mirosław Bartyzel, Barbara Petelenz (2006). "Thermochromatographic Separation of 206,208Po from a Bismuth Target Bombardet with Protons". Nukleonica 51 (Suppl. 2): s3-s5. 
  13. ^ Momoshima N., Song L.X., Osaki S.,Maeda Y., (2001). "Formation and emission of volatile polonium compound by microbial activity and polonium methylation with methylcobalamin.". Environ Sci Technol 35 (15): 2956–2960. doi:10.1021/es001730 S0013-936X(00)01730-2. 
  14. ^ Momoshima N., Song L.X., Osaki S.,Maeda Y., (2002). "Biologically induced Po emission from fresh water". J Environ Radioact. 63 (2): 187–197. doi:10.1016/S0265-931X(02)00028-0. 
  15. ^ Curie P., Curie M. (1898). ".". Comptes Rendus 126: 1101. 
  16. ^ Pfützner M. (1999). "Borders of the Nuclear World --- 100 Years After Discovery of Polonium". Acta Physica Polonica B 30 (5): 1197. 
  17. ^ Adloff J. P. (681-688). "The centennial of the 1903 Nobel Prize for physics". Radichimica Acta 91 (12): 2003. doi:10.1524/ract.91.12.681.23428. 
  18. ^ Kabzinska K. (1998). "Chemical and Polish aspects of polonium and radium discovery". Przemysl Chemiczny 77 (3): 104–107. 
  19. ^ Kilthau, Gustave F.. "Cancer risk in relation to radioactivity in tobacco". Radiologic Technology 67: 217–222. 
  20. ^ Alpha Radioactivity (210 Polonium) and Tobacco Smoke
  21. ^ http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/archive.cgi/iepdaw/1969/8/i04/pdf/i260032a013.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3463739.pdf
  23. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2006/November/27110601.asp RSC Chemistry World Q&A
  24. ^ The St. Petersburg Times - News - Most Polonium Made Near the Volga River
  25. ^ Atterling, H., Forsling, W. (1959). "Light Polonium Isotopes from Carbon Ion Bombardments of Platinum". Arkiv for Fysik 15 (1): 81–88. 
  26. ^ BBC News | England | College breaches radioactive regulations
  27. ^ http://www.thermo.com/eThermo/CMA/PDFs/Articles/articlesFile_16929.pdf
  28. ^ Hydrogen cyanide msds
  29. ^ a b Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure
  30. ^ a b Nuclide Safety Data Sheet: Polonium–210
  31. ^ Effective half-life of polonium in the human
  32. ^ Polonium Poisoning
  33. ^ See also "Polonium-210 as a poison". "The conclusion is reached that 0.1–0.3 GBq or more absorbed to blood of an adult male is likely to be fatal within 1 month. This corresponds to ingestion of 1–3 GBq or more, assuming 10% absorption to blood".
  34. ^ National Academy of Sciences 1988 report Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV, page 5
  35. ^ National Academy of Sciences 1999 report Health Effects Of Exposure To Indoor Radon
  36. ^ The Straight Dope Does smoking organically grown tobacco lower the chance of lung cancer?
  37. ^ Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits for 210Po
  38. ^ PilgrimWatch - Pilgrim Nuclear - Health Impact
  39. ^ Peter D. Zimmerman (2006). The Smoky Bomb Threat. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-12-19.
  40. ^ "The mystery of Litvinenko's death", BBC News, 24 November 2006. 
  41. ^ UK requests Lugovoi extradition BBC News
  42. ^ "Focus: Cracking the code of the nuclear assassin". 
  43. ^ "Restaurant Polonium: In Sheffield klingeln die Kassen", Die Zeit, ZEIT online GmbH, 2006-12-05. Retrieved on [[2008-06-06]]. (de) 
  44. ^ "Business booming at Polonium restaurant in English city, manager says", International Herald Tribune, 2006-12-01. Retrieved on [[2008-06-06]]. (en) 
  45. ^ Innocent chemical a killer - The Daily Telegraph (of Australia), December 4, 2006 [1]
  46. ^ Karpin, Michael (2006). The bomb in the basement: How Israel went nuclear and what that means for the world. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0743265947. 
  47. ^ [2]9 also see NRCP Report No. 65: Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated With Radionuclides
  48. ^ [3]
  49. ^ Rencováa J., Svoboda V., Holuša R., Volf V., Jones M. M., Singh P. K. (1997). "Reduction of subacute lethal radiotoxicity of polonium-210 in rats by chelating agents". International Journal of Radiation Biology 72 (3): 247–249. doi:10.1080/095530097143338. 
  50. ^ Solutions to Static Problems. Amstat Industries. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  51. ^ Static Eliminator. GE Osmonics' Labstore. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  52. ^ Staticmaster Antistatic Products. SPI Supplies. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.
  53. ^ Singleton, Don (November 28, 2006). The Availability of polonium-210. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  54. ^ UnitedNuclear Isotopes for sale over the Internet. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  55. ^ ?.
  56. ^ Hooper, Rowan (13 December 2006). Natural selections: Murder in the genes? Polonium, peacocks - and a dead spy. The Japan Times Online. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.

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  • History of Polonium
  • WebElements.com – Polonium
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory – Polonium
  • NLM Hazardous Substances Databank – Polonium, Radioactive
  • The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments (Polonium experiments - pg20)
  • Build a pocket-sized ion chamber, useful for detecting Polonium
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General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [289] g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide series encompasses the 14 chemical elements that lie between actinium and nobelium on the periodic table with atomic numbers 89 - 102 inclusive. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements | Polonium | Essential information (381 words)
Polonium dissolves readily in dilute acids, but is only slightly soluble in alkalis.
Polonium has been found in tobacco as a contaminant and in uranium ores.
Isolation: polonium is radioactive and excessivley rare in nature.
It's Elemental - The Element Polonium (260 words)
Due to its scarcity, polonium is usually produced by bombarding bismuth-209 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor.
Polonium can be used to eliminate static electricity in machinery that is caused by processes such as the rolling of paper, wire or sheet metal, although other materials which emit beta particles are more commonly used for this purpose.
Polonium is also used in brushes for removing dust from photographic films, although the polonium must be carefully sealed to protect the user from contamination.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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