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Polonia, the name for Poland in Latin and many Romance and other languages, refers in modern Polish to the Polish diaspora—people of Polish origin who live outside Polish borders. There are roughly 15–20 million people of Polish ancestry living outside Poland. Reasons for their displacement vary from border shifts to forced resettlement to political or economic emigration. Major Polish minorities can be found in Germany and the United States. Polonia is the Latin, Italian, Spanish and Romanian name for Poland. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ...


A large proportion of the Polish citizens who migrated in the early twentieth century were Polish Jews, and are also a part of the Jewish diaspora. From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses) is the expulsion of the Jewish people out of the Roman province of Judea. ...


Europe

Belarus

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in Belarus.

Nowadays there are about 396,000 Poles living in Belarus (1999 Census[1]). They form the second largest ethnic minority in the country after Russians. The majority of Poles live in the Western regions of Belarus (including 294,000 in Hrodna region). Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially about 400,000[1][2] although various estimates by non-governmental sources are much higher. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ...


The Polish minority in Belarus consists mainly of people settled to West Belarus in the period between the two World Wars. Also, there is an aspect of many Catholic Belarusians and descendants of the Belarusian nobility historically identifying themselves as Polish, which is less and less common as the Roman Catholic Church in Belarus undergoes the process of self-depolonization. West Belarus is the name used by Russian and Belarusian government to denote the territory of modern Belarus that belonged to Second Polish Republic between World War I and World War II. The term is used mostly in historic context. ... The History of interwar Poland starts with the recreation of independent Poland in 1918, and ends with the conquest of Poland by Nazi Germany, starting the Second World War. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Belarus is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ...


During the Second World War the Soviet forcibly resettled large numbers of Belarusian Poles to Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.


Czech Republic

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in the Czech Republic.

The Polish community in the Czech Republic is concentrated in Cieszyn Silesia (so-called Zaolzie), in the north-east of the country. It traces its origins to post-First World War border changes that partitioned the area between Poland and what was then Czechoslovakia, leaving many Poles on the Czech side of the border. The Polish population numbers is 51,968 (2001 census). Polish minority in the Czech Republic (Polish: , Czech: ) is a Polish national minority living mainly in Zaolzie territory. ... Cieszyn Silesia (Polish: Śląsk Cieszyński, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, between the Vistula and Oder rivers. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Germany

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in Germany.

The second largest Polonia in the world, and the largest in Europe, is the Polish German community. As many as three million people living in Germany may be of Polish descent, although the vast majority of these identify themselves as Germans. The main Polonia organization is Kongres Polonii Niemieckiej / Polnischer Kongress in Deutschland. Polish surnames are very common in Germany. Polish minority in Germany is the Polish community in Germany. ... Polish-Germans refers to connections between German and Polish descent. ...


France

About one million people of Polish descent live in France, concentrated in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, in the metropolitan area of Lille and the coal-mining basin (bassin minier) around Lens and Valenciennes. Prominent members of the Polish community in France have included Frédéric Chopin, Adam Mickiewicz (temporarily), Rene Goscinny and the Curies: Marie, Irene and Eve. (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Nord Pas-de-Calais Arrondissements 13 Cantons 156 Communes 1,546 Statistics Land area1 12,414 km² Population (Ranked 4th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... Lens is commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae) is a town and commune in northern France in the Nord département on the Escaut river. ... “Chopin” redirects here. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... René Goscinny René Goscinny (b. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie (September 12, 1897 – March 17, 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Eve Denise Curie Labouisse (born December 6, 1904 in Paris) is a U.S. (French-born) author and writer. ...


Ireland

After Poland joined the European Union in 2004, Ireland was one of just three existing EU members to open its borders and welcome Polish workers as relatively cheap qualified labour (the others being the United Kingdom and Sweden). Ireland quickly became a key destination for young Poles seeking work outside the country. According to the 2006 Census, there are 63,276 Poles living in Ireland. [2], constituting the second largest ethnic minority after the British. These figures reflect official numbers of Poles who have settled permanently in Ireland and is likely to be and underestimation. Due to the highly transitory nature of Polish migration to the UK and Ireland the real number living the United Kingdom and Ireland is likely to be impossible to verify. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lithuania

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in Lithuania.

The Polish minority in Lithuania numbers 234,989 persons and, at 6.74% of the population of Lithuania, forms the largest ethnic minority in modern Lithuania. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius region, and form the majority of population in Vilnius district municipality and Šalčininkai district municipality. People of Polish ethnicity have lived on the territory of modern Lithuania for many centuries. Poles constitute 31,223 or about ~80% of the population in Å alčininkai district municipality. ... Poles constitute 31,223 or about ~80% of the population in Å alčininkai district municipality. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Territory of Central Lithuania (green) created by Second Polish Republic in contravene of internatonal law as compared with other Lithuanian claims on territories of former GDL. Vilnius Region (Lithuanian: Vilniaus kraÅ¡tas, Polish: Wilenszczyzna) generally refers to the territory in the present day Lithuania and Belarus that was assigned to... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija / DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Vilnius Major settlements NemenčinÄ— (pop. ... Location Ethnographic region DzÅ«kija County Vilnius County General information Capital Å alčininkai Major settlements Å alčininkai (pop. ...


Norway

Norway has recently experienced an influx of Polish migrant workers. It has been estimated that more than 120 000 Poles work in Norway, although the number of registered permanent residents is substantially lower, about 18,000.


Romania

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in Romania.

According to the 2002 census, 3,671 Poles live in Romania, mainly in the villages of the Suceava region (Polish: Suczawa). There are even three exclusively Polish villages: Nowy Sołoniec (Soloneţu Nou), Plesza (Pleşa) and Pojana Mikuli (Poiana Micului). Poles in Romania form an officially recognised national minority, having one seat in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania (currently held by Gerwazy Longher) and access to Polish elementary schools and cultural centres (known as "Polish Houses"). There are over ten thousand Poles living in Romania - mainly in the villages of the Suceava region. ... Administrative map of Romania with Suceava county highlighted Suceava is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Bukovina region, with the capital city at Suceava (population: 118,670). ... A map of Suceava County in Southern Bukovina SoloneÅ£u Nou (Polish: ) is one of the Polish villages in Suceava County, Southern Bukovina in Romania. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that forms less than half of the population. ... Type Lower house President (Speaker) Bogdan Olteanu, PNL, since 2006 Number of members 332 Political groups (as of 2006 elections) PSD, PNL, PD, PRM, UDMR, PC, National minorities, Independents Meeting place Palace of the Parliament, Bucharest Web site www. ...


Russia and former Soviet Union

Further information: Polish minority in the Soviet Union, Population transfer in the Soviet Union

During the Second World War, the Soviet Union annexed large parts of Poland's former eastern territories of Kresy. Many Poles were expelled, but a significant number remained in what are now parts of Belarus, Ukraine and Lithuania. The Soviet authorities also forcibly resettled large numbers of Poles to Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The following post-Soviet countries retain significant Polish minorities: The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ...

For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polonia (disambiguation). ... Poles constitute 31,223 or about ~80% of the population in Šalčininkai district municipality. ...

United Kingdom

For more details on this topic, see Polish minority in United Kingdom.

Polish people have travelled to England and other parts of the United Kingdom throughout the centuries for a variety of reasons. In the 16th century Polish travellers came as traders and diplomats. In the 18th century a small number of Polish Protestants arrived as religious refugees due to the counter reformation in Poland. In the 19th century, due to the collapse of the November Uprising of 1831, many Polish fighters came to Britain in search of sanctuary.[citation needed] British Poles or Polish Britons are people of Polish origin who were born in or emigrated to the United Kingdom // Polish minority in United Kingdom has existed since as early as 16th century. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Counter-Reformation (also Catholic Reformation[1][2] or Catholic Revival[2]) denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years War, 1648. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


However, it was only after the First World War that Poles settled in large numbers in London – many from the London Polish Prisoner of War camps in Alexandra Palace and Feltham. During the Second World War many Poles came to the United Kingdom as political emigrés and to join the Polish Army being recreated there. When the Second World War ended, a Communist government was installed in Poland. Many Poles felt betrayed by their wartime allies and were extremely reluctant to return home.[citation needed] Many soldiers refused to return to Poland, and around 200,000, after occupying resettlement camps, later settled in UK. The Polish Government in London was not dissolved until 1991, when a freely elected president took office in Warsaw. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alexandra Palace from the south Alexandra Palace was built in an area spanning Wood Green and Muswell Hill, North London, England in 1873 as a public entertainment centre and North London counterpart of The Crystal Palace. ... , Feltham is a suburban town in the London Borough of Hounslow. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...


Following Poland's entry into the European Union in May 2004, Poles gained the right to work in some other EU countries. While France and Germany put in place controls to curb Eastern European migration, the United Kingdom (along with Sweden and the Republic of Ireland) did not impose restrictions. Many young Poles have come to work in UK since then. Estimates vary between 300,000 and 800,000 moving to the UK since May 2004.


Estimates for the total number of people living in the UK and born in Poland, or of Polish descent, vary from around 500,000[3] to 1,000,000. Other than London, Poles have settled in Bolton, Bury and Chorley in Lancashire, and there are also concentrations in Nottingham, South Yorkshire, South Wales, Rugby, Banbury, Slough and Swindon.[citation needed] For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. ... This article is about the town of Bury in North West England. ... , Chorley Library Chorley is a market town in Lancashire, England, south of Preston and at the foot of the West Pennine Moors and home to the Chorley cake. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Rugby is a market town in the county of Warwickshire in the West Midlands of England, on the River Avon. ... , The modern Castle Quay Shopping Centre in Banbury alongside the Oxford Canal, with Banbury Museum in the background. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... , For other places with the same name, see Swindon (disambiguation). ...


North America

Geographic distribution of the Polonia in the United States

The USA and Canada were the major focus of Polish political and economic immigration after 1850. Download high resolution version (810x553, 21 KB)Map: Geographic distribution of the Polish diaspora in the United States. ... Download high resolution version (810x553, 21 KB)Map: Geographic distribution of the Polish diaspora in the United States. ...


Canada

For more details on this topic, see Polish Canadians.

There are about 850,000 Polish Canadians. The Canadian Polish Congress is an umbrella organization founded in 1944 by Polish-Canadians in Canada to coordinate the activities and to articulate the concerns of the Canadian Polish community on public policy issues. Polish Canadians are Canadians of Polish ancestry. ... Polish Canadians are Canadians of Polish ancestry. ... The Canadian-Polish Congress (CPC) (Polish: Kongres Polonii Kanadyjskiej, KPK) is an umbrella organization established by Polish-Canadians in Canada to coordinate the activities and to articulate the concerns of the Canadian Polish community on public policy issues. ...


United States

For more details on this topic, see Polish American.
Polish store on Milwaukee Avenue in Chicago

There are around 10 million Americans of Polish descent. Chicago bills itself as the largest Polish city outside of Poland with approximately 185,000 Polish speakers in Chicagoland[1]. Chicago's Polish presence is felt in the large number of Polish-American organizations located here beginning with the Polish Museum of America, the Polish National Alliance and the Polish Highlander's Alliance of North America. Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buffalo, Brooklyn, Milwaukee, and New Britain, Connecticut also have very large Polish populations. Polish-American refers to American citizens of Polish descent. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Polish-American refers to American citizens of Polish descent. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area, used primarily by copywriters, advertising agencies, native residents, and traffic reporters. ... Poles in Chicago are people living in Chicago, Illinois, in the United States who have citizenship or ancestral connections to the country of Poland. ... A Polish American is an American citizen of Polish descent. ... The Polish Museum of America is located in West Town, in what had been the historical Polish Downtown neighborhood of Chicago. ... The Polish National Alliance (pol. ... The seat of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America along Archer avenue just northwest of its intersection with Pulaski The Polish Highlanders Alliance of America (pl. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Nickname: Location within the state of Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Incorporated (town) 1850 Incorporated (city) 1870 Consolidated 1905 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Timothy T. Stewart Area  - City 34. ...


Many of the largest Dyngus Day celebrations take place in Buffalo. The major US Polonia organization is the Polish American Congress. Smigus Dyngus (shming-oos-ding-oos) is an unusual tradition of Easter Monday. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Categories: Stub | Civic and political organizations | Polonia ...


Latin America

There has been political and economic migration of Poles to Latin America since the mid-19th century.


Argentina

In Argentina Poles are one of most significiant minorities, The Parliament of Argentina makes day June 8th the day of Polish settler.


Brazil

For more details on this topic, see Polish Brazilian.

The number of people of Polish descent in Brazil is estimated at between 1 million and 1.5 million. Most Polish Brazilians are Catholic, with a significant Jewish minority. A Polish Brazilian is a Brazilian-born person of Polish descent, or a Polish-born person with Brazilian citizenship. ...


Australia

For more details on this topic, see Polish Australian.

The first Polish settlers arrived in South Australia in 1856. After World War II, large numbers of displaced persons migrated to Australia, including soldiers from the Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade (the "Rats of Tobruk"). Polish Australian is the twelfth largest ethnic group in Australia, numbering 150,901 or 0. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ... Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade (Polish Samodzielna Brygada Strzelców Karpackich) was a Polish military unit formed in 1940 in French Syria of the Polish soldiers exiled after the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... Mosaic at the foot of the Rats of Tobruk Memorial, Queens Park, Mackay, Queensland, Australia. ...


There are now approximately 160,000 – 200,000 Polish Australians.


Asia, Africa and Oceania

In addition to the countries mentioned above, Poles have settled in smaller numbers in Asia, Africa and Oceania as economic migrants or as part of Catholic missions.


See also

The demographics of Poland describe the make-up of the country of Poland. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Hôtel Lambert is a palace on Île Saint-Louis in Paris and the name of a Polish political fraction. ...

External links


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