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Encyclopedia > Polo
A game of polo.

Polo is a team sport played outdoor on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Riders score by driving a white wooden or plastic ball (size 3–3.5 inches, weight 4.25–4.75 ounces) into the opposing team's goal using a long-handled mallet. Goals are only valid if the scoring rider is mounted. The traditional sport of polo is played outdoors, and each polo team consists of four riders and their mounts. Play occurs in seven-minute periods, called chukkers. Six chukkers is the normal length of play; however, depending on league rules, matches can also have four or eight chukkers. Polo is a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2450 KB) Description: Polo Subject: Playing polo Place : Real Club Puerta de Hierro City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : September, 25th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Polo Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2450 KB) Description: Polo Subject: Playing polo Place : Real Club Puerta de Hierro City : Madrid Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : September, 25th , 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Polo Metadata... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Look up goal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternate uses: See Ball (disambiguation) A ball is a round object that is used most often in sports and games. ... For other uses, see Mallet (disambiguation). ...


The modern indoor variant is called arena polo. In arena polo, there are 3 instead of four players on each team and chukkas are 7 1/2 minutes in length. The playing area is 300' x 150'. [1]


Another modern variant is snow polo, which is played either outdoor or indoor on snow on a frozen ground or ice. Each team generally consists of three players and also the equipment differ from the sport of polo. Other variants include elephant polo, bike polo and Segway polo. These sports are considered as separate sports because of the differences in the composition of teams, equipment, rules, game facilities etc. Segway Polo is a team sport which started to gain some measure of popularity after being played by members of the Bay Area Segway Enthusiasts Group (Bay Area SEG) in 2004. ...

Contents

History

Polo game image in Safavid Persia from illustrated poem Guy u Chawgan, 1546.

Polo was first played in Persia (modern Iran) at dates given from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD.[2] Polo was at first a training game for cavalry units, usually the king's guard or other elite troops. To the warlike tribesmen, who played it with as many as 100 to a side, it was a miniature battle.[2] In time polo became a Persian national sport played extensively by the nobility. Women as well as men played the game, as indicated by references to the queen and her ladies engaging King Khosrow II Parviz and his courtiers in the 6th century AD.[3] Certainly Persian literature and art give us the richest accounts of polo in antiquity. Ferdowsi, the famed Iranian poet-historian, gives a number of accounts of royal polo tournaments in his 9th century epic, Shahnameh (the Epic of Kings). In the earliest account, Ferdowsi romanticizes an international match between Turanian force and the followers of Siyâvash, a legendary Persian prince from the earliest centuries of the Empire; the poet is eloquent in his praise of Siyâvash's skills on the polo field. Ferdowsi also tells of Emperor Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty of the 4th century who learned to play polo when he was only seven years old.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x933, 259 KB) Summary Description: A polo game: an illustration from the poem Guy u Chawgan (the Ball and the Polo-mallet) (F1935. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x933, 259 KB) Summary Description: A polo game: an illustration from the poem Guy u Chawgan (the Ball and the Polo-mallet) (F1935. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Persia redirects here. ... Gold coin of Khosrau II. Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been largely rejected. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siavash. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


Valuable for training cavalry, the game was played from Constantinople to Japan by the Middle Ages. Known in the East as the Game of Kings.[3] The name polo is said to have been derived from the Tibetan word "pulu", meaning ball.[5] This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...


The modern game of polo, though formalized and popularized by the British, is derived from the princes of the Tibeto-Burman kingdom of Manipur (India) (now a state in India) in the Southeastern Himalaya play the game while they were in exile in India sometime between 1819 and 1826. The princes were on the run from the Burmese who had overrun their kingdom during what was called the Seven Years' Devastation. The first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1834. , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...

Tang Dynasty Chinese courtiers on horseback playing a game of polo, 7th century

The origins of the game in Manipur, are traced to early precursors of Sagol Kangjei. [6] This was one of three forms of hockey in Manipur, the other ones being field hockey (called Khong Kangjei) and wrestling-hockey (called Mukna Kangjei). Local rituals such as those connected to the Marjing, the Winged-Pony God of Polo and the creation-ritual episodes of the Lai Haraoba festival enacting the life of his son, Khori-Phaba, the polo-playing god of sports. These may indicate an origin prior to the historical records of Manipur, which go back to the 1st Century A.D. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 841 pixel, file size: 733 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (709 × 841 pixel, file size: 733 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Sagol Kangjei is the version of Polo as it is known in the north eastern Indian state of Manipur. ...


In Manipur, polo is traditionally played with seven players to a side. The players are mounted on the indigenous Manipuri pony, which stands less than 13 hands high. There are no goal posts and a player scored simply by hitting the ball out of either end of the field. Players were also permitted to carry the ball, though that allowed opponents to physically tackle players when they do so. The sticks were made of cane and the balls were made from the roots of bamboo. Colorful cloth pom-poms dangle at sensitive and vulnerable spots around the anatomy of the ponies in order to protect them. Players protected their legs by attaching leather shields to their saddles and girths.[7] , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...

A terracotta female polo player, Tang Dynasty, early 8th century, Musée Guimet, Paris.

In Manipur, the game was not merely a "rich" game but was played even by commoners who owned a pony.[5] The kings of Manipur had a royal polo ground within the ramparts of their Kangla Fort. Here they played Manung Kangjei Bung (literally, "Inner Polo Ground”). Public games were held, as they are still today, at the Mapan Kangjei Bung (literally "Outer Polo Ground”), a polo ground just outside the Kangla. Weekly games called Hapta Kangjei (Weekly Polo) were also played in a polo ground outside the current Palace. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,268 × 1,640 pixels, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,268 × 1,640 pixels, file size: 927 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


The British are credited with spreading polo worldwide in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. Military officers imported the game to England in the 1860s. The establishment of polo clubs throughout England and western Europe followed after the formal codification of rules.[7] The 10th Hussars at Aldershot, Hants, introduced polo to England in 1869. The game's governing body in the United Kingdom is the Hurlingham Polo Association, which drew up the first set of formal British rules in 1874, many of which are still in existence. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Polish Hussar Hussar (original Hungarian spelling: huszár, plural huszárok) refers to a number of types of cavalry used throughout Europe since the 15th century. ... For other uses, see Aldershot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Hurlingham Polo Association (HPA) is the governing body for polo in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


This version of polo played in the 19th century was different from the faster form that was played in Manipur. The game was slow and methodical, with little passing between players and few set plays that required specific movements by participants without the ball. Neither players nor horses were trained to play a fast, nonstop game. This form of polo lacked the aggressive methods and equestrian skills to play. From the 1800s to the 1910s, a host of teams representing Indian principalities dominated the international polo scene.[7] Aggression is defined as The act of initiating hostilities or invasion. ... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields adminisitrative authority. ...


Polo found popularity in Argentina and the United States of America.[8]


James Gordon Bennett, Jr. organized the first polo match in the United States at Dickel's Riding Academy at 39th Street and Fifth Avenue in New York City. During the early part of the 20th century, under the leadership of Harry Payne Whitney, polo changed to become a high-speed sport in the United States, differing from the game in England, where it involved short passes to move the ball toward the opposition's goal. Whitney and his teammates used the fast break, sending long passes downfield to riders who had broken away from the pack at a full gallop.----- James Gordon Bennett, Jr. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Harry Payne Whitney was a businessman, horsebreeder and the husband of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The game

Polo in Pakistan

Field polo requires two teams of 4 players each mounted on horseback to play the game. The field is 300 yards long, and either 200 yards or 160 yards wide if there are side boards—these are generally 6" high. There are lightweight goalposts on each side of the field spread 8 yards apart. The object of the game is to score the most goals by hitting the ball through the goal. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In arena polo, played mainly in the United States in large arenas such as armories and riding academies, the size of the field varies due to the size of the floor space, but 100 yards long by 50 yards wide is ideal. Arena polo requires teams of three riders, and goals are scored by passing the ball into a 10' goal receded back from the sideboards. Arena polo uses a ball between 12.5" and 15" inches in circumference and looks like a miniature soccer ball.

Polo match in Jaipur

A game is divided into periods, called chuckers—since 1898, from Hindi chakkar from Sanskrit chakra "circle, wheel", compare chakka—of 7 minutes, and depending on the rules of the particular tournament or league, a game may have 4, 6 or 8 chukkas; 6 chukkas are most common. Games are often played with a handicap in which the sum of the individual players' respective handicaps are compared. The team with the lower handicap is given the difference in handicaps as goals before the start of the game. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 103 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A game of Polo in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 103 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A game of Polo in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Chakka may refer to: Chakka (Jack fruit) in Malayalam language. ... Polo handicaps started as an estimate of how many goals a player would be expected to score in a six chukka match. ...


The game begins with the two teams of four lined up each team in line forming two rows with the players in order 1, 2, 3, 4 facing the umpire in the center of the playing field. There are two mounted umpires on the field and a referee standing on the sidelines. At the beginning of a game, one of the umpires bowls the ball in hard between the two teams. Teams change goals on ends of the field/arena after each score or chukker for indoor to minimize any wind advantage which may exist. Switching sides also allows each team equal opportunity to start off with the ball on their right side, as all players must hit right handed.


Player positions

Each position assigned to a player has certain responsibilities:

  • Number One is the most offensive position on the field. The number one position generally covers the opposing team's number four.
  • Number Two is the most difficult position on the field to play. The number two has an important offensive role of either running through and scoring himself, or passing to the number one and getting in behind him. Defensively he will cover the opposing team's number three--generally the other team's best player. Given the difficulty of this position, it is not uncommon for the best player on the team to play number two so long as another strong player is available to play three.
  • Number Three is the tactical leader and must be a long powerful hitter to feed balls to Number Two and Number One as well as maintaining a solid defense. The best player on the team is usually the Number Three player.
  • Number Four is the primary defense player and though he can move anywhere on the field, he often tries to prevent scoring. The excessive defense of the number four allows the number three to commit to more offensive plays knowing he will be covered if he loses the ball.

Polo ponies

Polo ponies waiting for the game to begin

The mounts used are called 'polo ponies', although the term pony is purely traditional and the mount is actually a full-sized horse. They range from 14.2 to 16 hands high at the withers (one hand equals four inches or 10.16cm), and weigh between 900-1100 lbs. The polo pony is selected carefully for quick bursts of speed, stamina, agility and maneuverability. Temperament is critical; the horse must remain responsive under pressure and not become exited or difficult to control. Many are Thoroughbreds or Thoroughbred crosses. They are trained to be handled with one hand on the reins, and to be responsive to the rider's leg and weight cues for moving forward, turning and stopping. A well trained horse will carry his rider smoothly and swiftly to the ball and can account for 60 to 75 percent of the player's skill and net worth to his team. Image File history File linksMetadata PoloPferde. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PoloPferde. ... A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... A Shetland Pony A pony is any of several horse breeds with a specific conformation and temperament. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... The Thoroughbred is a horse breed developed in 18th century England when English mares were bred with imported Arabian stallions to create a distance racer. ... The reins are the leather straps attached to the outer ends of a bit. ...


Polo training generally begins at age three and lasts from about six months to two years. Most horses reach full physical maturity at about age five, and ponies are at their peak of athleticism and training at around age 6 or 7. However, without any accidents, polo ponies may have the ability to play until they are 18 to 20 years of age.


Players

A girls' polo team, USA

Each team consists of four mounted players, which can be mixed teams of both men and women. The Number 1 is expected to score the goals and carry out an offensive position. He is usually the least experienced. The Number 2 is also an offensive player but has to be more aggressive since his objective is also to break up the defensive plays of the opposition. The Number 3 is the pivot man, similar to a quarterback in American football, and he is usually the long ball hitter and play maker for the team. He usually hits the penalty shots and knock-ins. The Number 4, or back, is the defensive player. He is usually the most conservative player and his job is to guard the goal and keep the opposition from scoring. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Equipment

The basic dress of a player is a protective helmet (usually of a distinctive color, to be distinguished at the considerable distance from which onlookers are watching the game), riding boots to just below the knees, white pants (often ordinary denim jeans), and a colored shirt bearing the number of the player's position. Optional equipment includes one or two gloves, wristbands, knee pads (mandatory in some clubs), spurs, face mask, and a whip. A rider with a modern GPS style ASTM/SEI approved safety helmet. ... For other uses, see Whip (disambiguation). ...


The outdoor polo ball is made of a high compact plastic, but was formerly made of either bamboo or willow root. The indoor polo ball is leather-covered and inflated and is about 4½ inches (11.4 cm) in diameter. The outdoor ball is about 3¼ inches (8.3 cm) in diameter and weighs about four ounces (113.4 g). The polo mallet has a rubber-wrapped grip and a webbed thong, called thumb sling, for wrapping around the hand. The shaft is made of bamboo-cane with a hardwood head approximately 9½ inches in length. The mallet head weighs from 160 grams to 240 grams, depending on player preference and the type of wood used, and the shaft can vary in weight and flexibility depending on the player’s preference. The weight of the mallet head (also called "cigar") is of important consideration for the more seasoned players. Female players almost always use lighter mallets and cigars than male players. For some polo players, the length of the polo mallet depends on the size of the horse: the taller the horse, the longer the mallet. However, some players prefer to use a single length of mallet regardless of the height of the horse. Either way, playing horses of differing heights requires some adjustment by the rider. Variable sizes of the mallet range from 48 inches to 53 inches. The ball is struck with the longer sides of the mallet head rather than its round and flat tips.


Polo saddles are English-style, similar to jumping saddles. A breastplate is added, usually attached to the front billet. A tie-down (standing Martingale) may be used: if so, for safety a breastplate is a necessity. An overgirth may be used. The stirrup irons are heavier than most, and the stirrup leathers are wider and thicker, for added safety when the player stands in the stirrups. The legs of the pony are wrapped with polo wraps from below the knee to the ankle to prevent injury. Often, these wraps match the team colors. The pony's mane is roached (hogged), and its tail is braided so that it will not snag the rider's mallet. A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... The saddles known as English saddles (as opposed to Western saddles) are used throughout the world, not just in England or English-speaking countries. ... This can also refer to a piece of riding equipment, see Breastplate (tack). ... In probability theory, a (discrete-time) martingale is a discrete-time stochastic process (i. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Polo wraps are bandage materials, usually made of fleece, for a horses legs. ... The mane runs from the withers to the poll. ...


The field

The playing field is 300 yards long by 160 yards wide, the approximate area of nine American football fields. The playing field is carefully maintained with closely mowed turf providing a safe, fast playing surface. Goals are posts which are set eight yards apart, centered at each end of the field.


Outdoor polo

Edhec polo team players

The game consists of six 7 minute chukkas, between or during which players change mounts. At the end of each 7 minute chukka, play continues for an additional 30 seconds or until a stoppage in play, whichever comes first. There is a four minute interval between chukkas and a ten minute halftime. Play is continuous and is only stopped for penalties, broken tack (equipment) or injury to horse or player. The object is to score goals by hitting the ball between the goal posts, no matter how high in the air. If the ball goes wide of the goal, the defending team is allowed a free 'knock-in' from the place where the ball crossed the goal line, thus getting the ball back into play. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


Indoor polo

The game consists of four 7 and a half minute periods also called chukkas, during which players may change mounts. Play is continuous and is only stopped for penalties, broken tack (equipment) or injury to horse or player. The object is to score goals by hitting the ball between the goal posts (which is usually a door with motion sensors). Balls cannot go out of bounds unless the arena played in doesn't have nets or anything to stop the ball going over the 4.5' wall. If the ball goes over it is considered a dead ball and is then bowled in. The arena is smaller than the field that polo is played on outside. Because of the small size of the arena, indoor polo play is slower than outdoor.


The contemporary sport

Polo played as a part of the Olympic games (1900)

Polo is now an active sport in 77 countries, and although its tenure as an Olympic sport was limited to 19001939, in 1998 the International Olympic Committee recognised it as a sport with a bona fide international governing body, the Federation of International Polo. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Federation of International Polo was founded in 1983 with headquarters in Beverly Hills, and currently represents the national polo associations of more than 80 countries. ...


Polo is, however, played professionally in only a few countries, notably Argentina, England, Pakistan, India, Australia, Spain and the United States. Polo is unique among team sports in that amateur players, often the team patrons, routinely hire and play alongside the sport's top professionals. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Argentina dominates the professional sport, as its polo team has been the uninterrupted world champion since 1949 and is today the source of most of the world's 10-goal (i.e., top-rated) players. In Argentina, polo players are known as "polistas." In the world of polo, Argentina's Heguy family are to polo what the Barrymore family is to acting or the Khan family to squash. The Campeonato Argentino Abierto de Polo tournament—over 100 years old and still going strong—remains one of the most important polo competitions in the world. This article is about John Barrymore, Sr. ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... Jahangir Khan Jahangir Khan (born December 10, 1963, sometimes spelled Jehangir Khan) is a former World No. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... The Campeonato Argentino Abierto de Polo (Spanish for Argentine Polo Open Championship) is the most important international polo championship at club level, that takes place every years since 1893 at the Catedral del Polo in Palermo barrio in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ...


The U.S. is unique in possessing a professional women's polo league and a men's professional polo league: the United States Women's Polo Federation and the United States Men's Polo Federation, founded in 2000. The 32-team league plays across the country. The United States Womens Polo Federation (USWPF) coordinates the activities of its United States member teams, arranging and supervising womens professional polo matches and tournaments. ...


The modern sport has had difficulty grappling with the traditional social and economic exclusivity associated with a game that is inevitably expensive when played at a serious level. Many polo athletes genuinely desire to broaden public participation in the sport, both as an end in itself and to increase the standard of play. The popularity of polo has grown steadily since the 1980s, and its future appears to have been greatly strengthened by its return as a varsity sport at universities across the world. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Arena (or indoor) polo is an affordable option for many who wish to play the sport, and the rules are similar. The sport is played in a 300 feet by 150 feet enclosed arena, much like those used for other equestrian sports; the minimum size is 150 feet by 75 feet. There are many arena clubs in the United States, and most major polo clubs, including the Santa Barbara Polo & Raquet Club, have active arena programs. The major differences between the outdoor and indoor games are: speed (outdoor being faster), physicality/roughness (indoor/arena is more physical), ball size (indoor is larger), goal size (because the arena is smaller the goal is smaller), and some penalties. In the United States and Canada, collegiate polo is arena polo; in the UK, collegiate polo is both.


Notable past and present international polo players

  • Cecil Smith (Held a 10 goal handicap for 25 years, a record. In 1939 was a member of the only team to win every tournament in England.)
  • Queen Jessica Fonseca
  • Rube Williams
  • Adolfo Cambiaso
  • Craig Beasley
  • Gonzalo Pieres
  • Alberto Pedro Heguy, Sr.
  • Bautista Heguy
  • Horacio A. Heguy
  • Ignacio "Nachi" Heguy
  • Eduardo Novillo Astrada
  • Ignacio Novillo Astrada
  • Miguel Novillo Astrada
  • Javier Novillo Astrada
  • Sarah Kopper
  • Gabriel Donoso
  • John-Paul Clarkin
  • Henry Brett
  • James Gordon Bennett, Jr.
  • Mike Azzaro
  • Paul Clarkin
  • Carlos Gracida

Adolfo Cambiaso born April 15, 1975 in Cañuelas, Buenos Aires Province is an Argentine polo player, considered by many to be the best player in the world[1][2][3], and one of the few players with a 10-goal handicap, which he reached at the record age of... Gabriel Donoso celebrating Gabriel Donoso Rosselot (28 June 1960–10 November 2006) was a Chilean polo player, considered one of Chiles best polo players of all time. ... John-Paul Clarkin is the Eldest son of Chele and Paul Clarkin. ... Henry Brett is an international polo player. ... James Gordon Bennett, Jr. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Carlos Gracida, is a polo player, considered by many to be a living legend, and one of the few who has been ranked at a 10-goal handicap, which he reached at the age of twenty. ... Thomas Hitchcock, Jr. ... Foxhall Parker Keene (December 18, 1867 - September 25, 1941) was an American Thoroughbred race horse owner and breeder, a World and Olympic Gold Medallist in polo who was rated the best all-around polo player in the United States for eight consecutive years, a golfer who competed in the U... Porfirio Rubirosa Ariza, (January 22, 1909 in San Francisco de Macorís, Dominican Republic - July 5, 1965 in Bois de Boulogne, France) was a Dominican diplomat, polo player and race car driver who competed in the 1950 and 1954 24 Hour of Le Mans, but was best known as an... Luke Tomlinson is an international polo player and is currently vice captain of the England polo team, with a handicap of 7 goals. ... Harry Payne Whitney was a businessman, horsebreeder and the husband of Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney. ... William Penn Adair Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a Cherokee-American cowboy, comedian, humorist, social commentator, vaudeville performer, and actor. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... Officer Cadet Wales on parade when New Colours were presented to Sandhurst, 21 June 2005. ... Robert Langford Modini Stack (January 13, 1919 – May 14, 2003) was an American stage and movie actor. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... Charles Robertson (Hurricane Bob) Skene (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Walter Jones, see Walter Jones (disambiguation). ... Dennis Coleridge Boles (4 June 1885 – 25 April 1958) was a soldier and Conservative Party politician in the United Kingdom. ...

Other facts about polo

  • The oldest royal polo square is the 16th century Naghsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan, Iran (Post revolutionary name is: Maidan-e Imam).
  • The oldest polo club in the world still in existence is the Calcutta Polo Club (1862).
  • The highest polo ground in the world is on the deosai Plateau Baltistan, Pakistan at 4307 meters (14,000 ft).
  • Polo must be played right handed. Left handed play was ruled out in 1975 for safety reasons. To date, only 3 players on the world circuit are left-handed.
  • Each player in high goal (top level professional) tournaments uses a fresh pony for each chukka because the game is played at a very fast pace, with the horses galloping much of the time. In club games, ponies may play 2 chukkas in a match.
  • The oldest living pologround of the world is the Imphal Polo Ground in Manipur State in India.The history of this pologround is contained in the royal chronicle "Cheitharol Kumbaba" starting from 33AD. Lieutenant Sherer, the father of modern polo visited the state and played on this polo ground in the 1850s. Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India visited the state in 1901 and measured the pologround as 225 yards long and 110 yards wide. [email protected]

(15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Deosai is the treeless highest Plateau on earth, it is located in Baltistan north of city Skardu. ...

Related sports

  • Buzkashi involves two teams of horsemen, a dead goat and few rules. It is the national game of Afghanistan and a possible precursor of polo.
  • Cowboy polo uses rules similar to regular polo, but riders compete with western saddles, usually in a smaller arena, using an inflatable rubber medicine ball.
  • Horseball is a game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net. The sport is a combination of polo, rugby, and basketball.
  • Kokpar is a Kazakh game similar to Buzkashi.
  • Polocrosse is another game played on horseback, a cross between polo and lacrosse.
  • Pato was played in Argentina for centuries, but is much different than modern polo. No mallets are used, and it is not played on grass.

Game of Buzkashi in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis (Persian: بزکشی buzkashÄ«: goat grabbing) (Uzbek, Tatar, Turkmen: kökbörü, kök blue + börü wolf, Kazakh: көкпар, Kyrgyz: улак) is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback. ... Parts of a Western saddle Western saddles are used for western riding and are the saddles used on working horses on cattle ranches throughout the United States, particularly in the west. ... A medicine ball is a heavy ball, roughly the size of a volleyball. ... A game played on horseback where a ball is handled and points are scored by shooting it through a high net. ... Kokpar is a traditional Kazakh game played on horseback, in which two teams of players compete to carry a headless goat carcass into a goal. ... Anthem My Kazakhstan Capital Astana Largest city Almaty Official languages Kazakh (state language), Russian Demonym Kazakh, Kazakhstani Government Republic  -  President Nursultan Nazarbayev  -  Prime Minister Karim Masimov Independence from the Soviet Union   -  1st Khanate 1361 as White Horde   -  2nd Khanate 1428 as Uzbek Horde   -  3rd Khanate 1465 as Kazakh Khanate   -  Declared... Polocrosse it is a team sport that is played all over the world. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ... Pato is a game played on horseback that combines elements from polo and basketball. ...

Polo variants

Polo is not played exclusively on horseback. Such polo variants are mostly played for recreational or touristic purposes; they include canoe polo, cycle polo, camel polo, elephant polo, golfcart polo, Segway polo, BMX polo, yak polo and Water Polo. Canoe polo (called kayak polo in some countries) is a competitive ball sport played on water, in a defined field, between two teams of 5 players, each in a kayak. ... Cycle Polo or Bike Polo or Bicycle polo is an outdoor game similar to Polo, except that bicycles are used instead of horses. ... Elephant polo is a variant of polo played whilst riding elephants. ... Segway Polo is a team sport which started to gain some measure of popularity after being played by members of the Bay Area Segway Enthusiasts Group (Bay Area SEG) in 2004. ... Yak polo (or sarlagan polo) is a Mongolian variant of the sport polo. ...


Charitable polo matches in the United States

  • The Courage Cup is an annual event held on the third Saturday in June in the Greater Washington, DC area at Sheila C. Johnson Field at Great Meadow in The Plains, Virginia. The Courage Cup, is a non-profit corporation which hosts this polo fund raiser to raise funds for Work to Ride, a community-based prevention program that aids disadvantaged urban youth through constructive activities centered on horsemanship, equine sports and education.
  • America's Polo Cup is the world’s only invitational polo sporting event on an international level. On May 9-10, 2008, the America’s Polo Cup will feature the United States challenging Italy for the America’s Polo Cup.

Great Meadow is a 250-acre field events center and steeplechase course operated under stewardship of the Great Meadow Foundation, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of open space for community use. ... Founded in 1994 by Lezlie Hiner, Work to Ride (WTR) is a 501(c) (3), non-profit community-based prevention program that aids disadvantaged urban youth though constructive activities centered on horsemanship, equine sports and education. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.us-polo.org/rules/arena_rules.pdf
  2. ^ a b polo. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  3. ^ a b Polo History.
  4. ^ Naqsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan is in fact a polo field which was built by king Abbas I in 17th century.
  5. ^ a b Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries by Robert Crego. page 25. Published 2003. Greenwood Press. Sports & Recreation. 296 pages ISBN 0313316104
  6. ^ The Guinness Book of Records. 1991 edition (page 288)
  7. ^ a b c Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries by Robert Crego. Page 26. Published 2003. Greenwood Press. Sports & Recreation. 296 pages. ISBN 0313316104
  8. ^ Sports and Games of the 18th and 19th Centuries by Robert Crego. Page 26 - 27. Published 2003. Greenwood Press. Sports & Recreation. 296 pages ISBN 0313316104
  9. ^ http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/familyfriends/robertstack/index.html
  10. ^ http://disney.go.com/disneyatoz/familymuseum/exhibits/familyfriends/robertstack/index.html
  11. ^ http://polistas.com
  • Polo by Penina Meisels and Michael Cronan. Collins Publishers, San Francisco, 1992. ISBN 0-00-637796-3

Naghsh-i Jahan Square (Persian: ميدان نقش جهان maidaan-e naqsh-e jehaan) situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ...

External links

  • [http://polonetworks.com learn to play polo yourself of come and along and watch find out everything you need to know here

Polo offers City pros a level playing field, by Jorn Madslien, BBC News


  Results from FactBites:
 
Polo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2306 words)
Polo is a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team.
The polo stick appears on Chinese royal coats of arms, and the game was part of the court life in the golden age of Chinese classical culture under Emperor Xuanzong, the Radiant Emperor, who was an enthusiastic equestrian.
Polo is now an active sport in 77 countries, and although its tenure as an Olympic sport was limited to 1900–1939, in 1998 the International Olympic Committee recognised it as a sport with a bona fide international governing body, the Federation of International Polo.
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