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Encyclopedia > Pollination
Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus

Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete(s)), or directly to the ovule itself in gymnosperms. The receptive part of the carpel is called a stigma in the flowers of angiosperms. The receptive part of the gymnosperm ovule is called the micropyle. The study of pollination brings together many disciplines, such as botany, horticulture, entomology, and ecology. Pollination is important in horticulture because most plant fruits will not develop if the ovules are not fertilized. The pollination process as interaction between flower and vector was first addressed in the 18th century by Christian Konrad Sprengel. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Genera Xylocopa (31 subgenera) Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large, hairy bees distributed worldwide. ... Night-blooming cereus, Reina de la noche or Queen of the night are names of many cacti - among others: Night-blooming cereus (Selenicereus grandiflorus) (genuine queen of the night) Arizona queen of the night Night blooming cereus (Epiphyllum oxypetalum) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The spermatophytes comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about fertilisation in animals and plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Christian Konrad Sprengel (22 September 1750, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany–7 April 1816, Berlin, Germany) was a German theologist, teacher and, most importantly, a naturalist. ...

Contents

Types

The process of pollination requires pollinators: agents that carry or move the pollen grains from the anther to the receptive part of the carpel. The various flower traits that attract different pollinators are known as pollination syndromes. Methods of pollination, with common pollinators or plants, are: A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Baltimore (Euphydryas phaeton) nectaring at daisy(Agryanthemum) Pollination syndromes are suites of traits of flowers aimed at attracting a particular type of pollinator (Faegri & van der Pijl, 1979; Proctor et al. ...

Honey bee, pollinating.

Biotic pollination, occurs when pollination is mediated by an organism, termed a pollinator. There are roughly 200,000 varieties of animal pollinators in the wild, most of which are insects.[1] Entomophily, pollination by insects, often occurs on plants that have developed blue petals and a strong scent to attract insects such as, bees, wasps and occasionally ants (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), and flies (Diptera). In Zoophily, pollination is done by vertebrates such as birds and bats, particularly, hummingbirds, sunbirds, spiderhunters, honeyeaters, and fruit Bats. Plants adapted to this strategy tend to develop red petals to attract birds and rarely develop a scent because few birds have a sense of smell. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 142 KB) http://pdphoto. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Closeup of a bee pollinating a flower Entomophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by insects, particularly bees, Lepidoptera (e. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Zoophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by animals, particularly by hummingbirds and bats, but also passively by bears, rabbits, deer, and other furred animals. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... For the flying mammal see bat. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Genera Many: see text The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. ... This article is about the sunbird family of birds. ... Genera Anthochaera Acanthagenys Plectorhyncha Philemon Xanthornyzma Entomyzon Manorina Xanthotis Meliphaga Lichenostomus Melithreptus Notiomystis Glycichaera Lichmera Trichodere Grantiella Phylidonyris Ramsayornis Conopophila Acanthorhynchus Certhionyx Myzomela Anthornis Prosthemadera Epthianura Ashbyia The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family of small to medium sized birds most common in Australia and New Guinea, but also... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with megabats. ...


Abiotic pollination occurs when pollination is mediated without the involvement of other organisms. Only 10% of flowering plants are able to pollinate without animal assistance.[1] For example, anemophily is pollination by wind. This form of pollination is very common in grasses, most conifers, and many deciduous trees. Hydrophily is pollination by water and occurs in aquatic plants which release their seeds directly into the surrounding water. About 80% of all plant pollination is biotic. Of the 20% of abiotically pollinated species, 98% is by wind and 2% by water. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Anemophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Hydrophily is a fairly uncommon form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by the flow of waters, particularly in rivers and streams. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Look up biotic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


In agriculture

An Andrena bee collects pollen among the stamens of a rose. The female carpel structure appears rough and globular to the left. The bee's stash of pollen is on its hind leg.

Pollination management is a branch of agriculture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in Californian almond orchards, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honey bees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring. New York's apple crop requires about 30,000 hives; Maine's blueberry crop uses about 50,000 hives each year. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 270 KB) Summary A bee collecting pollen on a rose. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 270 KB) Summary A bee collecting pollen on a rose. ... Species Andrena miserabilis Cresson, 1872 Andrena is the largest genus in the family Andrenidae, and is nearly worldwide in distribution, with the notable exception of Oceania. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see Blueberry (disambiguation). ...


Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Honey bees are not the only managed pollinators: other species of bees are also raised as pollinators. The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important pollinator for alfalfa seed in western United States and Canada. Bumblebees are increasingly raised and used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes and other crops. This article is about the fruit. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Megachile rotundata Fabricius, 1787 The Alfalfa Leafcutter Bee (megachile rotundata) is a species of bee cultured solely for pollination purposes. ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article is about the flying insect. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ...

Well-pollinated blackberry blossom begins to develop fruit. Each incipient drupelet has its own stigma and good pollination requires the delivery of many grains of pollen to the flower so that all drupelets develop.

The ecological and financial importance of natural pollination by insects to agricultural crops, improving their quality and quantity, becomes more and more appreciated and has given rise to new financial opportunities. The vicinity of a forest or wild grasslands with native pollinators near agricultural crops, such as apples, almonds or coffee can improve their yield by about 20%. The benefits of native pollinators may result in forest owners demanding payment for their contribution in the improved crop results - a simple example of the economic value of ecological services. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1868, 1416 KB) Well pollinated blackberry blossom begins to develop fruit I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1868, 1416 KB) Well pollinated blackberry blossom begins to develop fruit I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... This article is about a community of trees. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family...


The American Institute of Biological Sciences reports that native insect pollination saves the United States agricultural economy nearly an estimated $3.1 billion annually through natural crop production;[2] pollination produces some $40 billion worth of products annually in the United States alone.[1] The American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) is a nonprofit scientific association dedicated to advancing biological research and education. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


Pollination of food crops has become an environmental issue, due to two trends. The trend to monoculture means that greater concentrations of pollinators are needed at bloom time than ever before, yet the area is forage poor or even deadly to bees for the rest of the season. The other trend is the decline of pollinator populations, due to pesticide misuse and overuse, new diseases and parasites of bees, clearcut logging, decline of beekeeping, suburban development, removal of hedges and other habitat from farms, and public paranoia about bees. Widespread aerial spraying for mosquitoes due to West Nile fears is causing an acceleration of the loss of pollinators. The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ... For bees, their forage or food supply consisists of nectar and pollen from blooming plants within flight range. ... Pollinator decline is based on observations made at the end of the twentieth century of the reduction in abundance of pollinators in many ecosystems worldwide. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Clearcutting or clearfelling is a method of timber harvest in which all trees in a selected area are cut. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... The word hedge may be used to refer to an artificial boundary, erected to contain or protect: A hedge or hedgerow in agriculture and in gardening is a lineal barrier or boundary made from growing plants planted and trained in such a way that their limbs intertwine. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... The Antonov An-2 was the first purpose-built agricultural arcraft to be mass-produced. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... West Nile fever (West Nile encephalitis) a febrile illness caused by West Nile virus, that is transmitted from birds to the common Culex mosquito and then to people. ...


The US solution to the pollinator shortage, so far, has been for commercial beekeepers to become pollination contractors and to migrate. Just as the combine harvesters follow the wheat harvest from Texas to Manitoba, beekeepers follow the bloom from south to north, to provide pollination for many different crops. An independent contractor is a person or business which provides goods or services to another entity under terms specified in a contract. ... -1... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


Pollinators and pollenizers

Pollination also requires consideration of pollenizers. (The terms "pollinator" and "pollenizer" are often confused: a pollinator is the agent that moves the pollen, whether it be wind, bees, bats, moths, or birds; a pollenizer is the plant that provides the pollen.) Some plants are self-fertile or self-compatible and can pollinate themselves. Other plants have chemical or physical barriers to self-pollination and need to be cross-pollinated: with these self-infertile plants, not only pollinators must be considered but pollenizers as well. In pollination management, a good pollenizer is a plant that provides compatible, viable and plentiful pollen and blooms at the same time as the plant that is to be pollinated. The words pollenizer (polleniser) and pollinator are often confused. ... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ...


Pollination can be cross-pollination with a pollinator and an external pollenizer, self-pollenization with a pollinator, or self-pollination without any pollinator:

  • Cross-pollination (syngamy): pollen is delivered to a flower of a different plant. Plants adapted to outcross or cross-pollinise have taller stamens than carpels to better spread pollen to other flowers.
A hummingbird feeding, as pollen flies around.
  • Self-pollenization (autogamy): pollen moves to the female part of the same flower, or to another flower on the same individual plant. This is sometimes referred to as self-pollination, but this is not synonymous with autogamy. Clarity requires that the term "self-pollination" be restricted to those plants that accomplish pollination without an external pollinator (example: the stamens actually grow into contact with the pistil to transfer the pollen). Most peach varieties are autogamous, but not truly self-pollinated, as it is generally an insect pollinator that moves the pollen from anther to stigma. Plants adapted to self-fertilize have similar stamen and carpel length.
  • Cleistogamy: pollination that occurs before the flower opens is always self-pollination. Some cleistogamous flowers never open, in contrast to chasmogamous flowers that open and are then pollinated. Cleistogamous flowers must of necessity be self-compatible or self-fertile plants. Other plants are self-incompatible. These are end points on a continuum, not absolute points.

Hybridization is effective pollination between flowers of different species of the same genus, or even between flowers of different genera (as in the case of several orchids). For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about a biological term. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ...


Peaches are considered self-fertile because a commercial crop can be produced without cross-pollination, though cross-pollination usually gives a better crop. Apples are considered self-incompatible, because a commercial crop must be cross-pollinated. Remember that most fruits are grafted clones, genetically identical. An orchard block of apples of one variety is in effect all one plant. Growers now consider this a mistake. One means of correcting this mistake is to graft a limb of an appropriate pollenizer (generally a variety of crabapple) every six trees or so. Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Species - Southern Crab - Siberian Crabapple - Sweet Crabapple - Apple - Japanese Crabapple - Oregon Crab - Chinese Crabapple - Prairie Crab - Asian Wild Apple - European Wild Apple Malus, the apples, is a genus of about 30-35 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including most importantly the domesticated Orchard or...


Honey bee pollination

Main article: List of plants pollinated by bees

Honey bees travel from flower to flower, collecting nectar (later converted to honey), and pollen grains. The bee collects the pollen by rubbing against the anthers. The pollen collects on the hind legs, in dense hairs referred to as a pollen basket. As the bee flies from flower to flower, some of the pollen grains are transferred onto the stigma of other flowers. Pollination by insects is called entomophily. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... honeybee pollen basket The pollen basket or corbicula is part of the hind tibia of the back (posterior) legs of the honeybee. ...

A bee collects nectar, while pollen collects on its body.

Nectar provides the energy for bee nutrition; pollen provides the protein. When bees are rearing large quantities of brood (beekeepers say hives are "building"), bees deliberately gather pollen to meet the nutritional needs of the brood. A honey bee that is deliberately gathering pollen is up to ten times more efficient as a pollinator than one that is primarily gathering nectar and only unintentionally transferring pollen. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1620x1280, 489 KB) Photo by John Severns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1620x1280, 489 KB) Photo by John Severns. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Recently hatched honey bee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ...


Good pollination management seeks to have bees in a "building" state during the bloom period of the crop, thus requiring them to gather pollen, and making them more efficient pollinators. Thus the management techniques of a beekeeper providing pollination services are different from, and somewhat incompatible with, those of a beekeeper who is trying to produce honey. A commercial beekeeper working in an apiary. ...


Other species of bees differ in various details of their behavior and pollen-gathering habits, and it should be remembered that honey bees are not native to the Western Hemisphere; all pollination of native plants in the Americas has been historically performed by various native bees. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


Number of hives needed per acre (4,000 m²) of crop pollination

Placing honey bees for pumpkin pollination in Mohawk Valley, NY
Apples: 1–2
Blueberries: 4
Cantaloupe: 2–4
Cucumber 1–2
Squash: 1
Watermelon: 1–3

It is estimated that about one hive per acre will sufficiently pollinate watermelons. In the 1950s when the woods were full of wild bee trees, and beehives were normally kept on most South Carolina farms, a farmer who grew ten acres (40,000 m²) of watermelons would be a large grower and probably had all the pollination needed. But today's grower may grow 200 acres (800,000 m²), and, if lucky, there might be one bee tree left within range. The only option in the current economy is to bring beehives to the field during blossom time. Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination, Mowhawk Valley, NY Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:54, Sep 19, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Placing honeybees for pumpkin pollination, Mowhawk Valley, NY Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 05:54, Sep 19, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Mohawk Valley region of the U.S. state of New York includes the industrialized cities of Utica and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


Source: Delaplaine et al. 1994, Bee pollination of Georgia crop plants. CES Bulletin 1106.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
pollination

Apples are self incompatible and must be cross pollinated. ... Hand pollination (also called mechanical pollination) is a technique used when natural, or open pollination is insufficient or undesirable. ... Pollination by insects is called entomophily. ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Baltimore (Euphydryas phaeton) nectaring at daisy(Agryanthemum) Pollination syndromes are suites of traits of flowers aimed at attracting a particular type of pollinator (Faegri & van der Pijl, 1979; Proctor et al. ... Court membership Chief Justice: Beverley McLachlin Puisne Justices: John C. Major, Michel Bastarache, Ian Binnie, Louis LeBel, Marie Deschamps, Morris Fish, Rosalie Abella, Louise Charron Reasons given Majority by: McLachlin C.J. and Fish J. (paras. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c US Forest Department: Pollinator Factsheet
  2. ^ BioScience, April 2006, Vol. 56 No. 4, pp. 315-317
  • Dafni, Amots; Kevan, Peter G.; and Husband, Brian C. (2005). Practical Pollination Biology. Enviroquest, Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9680123-0-7.

External links

Look up Pollination in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: Fromethno - study of people and botany - study of plants. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective. ... Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the structure of plants. ... A germination rate experiment Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the function, or physiology, of plants. ... Download high resolution version (454x765, 178 KB)Coconut Palm on Martinique. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Plant evolution is an aspect of the study of biological evolution, involving predominantly the evolution of plants suited to live on land, the greening of the various land masses by the filling of their niches with land plants, and the diversification of the groups of land plants. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Divisions Pinophyta (or Coniferophyta) - Conifers Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo Cycadophyta - Cycads Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia Gymnosperm (Gymnospermae) are a group of spermatophyte seed-bearing plants with ovules on the edge or blade of an open sporophyll, which are usually arranged in cone-like structures. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Stoma of a leaf under a microscope. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Plant cell structure Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key respects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Plant hormones (also known as plant growth regulators (PGRs) and phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate a plants growth. ... Plant cells with visible chloroplasts. ... Transpiration is the evaporation of excess water from aerial parts and of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. ... Sporic or diplohaplontic life cycle. ... In plants that undergo alternation of generations, a gametophyte is the structure, or phase of life, that contains only half of the total complement of chromosomes: The sporophyte produces spores, in a process called meiosis. ... Close-up of an Echinopsis spachiana flower, showing both carpels (only the styles and stigmas are visible) and stamens, making it a complete flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Young sporophytes of the common moss Tortula muralis. ... Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, describes, classifies and names plants. ... A botanical name is a formal name conforming to the ICBN. As with its zoological and bacterial equivalents it may also be called a scientific name. Botanical names may be in one part (genus and above), two parts (species) or three parts (below the rank of species). ... Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... Studying a plant sample in the Herbarium In botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens. ... The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) is devoted to plant systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Writing the Species Plantarum was one of Carolus Linnaeus two great contributions to the Scientific community. ...

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NAPPC Home Page (English) (382 words)
Recognizing the importance of pollinators to ecosystem health and agriculture in the United States and the value of partnership efforts to increase awareness about pollinators and support.
To encourage the health of resident and migratory pollinating animals in North America.
Pollinator Friendly Practices To help organizations that work with schools, private industry, public spaces, agriculture, forests and homes, to educate about and promote pollinator friendly land use practices.
Some Pollinator Populations Declining (918 words)
However, there is little or no population data for many pollinators, which prompted the committee that wrote the report to call for stepped-up efforts to monitor these creatures and improve understanding of their basic ecology.
Research indicates that shortages of pollinators for agriculture already exist and that decreases in wild pollinator populations could disrupt ecosystems in the future.
Although the consequences of wild pollinator declines for nonagricultural settings are more difficult to define, one result could be a greater vulnerability of some plant species to extinction, the report adds.
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