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Encyclopedia > Poliziano
Angelo Poliziano.
Angelo Poliziano.

Angelo Ambrogini, best known as Poliziano (July 14, 1454September 24, 1494) was a Florentine classical scholar and poet, one of the revivers of Humanist Latin. He used his didactic poem Manto, written in the 1480s, as an introduction to his lectures on Virgil. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (625x753, 123 KB) [[Category: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poliziano ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (625x753, 123 KB) [[Category: File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Poliziano ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was a great cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Classics, particularly within the Western University tradition, when used as a singular noun, means the study of the language, literature, history, art, and other aspects of Greek and Roman culture during the time frame known as classical antiquity. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Humanist Latin is a name given to the distinctive Latin style developed by the humanist movement during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth century. ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Known in literary annals as Angelo Poliziano or Politianus from his birthplace, he was born at Montepulciano, in central Tuscany. His father, Benedetto, a jurist of good family and distinguished ability, was murdered by political antagonists for adopting the cause of Piero de Medici in Montepulciano; this circumstance gave his eldest son, Angelo, a claim on the family of Medici. Montepulciano is a town, situated in Central Tuscany. ... A poppy field in Tuscany. ... Piero de Medici (the Gouty), Italian Piero il Gottoso (1416 – December 2, 1469), was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance. ... The Medici coat of arms The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. ...


At the age of ten, after the premature death of his father, Poliziano came to prosecute his studies at Florence, guest of a cousin. Here he learned Latin and Greek. From Marsilio Ficino he imbibed the rudiments of philosophy. The precocity of his genius for scholarship and poetry was early manifested. At thirteen years of age he began to circulate Latin letters; at seventeen he sent forth essays in Greek versification; at eighteen he published an edition of Catullus. In 1470 he won for himself the title of homericus adulescens by translating books II-V of the Iliad into Latin hexameters. Lorenzo de Medici, who was then the autocrat of Florence and the chief patron of learning in Italy, took Poliziano into his household, made him the tutor of his children, and secured him a distinguished post in the university of Florence. Lorenzo led the way himself, and Poliziano was more a follower in his path than an initiator. Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Domenico Ghirlandaio. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ... For persons with a cognomen Catulus, see Lutatius Gaius Valerius Catullus (ca. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... This is about the eBook reader. ... The exact same full name was also carried by his grandson Lorenzo (1492 - 1519), Duke of Urbino, with whom he is sometimes confused. ...


Adulthood and teaching

Before he reached the age of thirty, Poliziano expounded the humanities with almost unexampled lustre even for that epoch of brilliant professors. Among his pupils could be numbered the chief students of Europe, the men who were destined to carry to their homes the spolia opima of Italian culture. Not to mention Italians, he educated students from Germany, England, and Portugal. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... See Spolia for Roman reuse of building rubble, and Spolia (disambiguation) for other meanings Definition and History Spolia opima (or best spoils/trophies) refers to the armor, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general had stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single, hand-to... Italian culture is as varied and diverse as the Italian people. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...


Poliziano did not have the good looks that could survive him in Italy, yet his voice was rich and capable of fine modulation; his eloquence, ease of utterance and copious stream of erudition were incomparable. It was the method of professors at that period to read the Greek and Latin authors with their class, dictating philological and critical notes, emending corrupt passages in the received texts, offering elucidations of the matter, and pouring forth stores of acquired knowledge regarding the laws, manners, religious and philosophical opinions of the ancients. Poliziano covered nearly the whole ground of classical literature during the years of his professorship, and published the notes of his courses upon Ovid, Suetonius, Statius, Pliny the Younger, and Quintilian. He also undertook a recension of the text of the Pandects of Justinian I, which formed the subject of one of his courses. However, this recension, though it does not rank high in the scale of juristic erudition, gave an impulse to the scholarly criticism of the Roman code. Look up erudition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about law in society. ... In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. ... Opinion is a persons ideas and thoughts towards something. ... Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC â€“ Tomis, now Constanta AD 17) Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women, and mythological transformations. ... This article is about the Roman historian. ... Publius Papinius Statius, (c. ... Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus (63-ca. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Pandects (Lat. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ...


Works and influence

At the same time he was busy as a translator from the Greek. His versions of Epictetus, Hippocrates, Galen, Plutarch's Eroticus and Plato's Charmides delighted contemporaries by a certain fluency of Latin style and grace of manner which distinguished him as an original writer. Of these learned labors, the most universally acceptable to the public of that time were a series of discursive essays on philology and criticism, first published in 1489 under the title of Miscellanea. They had an immediate and lasting effect, encouraging the scholars of the next century and a half to throw their occasional discoveries in the field of scholarship into a form at once so attractive and so instructive. Poliziano was not, however, contented with these simply professorial and scholastic compositions. He devoted himself to the composition of Latin and Greek verses, which count among the best of those produced by men of modern times in rivalry with ancient authors. Epictetus (c. ... Hippocrates of Cos II. or Hippokrates of Kos (c. ... Greek: Γαληνός, Latin: Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (129 – 200 AD), better known in English as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Plato (ancient Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, wide, broad-shouldered) (c. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ...


His Latin and Greek works include:

  • The Manto, in which he pronounced a panegyric of Virgil;
  • The Ambra, which contains a beautiful idyllic sketch of Tuscan landscape and a eulogy of Homer;
  • The Rusticus, which celebrated the pleasures of country life in no frigid or scholastic spirit;
  • The Nutricia, which was intended to serve as a general introduction to the study of ancient and modern poetrythese are the masterpieces of Poliziano in Latin verse, displaying an authenticity of inspiration, a sincerity of feeling, and a command of metrical resources which mark them out as original productions of poetic genius rather than as merely professorialism.

Exception may be taken to their style, when compared with the best work of the Augustan or even of the Silver age. But what renders them always noteworthy to the student of modern humanistic literature is that they are in no sense imitative or conventional, but that they convey the genuine thoughts and emotions of a born poet in Latin diction to suit the characteristics of the singer's temperament. A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... A sculpture of Virgil, probably from the 1st century AD. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Homer (Greek HómÄ“ros) was a legendary early Greek poet and aoidos (singer) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Look up inspiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Diction is the art of enunciating with clarity, of speaking in such a way that each word is clearly heard. ...


While his principal Italian works are:

  • The stanzas called La Giostra, written upon Giuliano de Medicis' victory in a tournament. This work was left unfinished following the assassination of its protagonist;
  • The Orfeo, a lyrical drama performed at Mantua with musical accompaniment;
  • A collection of Tuscan songs, reproducing various forms of popular poetry distinguished by a roseate fluency.

Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ...

Final years

His private life was uneventful until the end. He passed it as a house-friend and dependant of the Medicis and as a simple man of letters for whom (with truly Tuscan devotion to the Saturnian country) rural pleasures were always acceptable. He was never married; and his morals incurred suspicion, to which his own Greek verses lend a certain amount of plausible coloring. He died, half broken-hearted by the loss of his friend and patron Lorenzo de Medici, on the 24th of September 1494, just before the wave of foreign invasion which was gathering in France swept over Italy. Saturnian meter or verse is an old Latin and Italic poetic form, of which the principles of versification remain obscure. ...


Lasting effect

Poliziano was skilled as a scholar, as a professor, as a critic, and as a Latin poet at an age when the classics were still studied with the passion of assimilative curiosity, and not with the scientific industry of a later period. He was the representative of that age of scholarship in which students drew their ideal of life from antiquity and fondly dreamed that they might so restore the past as to compete with the classics in production and bequeath a golden age of resuscitated Daganism to the modern world. Yet he was also skilled as an Italian poet, among the ranks of Boccaccio and Ariosto. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ancient history is the study of significant cultural and political events from the beginning of human history until the Early Middle Ages. ... The Golden Age by Pietro da Cortona. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Giovanni Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 _ July 6, 1533) was a Ferrarese poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Hungary in 1518, and wished Aniosto to accompany him. ...


At a period when humanism took the lead in forming Italian character and giving tone to European culture,Poliziano climbed with facility to the height of achievement in all the branches of scholarship which were then most seriously prized in varied knowledge of ancient authors, in critical capacity, in rhetorical and poetical exuberance. This was enough at that epoch to direct the attention of all the learned men of Europe on Poliziano. At the same time, almost against his own inclination, certainly with very little enthusiasm on his part, he lent himself so successfully to Lorenzo de Medicis' scheme for resuscitating the decayed literature of Tuscany that his slightest Italian effusions exercised a potent influence on the immediate future. This is a list of named time periods defined in various fields of study. ... Enthusiasm (Greek: enthousiasmos) originally meant inspiration or possession by a divine afflatus or by the presence of a God. ...


He appears before us as the dictator of Italian culture in a double capacity as the man who most expressed the Italian conception of humanism, and brought erudition into accord with the pursuit of noble and harmonious form, and also as the man whose vernacular compositions were more significant than any others of the great revolution in favor of Italian poetry which culminated in Ariosto. Beyond the sphere of pure scholarship and pure literature Poliziano did not venture. He was present, indeed, at the attack made by the Pazzi conspirators on the persons of Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici, and wrote an interesting account of its partial success. He also coxitributed a curious document on the death of Lorenzo de Medici to tile students of Florentine history. But, he was not, like many other humanists of his age, concerned in public affairs of state or diplomacy, and he held no office except that of professor at Florence. Ludovico Ariosto (September 8, 1474 _ July 6, 1533) was a Ferrarese poet, author of the epic poem Orlando furioso (1516), Orlando Enraged. He was born at Reggio, in Hungary in 1518, and wished Aniosto to accompany him. ... The Pazzi family were Tuscan nobles who had become bankers in Florence in the 14th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A professor giving a lecture The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ...


Sources

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Further Reading

There is no biography of Poliziano in English currently in print, but Stanley Meltzoff, Botticelli, Signorelli and Savonarola, Theologia Poetica and Painting from Boccaccio to Poliziano (Leo S. Olschki Editore, 1987) gives an excellent portrait of Poliziano the scholar and his opposition to Savonarola.

  • Linda Proud, A Tabernacle for the Sun (Godstow Press, 2005), a literary novel set in Florence during the Pazzi Conspiracy features Poliziano as a major character and adheres closely to known facts.
  • Linda Proud, Pallas and the Centaur (Godstow Press, 2004), deals with the aftermath of the Pazzi Conspiracy and Lorenzo de Medici's strained relations with his wife and with Poliziano. It is partly narrated by Poliziano's sister, Maria.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Poliziano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1242 words)
Poliziano did not have the good looks that could survive him in Italy, yet his voice was rich and capable of fine modulation; his eloquence, ease of utterance and copious stream of erudition were incomparable.
Poliziano covered nearly the whole ground of classical literature during the years of his professorship, and published the notes of his courses upon Ovid, Suetonius, Statius, Pliny the Younger, and Quintilian.
Poliziano was skilled as a scholar, as a professor, as a critic, and as a Latin poet at an age when the classics were still studied with the passion of assimilative curiosity, and not with the scientific industry of a later period.
Angelo Poliziano Biography / Biography of Angelo Poliziano Biography (706 words)
Angelo Poliziano was born Angelo Ambrogini on July 14, 1454, at Montepulciano, Tuscany, the son of a lawyer.
Poliziano's dedication to Lorenzo de' Medici of a partial translation of the Iliad marked the beginning of a lifelong friendship with the Medici ruler, and for some time he headed Lorenzo's chancellery and was tutor to his two sons.
Poliziano's activities as a translator of Greek and Roman literature were remarkable (Callimachus, Epictetus, Galen, Hippocrates, and Moschus), and his editorial attempts--such as the Pandects--remain respectable examples of early textual criticism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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