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Encyclopedia > Politics of the People's Republic of China
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Government of the People's Republic of China. (Discuss)
People's Republic of China

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the People's Republic of China
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central Peoples Government. ... Image File history File links National_emblem_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China. ...


Constitution
President: Hu Jintao
National People's Congress
   Standing Committee
Premier: Wen Jiabao
State Council
People's Liberation Army
Central Military Commission
Law of the PRC
Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
Political Parties
CPPCC
Communist Party of China
   Constitution
   General Secretary
   National Congress
   Central Committee
   Secretariat
   Politburo
      Standing Committee
Elections

Political divisions
Foreign relations
Foreign aid The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín DàibiÇŽo Dàhuì Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Pinyin: WÄ“n JiābÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Supreme Peoples Procuratorate (simplified Chinese: 最高人民检察院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn Jiānchá Yùan) is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Quánguó DàibiÇŽo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ShÅ«jìchù) is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the Peoples Republic... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone some radicial upheavals over the past two centuries. ... Foreign aid to the Peoples Republic of China takes the form of both bilateral and multilateral official development assistance and official aid to individual recipients. ...

See also
   Politics of Hong Kong
   Politics of Macau

Other countries • Politics Portal
viewtalkedit

Politics of the People's Republic of China (PRC) takes place in a framework of a single-party socialist republic. State power within the PRC is exercised through three interlocking organizations: the Communist Party of China, the Central People's Government, and the People's Liberation Army. Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by the Peoples Republic of China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... The Republic of China (ROC) currently has jurisdiction over Taiwan, Kinmen, Matsu, and the Pescadores Islands (Penghu) and several smaller islands. ... Politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by the Peoples Republic of China, an own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Peoples Government is the central government of the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The PRC is an oligarchy in which political power and advancement depends on gaining and retaining the support of an informal body of people numbering one to two thousand who constitute the leadership of these organs. Large Jews coming form every direction. The PRC's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Central government leaders must increasingly build consensus for new policies among party members, local and regional leaders, influential non-party members, and the population at large. However, control is often maintained over the larger group through control of information, propaganda and censorship (see Propaganda in the People's Republic of China). Historically, under the Maoist period, Stalinist terror campaigns and purges were also important part of maintaining conformity with the political centre, but during the reform period these methods have been used in a more restricted and targeted manner. Oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Censorship is the control of speech and other forms of human expression. ... Chinese poster saying: Chairman Mao is the Red sun in our hearts. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893&#8211... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ...

The Great Hall of the People, on the west side of Tiananmen Square, is China's parliament building. There are 2,979 representatives in the annual congress.
The Great Hall of the People, on the west side of Tiananmen Square, is China's parliament building. There are 2,979 representatives in the annual congress.

While the PRC is regarded as a communist state by many political scientists, it is also arguably the wealthiest of those that remain. But attempts to characterize the nature of China's political structure into a single, simple category are typically seen as lacking sufficient depth to be satisfactory.[1] A major reason for this is that for much of China's history, the state had been ruled by some form of centralized imperial monarchy, which was followed by a chaotic succession of largely authoritarian Chinese Nationalist governments as well as warlord-held administrations since the last few years of the Qing dynasty in 1912. Although the PRC regime has been variously described as authoritarian, communist, and socialist, it appears China is slowly becoming capitalist in its economic system.[2] However, heavy restrictions remain in some areas, most notably on the internet and in the press. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1711 KB) Summary Photo by Chill, Creative Commons license. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1711 KB) Summary Photo by Chill, Creative Commons license. ... Great Hall of the People by day. ... Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; Traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; Pinyin: Tiānānmén GuÇŽngchÇŽng) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... This article is about states governed by Communist parties. ... Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... Look up Structure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting Legislative... Warlord is a term that refers to one who has de facto military control of a subnational area, due to armed forces which are personally obedient to — somewhat circularly — that warlord. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupy all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent during an invasion (during or after a war). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: QÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, is a Chinese term for the Empire of the Great Qing (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dàqÄ«ngguó), founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...

Contents

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Foreign relations

Presidents Hu Jintao and George W. Bush, with first ladies Liu Yongqing and Laura Bush, wave from the White House. The relationship between the world's sole superpower United States and the emerging superpower status of the PRC is closely watched by international observers.
Presidents Hu Jintao and George W. Bush, with first ladies Liu Yongqing and Laura Bush, wave from the White House. The relationship between the world's sole superpower United States and the emerging superpower status of the PRC is closely watched by international observers.
The Karakoram Highway connecting China and Pakistan is an example of China's international development involvements.
Enlarge
The Karakoram Highway connecting China and Pakistan is an example of China's international development involvements.

The PRC maintains diplomatic relations with most countries in the world. In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative for "China" in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[3] It is considered a founding member of UN, though the PRC was not in control of China at the time. (See China and the United Nations). The PRC was also a former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement. Image File history File linksMetadata Bushhujintao. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bushhujintao. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... Liu Yonqing (刘永清) is the wife of Hú Jǐntāo, leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of U.S. President George W. Bush and is the current First Lady of the United States. ... Sino-American relations (Simplified Chinese: 中美关系; pinyin: Zhōng-MÄ›i Guānxì) refers to international relations between the United States and China. ... An American B-2 bomber in flight. ... An emerging superpower or potential superpower is a country showing the potential to become a superpower in the foreseeable future. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) 5/10/2005 es: Autopista del Karakórum en la provincia de Xinjiang (China). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 204 KB) 5/10/2005 es: Autopista del Karakórum en la provincia de Xinjiang (China). ... Karakoram Highway route map The highest point on the highway: the Khunjerab Pass The Karakoram Highway in the Xinjiang region of China. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone some radicial upheavals over the past two centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since November 23, 1971. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005) The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ...


Under the One-China policy, the PRC has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and sever any official ties with the Republic of China (ROC) government. The government actively opposes foreign travels by former and present Taiwanese officials, such as Lee Teng-hui and Chen Shui-bian, and other people it sees as politically dangerous, such as the current Dalai Lama of Tibet. The One-China policy (Traditional Chinese: 一個中國; Simplified Chinese: 一个中国; pinyin: yÄ« gè Zhōngguó) is the principle that there is one China and that mainland China, Tibet, Hong Kong, Macau, Xinjiang and Taiwan are all part of that China. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... Lee Teng-hui (Traditional Chinese: 李登輝; Simplified Chinese: 李登辉; Pinyin: Lǐ DÄ“nghuÄ«) born January 15, 1923) is a politician in the Republic of China (ROC). ... Chen Shui-bian, President of the Republic of China Chen Shui-bian (ch. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


China has been playing a leading role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbors. In 2004, China proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as a forum for regional security issues that pointedly excluded the United States.[4] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also a founder and member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), alongside Russia and the Central Asian republics. A free trade area is a designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all) goods between them. ... The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum to be held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. ... ASEAN Plus Three is a forum that function as a coordinator of cooperation between Association of Southeast Asian Nations with three East Asian nations; namely Japan, Peoples Republic of China and South Korea. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing - Tashkent Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Zhang Deguang Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Much of the current foreign policy is based on the concept of China's peaceful rise. However, conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at various times in its recent history, particularly with the United States; e.g., the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the U.S.-China spy plane incident in April 2001. Also, its foreign relations with many other Western nations suffered for a time following the Tiananmen Square Incident in 1989. A much troubled foreign relationship is that between China and Japan, which has been strained at times by Japan's refusal to acknowledge its war-time past to the satisfaction of the PRC, such as revisionistic comments made by prominent Japanese officials, and insufficient details given to the Nanjing Massacre and other atrocities committed during World War II in Japanese history textbooks. Another point of conflict between the two countries is the frequent visits by Japanese government officials to the Yasukuni Shrine, which enshrines thousands of convicted World War II war criminals, including 14 Class A convictions. Chinas peaceful rise (Chinese: 中国和平崛起; Pinyin: Zhōnggúo hépíng juéqǐ) is a foreign policy doctrine mentioned increasingly by the Peoples Republic of China in the early 21st century. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд or Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Serbia. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... J-8IIM On April 1, 2001, a United States Navy EP-3E was intercepted by Peoples Liberation Army Air Force J-8 fighter jets about 70 miles (110 km) off the Chinese island of Hainan. ... The Unknown Rebel - This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester whose actions halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Foreign relations between Japan and China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Japanese textbook controversies is a series of controversies over the government-approved history textbooks used in the secondary education of Japan (junior high school and high school). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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Communist Party

The more than 63 million-member Communist Party of China (CPC) continues to dominate government. In periods of relative liberalization, the influence of people and organizations outside the formal party structure has tended to increase, particularly in the economic realm. Under the command economy system, every state owned enterprise was required to have a party committee. The introduction of the market economy means that economic institutions now exist in which the party has limited or no power. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... A market economy (aka free market economy and free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system rather than by the state in a planned economy. ...


Nevertheless, in all governmental institutions in the PRC, the party committees maintain an important role. Party control is tightest in government offices and in urban economic, industrial, and cultural settings; it is considerably looser in the rural areas, which contains the majority of Chinese population. Their most important responsibility comes in the selection and promotion of personnel. They also see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Particularly important are the leading small groups which coordinate activities of different agencies. Although there is a convention that government committees contain at least one non-party member, a party membership is a definite aid in promotion and in being in crucial policy setting meetings. A leading small group (lingdao xiaozu) is a committee of the Communist Party of China which coordinates party activities within an agency of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Theoretically, the party's highest body is the Party Congress, which is supposed to meet at least once every 5 years. Meetings became irregular during the Cultural Revolution but have been periodic since then. The party elects the Central Committee and the primary organs of power are formally parts of the central committee. The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wúchǎn Jiējí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... 16th Central Committee meeting of the Communist Party of China Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ...


The primary organs of power in the Communist Party include:

  • The Politburo Standing Committee, which currently consists of nine members;
  • The Politburo, consisting of 22 full members (including the members of the Politburo Standing Committee);
  • The Secretariat, the principal administrative mechanism of the CPC, headed by the General Secretary;
  • The Central Military Commission;
  • The Discipline Inspection Commission, which is charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres.
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The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ...

State structure

The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying it out. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party, thereby creating a single centralized locus of power. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the very late 1980s and from 2000 and beyond. ...


At the same time, there has been a convention that party and state offices be separated at levels other than the central government, and it is unheard of for a sub-national executive to also be party secretary. Conflict has been often known to develop between the chief executive and the party secretary, and this conflict is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too dominant. Some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau where the Communist Party does not function at all as part of the governmental system, and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and usually Han Chinese. Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about 2 weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. Most national legislation in China is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its standing committee has increasingly asserted its role as the national legislature and has been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of freeways. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ...

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Constitution

The PRC Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that, an interim Constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force. September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The 2nd and 3rd promulgations of the PRC Constitution took place against the backdrop of the Cultural Revolution. The 2nd promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, and contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. It also, for the first time, mentioned the issue of Taiwan and declared that the PRC would "liberate" it. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wúchǎn Jiējí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People...


The current Constitution is the PRC's 4th promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it was promulgated and has served as a stable Constitution for over 20 years. The role of the Presidency and the courts were normalized, and under the Constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments were made in 1988, 1993, 1999, and most recently, in 2004, which recognised private property, safeguarded human rights, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy. December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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The People's Liberation Army

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is controlled not by the State Council but rather by the Central Military Commission, a body which consists mostly of military officers but is chaired by a civilian, since 2004 Hu Jintao. Unlike most national armies, the Ministry of National Defense which is in the State Council has very little power and exists mostly to coordinate liaison activities with other militaries. This makes the PLA effectively an army of the Party, not the state, although the suitability of this arrangement during the recent drive to professionalize and modernize the PLA has also been debated. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the...


In practice, the Central Military Commission follows the decisions of the Central Military Committee of the Communist takes some elaborate procedures to ensure the loyalty of the military including the zampolit system by which each army unit has a political officer who is answerable not to the military but rather to the party. In addition, there has been a strong desire by the political elite to professionalize the PLA and decrease its political role. Nevertheless, the PLA has in the past been an important political force when the civilian leadership has been deadlocked, and retains the potential to play such a role in the future. A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ...

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Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Hu Jintao Communist Party of China March 15, 2003
Vice President Zeng Qinghong Communist Party of China March 15, 2003
Premier of the State Council Wen Jiabao Communist Party of China March 15, 2003
Vice Premiers Huang Ju
Wu Yi
Zeng Peiyan
Hui Liangyu
Communist Party of China

The President and vice president are elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms. The State Council is appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC). The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... Zeng Qinghong (simplified Chinese: 曾庆红 Pinyin: ZÄ“ng Qìnghóng) (born July 1939) is a Chinese politician. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Pinyin: WÄ“n JiābÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... Huang Ju (黄菊, Pinyin: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is the Executive Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Vice-premier Wu Yi Wú Yí (吴仪) (born 1938 in Wuhan, China) is one of four vice-premiers of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zeng Peiyan (born December 1938 in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province) is a Chinese politician. ... Hui Liangyu (born 1938) is the Vice Premier of China in charge of agriculture. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn), which is largely synonymous with the Central Peoples Government (中央人民政府), is the chief administrative authority of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

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Politburo Standing Committee

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The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Pinyin: WÄ“n JiābÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: ) (born March 1940, Botou, Hebei Province) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Zeng Qinghong (simplified Chinese: 曾庆红 Pinyin: ZÄ“ng Qìnghóng) (born July 1939) is a Chinese politician. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, Pinyin: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is the Executive Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正; pinyin: Wú Guānzhèng) (b. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... Luo Gan (ç½—å¹²) (born July 1935) is a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China and Political and Legislative Affairs Committee secretary of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Full Politburo Members

Wang Lequan - Wang Zhaoguo - Hui Liangyu - Liu Qi - Liu Yunshan - Li Changchun - Wu Yi - Wu Bangguo - Wu Guanzheng - Zhang Lichang - Zhang Dejiang - Chen Liangyu (since sacked) - Luo Gan - Zhou Yongkang - Hu Jintao - Yu Zhengsheng - He Guoqiang - Jia Qinglin - Guo Boxiong - Huang Ju - Cao Gangchuan - Zeng Qinghong - Zeng Peiyan - Wen Jiabao - Wang Lequan is the current secretary of the Communist Party of China of the Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region. ... Hui Liangyu (born 1938) is the Vice Premier of China in charge of agriculture. ... Liu Qi (刘淇) (b. ... Liu Yanshan, (1947-), a leader in the Chinese Communist Party. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... Vice-premier Wu Yi Wú Yí (吴仪) (born 1938 in Wuhan, China) is one of four vice-premiers of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正; pinyin: Wú Guānzhèng) (b. ... http://english. ... Luo Gan (ç½—å¹²) (born July 1935) is a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China and Political and Legislative Affairs Committee secretary of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhou Yongkang is the Minister of Public Security of the Peoples Republic of China and thus chief of the Ministry of Public Security and the counterpart of the Director of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Hú Jǐntāo; born December 21, 1942) is the current Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of President of the Peoples Republic of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and General Secretary of the... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: ) (born March 1940, Botou, Hebei Province) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, Pinyin: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is the Executive Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Cao Gangchuan (Traditional Chinese: 曹剛川, Simplified Chinese: 曹刚川, Hanyu Pinyin: Cáo Gāng Chuān), (born December 1935) is the defense minister of China. ... Zeng Qinghong (simplified Chinese: 曾庆红 Pinyin: ZÄ“ng Qìnghóng) (born July 1939) is a Chinese politician. ... Zeng Peiyan (born December 1938 in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province) is a Chinese politician. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Pinyin: WÄ“n JiābÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

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Alternate Politburo Members

  • Wang Gang
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See also

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The political ranking of the Peoples Republic of China is the ranking of political leaders in China, by order of presumed political power. ... Because both the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to discerns distinct generations of Chinese leaders. ...

Legislative branch

The unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui has 2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms).

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Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in the People's Republic of China. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in the People's Republic of China.
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the October 2002-March 2003 National People's Congress
of the People's Republic of China election results
Parties Seats
Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi) 2,979
Total 2,979

No substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has classified Falun Gong (a controversial spiritual movement that Beijing has defined as a "cult") and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals. An election is a decision making process where people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Elections in the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Revolutionary Committee of the Guomindang (Chinese: 中国国民党革命委员会) is one of eight registered minor political parties (in addition to the Communist Party of China) in the Peoples Republic of China (Mainland China only). ... The China Democratic League is one of eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The China Democratic National Construction Association (Zhongguo Minzhu Jianguo Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The China Association for Promoting Democracy (Zhongguo Minzhu Cujin Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nonggong Minzhu Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The China Party for Public Interest (Zhongguo Zhi Giong Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nonggong Minzhu Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Simplified Chinese: 台湾民主自治同盟; Traditional Chinese: 台灣民主自治同盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Falun Gong, (Traditional Chinese: 法輪功, Simplified Chinese: 法轮功; pinyin: FÇŽlún Gōng; literally Practice of the Wheel of Law) also known as Falun Dafa, (Traditional Chinese: 法輪大法, Simplified Chinese: 法轮大法; pinyin: FÇŽlún dàfÇŽ; lit. ... China Democracy Party (Simplified Chinese: 中国民主党; Traditional Chinese: 中國民主黨; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a banned political party in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The country is mainly run by the Communist Party of China (CPC), but there are other political parties in the PRC, called "democratic parties", which participate in the People's Political Consultative Conference but mostly serve to endorse CPC policies. While there have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels,[5] and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time, the party retains effective control over governmental appointments. This is because, in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default in most electorates. [6] The CPC has been enforcing its rule by clamping down on political dissidents while simultaneously attempting to reduce dissent by improving the economy and allowing public expression of people's personal grievances given that they are not organizers. Current political concerns in China include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor, and fighting corruption within the government leadership.[7] The support that the Communist Party of China has among the Chinese population in general is unclear because consistently contested national elections are absent[8], as there are no opposition political party and independent candidates elected into office are too scattered and disorganized to realistically challenge the Communist Party rule. Also, private conversations and anecdotal information often reveal conflicting views. However, according to a survey conducted in Hong Kong, where a relatively high level of freedom is enjoyed, the current CPC leaders have received substantial votes of support when its residents were asked to rank their favourite Chinese leaders from Mainland and Taiwan.[9] The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The eight registered minor parties have existed since before 1950. These parties all formally accept the leadership of the Communist Party of China and their activities are directed by the United Front bureau of the Chinese communist party. Their original function was to create the impression that New China was ruled by a wide national front, not a one-party dictatorship. The major role of these parties is to organize niches such as academics. Although these parties are tightly organized and do not challenge the Communist Party, members of the parties often individually are found in policy making state organizations, and there is a convention that state institutions generally have at least one member from a minor political party. The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The minor parties include the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Guomindang, founded in 1948 by dissident members of the mainstream Kuomintang then under control of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek; China Democratic League, begun in 1941 by intellectuals in education and the arts; China Democratic National Construction Association, formed in 1945 by educators and national capitalists (industrialists and business people); China Association for Promoting Democracy, started in 1945 by intellectuals in cultural, education (primary and secondary schools), and publishing circles; Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, originated in 1930 by intellectuals in medicine, the arts, and education; China Party for Public Interest (China Zhi Gong Dang), founded in 1925 to attract the support of overseas Chinese; Jiusan Society, founded in 1945 by a group of college professors and scientists to commemorate the victory of the "international war against fascism" on September 3; and Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League, created in 1947 by "patriotic supporters of democracy who originated in Taiwan and now reside on the mainland." The Revolutionary Committee of the Guomindang (Chinese: 中国国民党革命委员会) is one of eight registered minor political parties (in addition to the Communist Party of China) in Mainland China (the Peoples Republic of China). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the 1925 death of Sun Yat-sen. ... The China Democratic League is one of eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The China Democratic National Construction Association (Zhongguo Minzhu Jianguo Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... The China Association for Promoting Democracy (Zhongguo Minzhu Cujin Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nonggong Minzhu Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The China Party for Public Interest (Zhongguo Zhi Giong Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Jiusan Society (Simplified Chinese: 九三学社; Traditional Chinese: 九三學社; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are members of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Simplified Chinese: 台湾民主自治同盟; Traditional Chinese: 台灣民主自治同盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ...


Coordination between the 8 registered minor parties and the Communist Party of China is done through the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

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Political conditions

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Legal System

Main article: Law of the People's Republic of China This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since January 1, 1987; new legal codes in effect since January 1, 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law. According to Amnesty International between 1500 and 2000 people are reported executed in mainland China each year. However, some human rights activists believe that not all executions are reported with some estimates of the number of actual executions as high as 15,000. Public sentiment, however, appears to be overwhelmingly in support of the death penalty in response to a perception that crime is a serious problem. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


The government's efforts to promote rule of law are significant and ongoing. After the Cultural Revolution, the PRC's leaders aimed to develop a legal system to restrain abuses of official authority and revolutionary excesses. In 1982, the National People's Congress adopted a new state constitution that emphasized the concept of rule of law by which party and state organizations are all subject to the law. (The importance of the rule of law was further elevated by a 1999 Constitutional amendment.) Many commentators have pointed out that the emphasis on rule of law increases rather than decreases the power of the Communist Party of China because the party is in a better position to change the law. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wúchǎn Jiējí Wénhuà Dà Gémìng; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) in the People... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Since 1979, when the drive to establish a functioning legal system began, more than 301 laws and regulations, most of them in the economic area, have been promulgated. (After China's entry into the WTO, many new economically-related laws have been put in place, while others have been amended.) The use of mediation committees - informed groups of citizens who resolve about 90% of the PRC's civil disputes and some minor criminal cases at no cost to the parties - is one innovative device. There are more than 800,000 such committees in both rural and urban areas.


Legal reform became a government priority in the 1990s. Legislation designed to modernize and professionalize the nation's lawyers, judges, and prisons was enacted. The 1994 Administrative Procedure Law allows citizens to sue officials for abuse of authority or malfeasance. In addition, the criminal law and the criminal procedures laws were amended to introduce significant reforms. The criminal law amendments abolished the crime of "counter-revolutionary" activity (and references to "counter-revolutionaries" disappeared with the passing of the 1999 Constitutional amendment), while criminal procedures reforms encouraged establishment of a more transparent, adversarial trial process. The PRC Constitution and laws provide for fundamental human rights, including due process, although those laws also provide for limitations of those rights. See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the very late 1980s and from 2000 and beyond. ...


Although the human rights situation in mainland China has improved markedly since the 1960s (the 2004 Constitutional amendments specifically stressed that the State protects human rights), the government remains authoritarian and determined to prevent any organized opposition to its rule such as Tibetan and Xinjiang separatists. Amnesty International estimates that the PRC holds several thousand political prisoners. Although illegal, there have been reports of torture by civil authorities. The highlighted area in the map is what is commonly known as mainland China. Mainland China (Simplified Chinese: 中国大陆; Traditional Chinese: 中國大陸; pinyin: Zhōnggúo Dàlù; literally The Chinese Massive Landmass or Continental China) is an informal (disputed — see talk page) geographical term which is usually synonymous with the area... This article is becoming very long. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... Torture is any act by which severe pain, whether physical or psychological, is intentionally inflicted on a person as a means of intimidation, deterrence, revenge, punishment, sadism, or information gathering. ...

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Other factions

See Chinese democracy movement. For Guns N Roses album Chinese Democracy The Chinese democracy movement is a loosely organized movement in the Peoples Republic of China against the Communist Party of China. ...

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Ethnic issues

The PRC officially describes itself as a multiethnic state providing ethnic autonomy in the form of autonomous administrative entities in accordance with Section 6 of Chapter 3 (Articles 111-122) of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, and with more detail under the Law of the People's Republic of China on Regional National Autonomy. PRC policy gives advantages to ethnic minorities in areas such as population control, school admissions, government employment, and military recruitment. It also officially condemns Han chauvinism, referring to all 56 official nationalities as equal members of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua Minzu). While some people inside and outside China view the policies as assuaging some of the grievances of the minorities and encouraging them to take a fuller role in the PRC, others are critical of them for various reasons. The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Xiànfǎ) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions- in other words, a civic nationality as opposed to an ethnic one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole. ...


The PRC faces independence movements in Tibet, Xinjiang, and to a lesser degree, Inner Mongolia. Many Tibetans and Uyghurs consider their territories countries in their own rights, and resent Chinese rule as colonialism. As such, independence groups and many foreign observers are critical of the PRC's ethnic policies, considering reality to be markedly different from the image presented by the PRC. For example, Han Chinese have been moving into Xinjiang and Tibet for over 50 years. Before market reforms, many of these were workers, soldiers, and prisoners assigned compulsorily to settle in those regions, carried out by organizations like the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Market reforms in recent years and the development of tourism have resulted in a large influx of economic migrants into Xinjiang and Tibet in search of private business opportunities; moreover the government carries out programs that move peasants from overcrowded regions in the interior of China into sparsely populated regions such as Xinjiang and Tibet. Finally, cadres and professionals have also been enticed with financial incentives, though demographically speaking this category is comparatively insignificant (numbering in the thousands, e.g. [1]), the cadres involved are posted for a few years before being replaced (e.g. [2]), and such programs are focused upon the entire impoverished western half of China, not just Xinjiang and Tibet. Independence groups consider practices such these to be chauvinistic and colonial, aimed at demographically swamping non-Han Chinese areas and reducing the possibility that any independence movement could succeed. One prominent example is Xinjiang, where official statistics show that the Han Chinese population has increased drastically over the past five decades and has nearly caught up with the Uyghur population. This article is becoming very long. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibet, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key) Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses of the term, see Cadre (disambiguation). ... A professional provides a service in exchange for payment in accordance with established protocols for licensing, ethics, procedures, standards of service and training/certification. ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... See colony and colonisation for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Some Han Chinese are also critical of the above policies. Han Chinese in Xinjiang or Inner Mongolia, faced with both a local population hostile to their presence and policies that discriminate against them in areas from education to employment, are generally resentful and believe they are treated as second-class citizens subject to double racism perpetrated by both the locals and their own government, a feeling shared to a lesser extent by Han Chinese in areas where ethnic tensions are not as severe, such as Guangxi. These Han Chinese people therefore tend to support reducing, or abolishing altogether, the policies they perceive as unfair. Some also consider these policies to have actually encouraged the formation of independence movements and threatened the territorial integrity of China, by acknowledging the emotional ties of peoples to their territories. While both opinions are criticized as Han chauvinist, supporters of these views would argue that all official minorities, including Han Chinese and others, should be abolished in favour of an overarching Zhonghua Minzu concept. Finally, many Han Chinese people consider criticisms by independence groups to be unfounded and politically motivated, as most recent migrants are simply taking advantage of the freedom of movement made possible by market reforms; moreover it is regarded as only natural that the government would attempt to entice talented professionals to move into impoverished areas that they would otherwise never go to. They may consider perceptions of being conquered and oppressed among Uyghurs and Tibetans to be a result of the nature of the current political system, to be solved by democratization and liberalization that give a greater voice to minority groups, rather than independence movements. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water cooler at a racially segregated street car terminal in the United States in 1939. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Zhonghua Minzu (Traditional Chinese: 中華民族; Simplified Chinese: 中华民族; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions- in other words, a civic nationality as opposed to an ethnic one, with a central loyalty to China as a whole. ...

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Administrative divisions

Download high resolution version (857x699, 69 KB)Administrative divisions of China. ...


22 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural) under the control of the PRC; Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing Municipality**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: The PRC considers Taiwan, which is independentally controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), its 23rd province; the ROC also controls Kinmen and part of Lienchiang counties of Fujian province. Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade_Giles: Chung_ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four municipalities, which have provincial_level status. ... (Chinese: 福建; Pinyin: Fújiàn; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... China, and should not be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: è²´å·ž; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Hainan (Chinese: 海南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ Öbür Mongghul-un Öbertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; Pinyin: Níngxià; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia; Postal Pinyin: Ningsia), full name Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏回族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏回族自治區; Pinyin: Níngxià Huízú ZìzhìqÅ«), is a Hui autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest Loess... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), stuated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... (Chinese: 四川; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xizang (西藏) is the Chinese name for either historic Tibet or the Tibet Autonomous Region. ... This article is becoming very long. ... (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is an eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure)1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  - President Chen Shui-bian  - Vice President Annette Lu  - Premier Su Tseng-chang Establishment Xinhai Revolution   - Declared... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... The Matsu Islands (馬祖列島 or less frequently, 馬祖群島 Pinyin: MÇŽzÇ”) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ...


See also: Political divisions of China Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ...

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International disputes

The PRC is in a number of international territorial disputes, several of which involved the Sino-Russian border. China's territorial disputes have led to several localized wars in the last 50 years, including the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Sino-Soviet border conflict in 1969 and the Sino-Vietnam War in 1979. In 2001, the PRC and Russia signed the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation, [10] which paved the way in 2004 for Russia to transfer Yinlong Island as well as one half of Heixiazi Island to China, ending a long-standing border dispute between Russia and China. Other territorial disputes include islands in the East and South China Seas, and undefined or disputed borders with India, Tajikstan and North Korea. The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone some radicial upheavals over the past two centuries. ... Combatants Peoples Republic of China India Commanders Liu Shaoqi Krishna Menon Casualties 1,000 Killed or Wounded 2,400 Killed or Wounded 4,023 Captured The Sino-Indian Border War (Simplified Chinese: 中印边境战争; Traditional Chinese: 中印邊境戰爭; pinyin: Zhōng-Yìn Biānjìng ZhànzhÄ“ng; Hindi:भारत-चीन युद्ध; transliteration: bhārat... The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and Peoples Republic of China, occurring at the height of the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. ... The Sino-Vietnamese War was a war fought in 1979 between the neighboring countries of the Peoples Republic of China and Vietnam. ... The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the Peoples Republic of China and the Russian Federation (FCT) is a twenty-year strategic treaty which was signed by the leaders of the two powers, Jiang Zemin and Vladimir Putin, on July 16, 2001. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ...

See also: Political status of Taiwan
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Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...

International organization participation

AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, United Nations, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee The African Development Bank (AfDB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of promoting economic and social development in Africa. ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a non-profit finance institution with many Asian governments as shareholder members who are also the recipients of funding where appropriate. ... BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its... The Caribbean Development Bank is a financial institution which assists Caribbean nations in financing social and economic programs in its member countries. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement whose stated mission is to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for the human being and all other... The International Development Association (IDA) was created on September 24, 1960, is a UN specialized agency. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve peoples lives. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement whose stated mission is to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for the human being and all other... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ... The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Inmarsat plc is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... Interpol logo INTERPOL (or International Criminal Police Organization) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Monument in Bern, Switzerland. ... The Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración (the Latin American Integration Association; known as ALADI or, occasionally, by the English acronym LAIA) is a Latin American trade integration association, based in Montevideo. ... MINURSO is a UN peacekeeping mission, established in 1991 to monitor the ceasefire and to organize and conduct a referendum which would enable the people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005) The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... UNIKOM, the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission, was established on April 9, 1991 following the Gulf War by Security Council resolution 689 (1991) and fully deployed by early May. ... The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. ... UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded in 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps member states communicate and co-operate on customs issues. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Headquarters in Geneva The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... WTO Logo The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international, multilateral organization, which sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between its member states, all of whom are signatories to its approximately 30 agreements. ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ...

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Nationality

In general, naturalisation or the obtainance of People's Republic of China nationality is very difficult. The Nationality Law prescribes only three conditions for the obtainance of PRC nationality (marriage to a PRC national is one, permanent residence is another).-1...


Citizens of the People's Republic of China, according to law, are not permitted to hold Multiple citizenship. If foreign nationality is granted to the PRC citizen, he or she loses Chinese nationality automatically. If the citizen then wishes to resume PRC nationality, the foreign nationality is no longer recognised. Countries that do (yellow) and do not (red) recognize multiple citizenship. ...

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External links and references

  • Inside China's Ruling Party (BBC)
  • Is China really a Communist state? (CNN)
  • New York Times article of September 5, 2002 on Succession of Rule in China
  • Chinese Officials Lighten Up Under Pressure (China Today)
  • China's New Rulers: The Secret Files, Andrew J. Nathan and Bruce Gilley, New York Review of Books Press, 2002, hardcover, 150 pages, ISBN 1-59017-046-6
  • USC Center on Public Diplomacy Nation Profile - Blogging & China

  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics of the Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3974 words)
Politics of the Republic of China takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the premier (President of the Executive Yuan) is head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
The ROC is governed under the Constitution of the Republic of China which was drafted in 1947 before the fall of Mainland China and outlined a government for all of China.
The National Assembly of the Republic of China was elected on the mainland in 1947 officially to carry out the duties of choosing the president and to amend the constitution, and to exercise the sovereignty of the citizens, but in actuality, the assembly was meant to reconfirm the authoritarian power of Chiang Kai-shek.
Annual Report to Congress on the Military Power of the People's Republic of China (12564 words)
China embarked on this effort to develop comprehensive national power during a period in which it believed it could focus on "peacetime construction" because it faced a benign security environment, a situation senior leaders increasingly are questioning in the post-Cold War era.
China's "active defense" doctrine focuses on conducting what is officially called "people's war under modern conditions" but is better described as "local wars under high-tech conditions." This doctrine addresses rapid response to a range of contingencies along China’s land and sea borders, particularly within a strategic envelope which encompasses the East and South China Seas.
China’s military planners are working to incorporate the concepts of modern warfare attributed to the "revolution in military affairs" and have placed a priority on developing the technologies and tactics necessary to conduct rapid tempo, high-technology warfare in Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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