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Encyclopedia > Politics of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe


This article is part of the series:
Politics of Zimbabwe,
Subseries of the Politics series File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Look up Politics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political...

President
Political parties
Elections This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... This is a list of political parties of Zimbabwe Current Parties Movement for Democratic Change National Alliance for Good Governance Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front - ruling Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga Zimbabwe Peoples Democratic Party Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance International Socialist Organisation Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe - At one... Politics of Zimbabwe Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Zimbabwe ...

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Politics of Zimbabwe takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Zimbabwe is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... The President of the Philippines meets with the President of the United States. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ...

Contents


Political developments since the Lancaster House Agreement

The Zimbabwean Constitution, initially from the Lancaster House Agreement a few months before the 1980 elections, chaired by Lord Carrington institutionalizes majority rule and protection of minority rights. Since independence, the Constitution has been amended by the government, to provide for: The Lancaster House Agreement was the independence agreement for Rhodesia, nowadays known as Zimbabwe. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Peter Alexander Rupert Carington, 6th Baron Carrington, KG, GCMG, CH, MC, PC, JP, DL (born June 6, 1919), was British Foreign Secretary (1979–1982) and Secretary-General of NATO (1984–1988). ...

  • The abolition of seats reserved for whites in the country's Parliament in 1987;
  • The abolition of the office of Prime Minister in 1987, and the creation of an executive presidency; and
  • The abolition of the Senate in 1990, and the creation of appointed seats in the House of Assembly. A Senate has been reintroduced in 2005.

The elected government controls senior appointments in the public service, including the military and police, and ensures that appointments at lower levels are made on an equitable basis by the independent Public Service Commission. The first whites of Zimbabwe are thought to have visited the kingdom of the Shona Munhumutapa rulers in the 1700s, and were Portuguese traders and soldiers. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Temptations album, see 1990 (Temptations album) MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


The ruling Zimbabwean African National Union--Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) party's Soviet-style politburo, effectively outranks the Cabinet as the nation's top policy making council. It consists 26 members include veteran politicians, ministers and service chiefs appointed by the President. The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU... Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


Ethnic rivalry between the Shona and Ndebele has played a large part in Zimbabwe's politics, a consequence of the country's borders defined by its British colonial rulers. This continued after independence in 1980, during the Gukurahundi wars in Matabeleland in the 1980s. This led to the political merger of Joshua Nkomo's ZAPU with the ruling ZANU to form Zanu-PF, and the appointment of Nkomo as Vice-President. Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ... This article relates to the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Gukurahundi is a traditional term in Shona (one of Zimbabwes native languages), which means the early rain which washes away the chaff before the spring rains. The chaff, i. ... The Matabele are a branch of the Zulus who escaped from King Shaka under the leadership of Mzilikazi, a former general in Shakas army. ... The 1980s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1980 and 1989, but in a pop cultural sense it could be considered to span from about 1979 to 1990. ... Joshua Nkomo // Early Life Joshua Nkomo (1918 (date uncertain) – July 1, 1999) was a Zimbabwean nationalist leader, a Ndebele, and the leader and founder of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU). ... The Zimbabwe African Peoples Union was a political party in Zimbabwe. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union was a political party during the struggle for Rhodesias, ultimately Zimbabwes, independence, formed as a split from ZAPU. It won the 1980 elections under the leadership of Robert Mugabe, and eight years later merged again with Joshua Nkomos ZAPU to form Zanu... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU...


During the course of 2005, with the Mugabe's future in question, factionalism within the Shona has increased. [1] 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shona (IPA: ) is the name collectively given to several groups of people in Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. ...


In October 2005 it was alleged that members of the ruling Zanu-PF and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change have held secret meetings in London and Washington to discuss plans for a new Zimbabwe after Robert Mugabe. [2] October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was founded in 1999 as the official opposition party to the Zanu-PF party led by Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. ...


Crisis in Democracy and the Rule of Law in Zimbabwean Politics

The hallmarks of democracy may be viewed (Diamond, L., et al, 1988. Democracy in developing countries Vol. II. Boulder, CO.: Lynne Rienner) as:

  • Competition between organised parties for government power
  • Political responsiveness to the general public, exercised as a result of free and fair elections
  • Civil and political liberty

Since the defeat of the constitutional referendum in 2000, politics in Zimbabwe have been marked by slow regression away from many of the norms of democratic governance, such as democratic elections; the independence of the judiciary; the rule of law; freedom from racial discrimination; the existence of independent media, civil society and academia. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda - note though that referendums is more correct as referendum is the gerund of the Latin verb ad referre which therefore, formally, cannot be put into the plural) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Instead, ensuing elections have been marked by political violence and intimidation, along with the politicisation of the judiciary, military, police force and public service. Statements by the President and Government politicians have referred to a state of war, or Chimurenga, against the opposition political parties, in particular the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). Independent newspapers have been bombed and closed down, members of the judiciary have been arrested and threatened. Repressive laws aimed at preventing freedoms of speech, assembly and association have been implemented and subjectively enforced. Opposition members of parliament are routinely arrested and harassed, and a number have suffered torture or jail terms. The legal system has come under increasing threat. The opposition MDC has repeatedly attempted to use the legal system to challenge the ruling ZANU-PF, but the courts rulings, often in favour of the MDC, have regularly been ignored by the police. This article needs to be wikified. ... Chimurenga is a style of music from Zimbabwe. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was founded in 1999 as the official opposition party to the Zanu-PF party led by Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party ZANU...


Currently, politics in Zimbabwe match the description by Jackson & Rosberg (1984; "Personal rule: theory and practice in Africa",Comparative Politics 16 (4)) of an autocratic regime based on personal rule. The specific features are: conspiratorial politics replacing democratic elections; a high incidence of clientilism and rivalry for the leader's favours; widespread corruption; purges or rehabilitations (as with Jonathan Moyo) and succession manoeuvres within the party. Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... Jonathan Nathaniel Moyo (born 12 January 1957) is a political figure in Zimbabwe. ...


Executive branch

Office Name Party Since
President Robert Gabriel Mugabe 30 November 1987
Vice President Joseph Msika 23 December 1999

According to Zimbabwe's Constitution, the president is head of state and head of government, elected for a 6-year term by popular majority vote. The cabinet is appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly. This page contains a list of presidents of Zimbabwe. ... Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born February 21, 1924) has been the head of government in Zimbabwe, first as Prime Minister and later as first executive President, since 1980. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining, as the final day of November. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Legislative branch

Parliament (formerly known as the House of Assembly) has 120 members elected by the common-roll electorate, 10 tribal chiefs, 12 presidential appointees, eight presidentially appointed provincial governors, the Speaker, and the Attorney General. It may serve for a maximum of five years. This article is about the leader. ...


Political parties and elections

Election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Zimbabwe. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Zimbabwe.
Summary of the official 9-11 March 2002 presidential election results Votes %
Robert Gabriel Mugabe - Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front 56.0
Morgan Tsvangirai - Movement for Democratic Change 42.0
Wilson Kumbila - Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga 1.0
Shaka Maya - National Alliance for Good Governance 0.5
Paul Siwela 0.5
Source: Electionguide
Summary of the 31 March 2005 parliamentary election results Votes % Seats
Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front 1,569,867 59.6 78
Movement for Democratic Change 1,041,292 39.5 41
Non-partisan . 1
Presidential appointees 20
Ex-officio members (Chiefs) 10
Total (turnout 47.7%) 2,634,645 100.0 140
Registered voters 5,658,624
Total votes cast 2,696,670
Invalid votes 62,025
Main article: Zimbabwe parliamentary elections, 2005

In June, 2004 the politburo announced that the March 2005 general elections would conform to election guidelines drawn up by the 14 member Southern Africa Development Community. Registrar General Tobaiwa Mudede will no longer run elections, which will instead be overseen by a five member electoral commission whose chairman would be appointed by Mugabe. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... This is a list of political parties of Zimbabwe Current Parties Movement for Democratic Change National Alliance for Good Governance Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front - ruling Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga Zimbabwe Peoples Democratic Party Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance International Socialist Organisation Conservative Alliance of Zimbabwe - At one... See Election (movie) for the film directed by Alexander Payne. ... Politics of Zimbabwe Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Zimbabwe ... Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born February 21, 1924) has been the head of government in Zimbabwe, first as Prime Minister and later as first executive President, since 1980. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party... Morgan Tsvangirai - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was founded in 1999 as the official opposition party to the Zanu-PF party led by Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. ... Zimbabwe African National Union - Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) is a small political party in Zimbabwe. ... The National Alliance for Good Governance is a political party in Zimbabwe. ... The Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) has been the ruling political party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980, led by Robert Mugabe, first as Prime Minister with the party simply known as ZANU, and then as President from 1988 after taking over ZAPU and renaming the party... The Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was founded in 1999 as the official opposition party to the Zanu-PF party led by Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. ... Poster of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change accusing the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front of election fraud Parliamentary elections were held in Zimbabwe on March 31, 2005. ...


Elections were held on a single day, not two or three as before. Translucent ballot boxes were used to prevent "stuffing," and counting was done at polling centers rather than at a single, central location.


At the time of the election it was suggested by one commentator that factionalism between different Shona-speaking clans had increased. [3] Shona (or ChiShona) is a native language of Zimbabwe; the term is also used to identify those Kintu speaking peoples in Southern Africa who speak one of the Shona languages. ...


Judicial branch

The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court who, like the other justices, is appointed by the President on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission. The Constitution has a Bill of Rights containing extensive protection of human rights. The Bill of Rights could not be amended for the first 10 years of independence except by unanimous vote of Parliament.


Administrative division

Zimbabwe is divided into eight provinces, each administered by a provincial governor appointed by the President. The provincial governor is assisted by the provincial administrator and representatives of several service ministries.


International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO


  Results from FactBites:
 
Zimbabwe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1962 words)
The Republic of Zimbabwe is a country located in the southern part of the continent of Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers.
Zimbabwe is a republic, with an executive president and a unicameral Parliament, formerly known as the House of Assembly.
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country, surrounded by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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