FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Politics of Turkey
Turkey

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Turkey
Image File history File links Türkiye_arması.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkey ...



Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit

Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Its current constitution was adopted on November 7, 1982 after a period of military rule, and enshrines the principle of secularism. Presidential flag of Turkey. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Bülent Arınç (1948) is a Turkish politician and the 22nd Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... The 11th President of Turkey will be elected by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in late April and early May 2007 onwards (in at most four rounds of voting to be held on 27 April 2007, 2 May 2007, 9 May 2007 and 15 May 2007[1]), before Ahmet Necdet... Turkeys 16th general election is scheduled to be held on 22 July 2007. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neigboring countries. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Its constitution is called Anayasa or Constitution.

Contents

Executive branch

The function of Head of State is performed by the President (Cumhurbaşkanı). A president is elected every seven years by the Grand National Assembly. The President does not have to be a member of parliament. The current President Ahmet Necdet Sezer, was elected by Parliament on May 16, 2000. Executive power rests in the Prime Minister (Başbakan) and the Council of Ministers (Bakanlar Kurulu). The Ministers don't have to be members of Parliament (eg. Kemal Derviş). The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government. The Prime Minister is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose Islamic conservative AKP won a majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections. The Chairman of the Parliament is Bülent Arınç from the same party. The current President of the Constitutional Court is Tülay Tugcu. She is the first woman to become the President of the Constitutional Court. The Chief of Staff of the Turkish military is Yaşar Büyükanıt. There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... Kemal DerviÅŸ is a Turkish economist and politician. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti[1]) is a right-wing, moderately conservative Turkish political party. ... Turkeys 15th general election was held two years early on Sunday 3 November 2002, following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit. ... Bülent Arınç (1948) is a Turkish politician and the 22nd Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey. ... General Mehmet YaÅŸar Büyükanıt (born 1940 in Istanbul) is the commander of the Turkish Land Forces. ...


Legislative branch

Legislative power is invested in the 550-seat Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), representing 81 provinces. The members are elected for a five year term by mitigated proportional representation with an election threshold of 10%. To be represented in Parliament, a party must win at least 10% of the national vote in a national parliamentary election. Independent candidates may run, and to be elected, they must only win 10% of the vote in the province from which they are running. The Turkish military plays an informal political role, seeing itself as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic. Political parties deemed anti-secular or separatist by the judiciary can be banned. Turkey has a multi-party system, with several strong parties. A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to get any seats in the parliament. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...


Political principles of importance in Turkey

The Turkish Constitution and most mainstream political parties are built on the following principles:

Other political ideas have also influenced Turkish politics and modern history. Of particular importance are: Motto of the French republic on the tympanum of a church, in Aups (Var département) which was installed after the 1905 law on the Separation of the State and the Church. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

These principles are the continuum around which various - and often rapidly changing - political parties and groups have campaigned (and sometimes fought). Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a religious ideology which advocates literalistic interpretations of the sacred texts of Islam, Sharia law, and an Islamic State. ... The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK), also known as KADEK and Kongra-Gel, is a militant organization, dedicated to creating an independent Kurdish state in a territory (sometimes referenced as Kurdistan) that consists of parts of southeastern Turkey, northeastern Iraq, northeastern Syria and northwestern Iran. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Political parties and elections

For other political parties see List of political parties in Turkey. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Turkey.

Since 1950, parliamentary politics has been dominated by conservative parties. Even the ruling AKP, although its core cadres root from the Islamist current, tends to identify itself with the "tradition" of DP. The leftist parties, most notable of which is CHP, with a stable electorate, draw much of their support from big cities, coastal regions, professional middle-class, and minority groups such as Alevis and Kurds. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti[1]) is a right-wing, moderately conservative Turkish political party. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Democratic Party (Demokrat Parti) was a Turkish moderately right wing political party, and the countrys second legal opposition party. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The Republican Peoples Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi or CHP) is the oldest Turkish political party, which has established the Republican regime and the parliament in Turkey. ... In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... The middle class, in colloquial usage, consists of those people who have a degree of economic independence, but not a great deal of social influence or power. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 3 November 2002 Grand National Assembly of Turkey election results
Parties Votes Seats
No. +− % No. +−
Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi) 10,762,131 34.28 +18.89 363 +252
Republican People's Party (Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi) 6,090,883 19.4 +10.69 178 +178
True Path Party (Doğru Yol Partisi) 2,999,528 9.55 -2.46 0 -85
Nationalist Movement Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi) 2,619,450 8.34 -9.64 0 -129
Youth Party (Genç Parti) 2,276,271 7.25 0
Democratic People's Party (Demokratik Halk Partisi) 1,955,298 6.23 +1.48 0 +0
Motherland Party (Anavatan Partisi) 1,609,736 5.13 -8.09 0 -86
Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi) 778,786 2.48 -12.93 0 -111
Democratic Left Party (Demokratik Sol Parti) 382,810 1.22 -20.97 0 -136
New Turkey Party (Yeni Türkiye Partisi) 361,284 1.15 0
Great Union Party (Büyük Birlik Partisi) 321,046 1.02 0
Homeland Party (Yurt Partisi) 294,560 0.94 0
Workers Party (İşçi Partisi) 161,563 0.51 0
Independent Turkey Party (Bağımsız Türkiye Partisi) 150,385 0.48 0
Freedom and Solidarity Party (Özgürlük ve Dayanışma Partisi) 105,886 0.34 0
Liberal Democratic Party (Liberal Demokrat Parti) 90,119 0.29 0
National Party (Millet Partisi) 68,577 0.22 0
Communist Party of Turkey (Türkiye Komünist Partisi) 59,994 0.19 0
Independents 310,145 0.99 9 +6
No. of valid votes 31,398,452 100,00   550 0
Invalid votes 1,262,671  
Electorate size 41,333,105
Voter turnout 79.00%
  • Results for the Justice and Development Party and the Felicity Party compare with the Virtue Party (FP) in the previous elections.
  • Results for the Democratic People's Party compare with the People's Democratic Party in the previous elections.
  • Source: NTV

is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti[1]) is a right-wing, moderately conservative Turkish political party. ... The Republican Peoples Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi or CHP) is the oldest Turkish political party, which has established the Republican regime and the parliament in Turkey. ... The True Path Party (Turkish: Dogru Yol Partisi or DYP) is a right-wing, secularist conservative Turkish political party, established by Suleyman Demirel in 1983. ... The Nationalist Movement Party (also translated as Nationalist Action Party) (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (MHP)), is a far-right nationalist political party in Turkey. ... The Youth Party (Genç Parti) is a nationalist, protectionist political party in Turkey. ... The Democratic Peoples Party (Demokratik Halk Partisi, DEHAP) was a left-wing, pro-Kurdish political party in Turkey. ... The Motherland Party of Turkey, (Turkish: Anavatan Partisi or ANAP) is a political party in Turkey. ... Saadet Partisi The Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi) is a Turkish political party of strongly Islamist views, often seen as the main voice of sensitive Muslims in Turkey. ... The Democratic Left Party (Turkish: Demokratik Sol Parti, DSP) is a Turkish political party. ... Yeni Türkiye Partisi (Turkish for New Turkey Party) is a political party in Turkey. ... The Great Union Party (Büyük Birlik Partisi) is afar-right nationalist, Islamist political party in Turkey. ... This August 2006 needs to be wikified. ... Workers Party (Turkey) (in Turkish: İşçi Partisi) is a left-wing maoist political party in Turkey led by Doĝu Perinçek. ... The Independent Turkey Party (Turkish: Bağımsız Türkiye Partisi, abbreviated BTP) is a nationalist and Islamic political party founded in 25 September 2001 by Prof Dr. Haydar BaÅŸ. The party flag is red with a white crescent surrounded with a ring of white stars. ... This article is about the political party, for the web directory abbreviated ODP see Open Directory Project. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (Liberal Demokrat Parti) is a liberal party in Turkey. ... TKP demonstrators at the EU summit in Thessaloniki 2003 TKP symbol TKP is a party, which critically embraces the entire legacy of the leftist and revolutionary movement in Turkey. ... Fazilet Partisi Virtue Party (Turkish: Fazilet Partisi) was a political party in Turkey. ... The Democratic Peoples Party (Demokratik Halk Partisi, DEHAP) was a left-wing, pro-Kurdish political party in Turkey. ...

Judicial branch

The freedom and independence of the Judicial System is protected within the constitution. There is no organization, person, or institution which can interfere in the running of the courts, and the executive and legislative structures must obey the courts' decisions. The courts, which are independent in discharging their duties, must explain each ruling on the basis of the provisions of the Constitution, the laws, jurisprudence, and their personal convictions. // Constitutional Court Administrative Justice Regional Administrative Courts Administarive Courts Haciz Courts Military Justice Criminal Justice Uyusmazlik Court Categories: Articles to be expanded ...


The Judicial system is highly structured. Turkish courts have no jury system; judges render decisions after establishing the facts in each case based on evidence presented by lawyers and prosecutors. For minor civil complaints and offenses, justices of the peace take the case. This court has a single judge. It has jurisdiction over misdemeanors and petty crimes, with penalties ranging from small fines to brief prison sentences. Three-judge courts of first instance have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes. Any conviction in a criminal case can be taken to a court of Appeals for judicial review.


All courts are open to the public. When a case is closed to the public, the court has to publish the reason. Judge and prosecution structures are secured by the constitution. Except with their own consent, no judge or prosecutor can be dismissed, have his/her powers restricted, or be forced to retire. However, the retirement age restrictions do apply. The child courts have their own structure.


A judge can be audited for misconduct only with the Ministry of Justice's permission, in which case a special task force of justice experts and senior judges is formed.


The High Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors is the principal body charged with responsibility for ensuring judicial integrity, and determines professional judges acceptance and court assignments. Turkey's prime minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, is still in head of the High Council.


Turkey is adapting a new national "Judicial Networking System" (UYAP). The court decisions and documents (case info, expert reports, etc) will be accessible via the Internet.


Turkey accepts the European Court of Human Rights' decisions as a higher court decision. Turkey also accepts as legally binding any decisions on international agreements. European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


Factor of the military

Since Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the modern secular Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Turkish military has perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalism, the official state ideology, even though Atatürk himself insisted on separating the military from politics. The Turkish Armed Forces still maintains an important degree of influence over Turkish politics and the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security, albeit decreased in the past decades, via the National Security Council. “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ...


The military has had a record of intervening in politics. Indeed, it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century. It executed coup d'etats in 1960, 1971, and 1980. Most recently, it maneuvered the removal of an Islamic-oriented president, Necmettin Erbakan, in 1997. [1] A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Necmettin Erbakan (born October 29, 1926) is a Turkish engineer, academician, politician, political party leader and prime minister of Turkey between 1996 and 1997. ...


In April 27, 2007, in advance of the November 4, 2007 presidential election, and in reaction to the politics of the ruling Justice and Development Party, which has the majority of seats in the parliament, the army issued a statement of its interests. It said that the army is a party in "arguments" over secularism. Its statement closed with a veiled warning that the Turkish Armed Forces stood ready to intercede in politics, "The Turkish Armed Forces maintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute." [2] [3] The name Justice and Development Party is used by a number of political parties, including Justice and Development Party (Morocco) Justice and Development Party (Turkey) See also: List of political parties. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ...


See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m