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Encyclopedia > Politics of Quebec
Logo used by most Quebec government institutions
Logo used by most Quebec government institutions

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Political system

Organization of Powers in Quebec
Organization of Powers in Quebec

British-type parliamentarism based on the Westminster system was introduced in the Province of Lower Canada in 1791. The following diagram represents the way the political system of Quebec works since the 1968 reform. Prior to this reform, the Parliament of Quebec was bicameral. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixel Image in higher resolution (1650 × 1050 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Organization of legislative, executive and judicial powers in Quebec Author: Gavin McGill Guthrie, based on Image:Powers-in-Quebec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixel Image in higher resolution (1650 × 1050 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Organization of legislative, executive and judicial powers in Quebec Author: Gavin McGill Guthrie, based on Image:Powers-in-Quebec. ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ...


Lieutenant Governor

  • asks the leader of the majority party to form a government in which he will serve as Premier
  • enacts the laws adopted by the National Assembly
  • has a theoretical veto power

Premier This is a list of Lieutenant Governors of the Canadian province of Quebec. ...

Main article: Premier of Quebec
  • appoints the members of the Cabinet and the heads of public corporations
  • determines the date of the coming general elections

Members of the National Assembly (MNAs) The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...

  • are elected using the first-past-the-post voting system
  • are numbering 125, so approximately one MNA for each 40,000 electors.

The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ...

Institutions

Many of Quebec's political institutions are among the oldest in North America. The first part of this article presents the main political institutions of Quebec society. The last part presents an Quebec's current politics and issues.


The Parliament of Quebec

The big house of Quebec holds the legislative power. It consists of the National Assembly of Quebec and the lieutenant governor of Quebec.


Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec

A symbolic function by nature, the lieutenant-governor represents the Queen of Canada in Quebec. Appointed by the Governor General of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister of Canada, the lieutenant-governor formally signs bills into law. A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ...

Further information: Monarchy in Quebec  and  Lieutenant-Governor (Canada)

The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Quebec (1939-present) Canada is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning monarch since February 6, 1952. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ...

National Assembly of Quebec

The National Assembly of Quebec is part of a legislature based on the Westminster System. However, it has a few special characteristics, one of the most important being that it functions primarily in French, although both English and French are Constitutionally official and the Assembly's records are published in both languages. The representatives of the Quebec people are elected with the first-past-the-post electoral method. The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... The Houses of Parliament in London The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modeled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ...


The government is constituted by the majority party and it is responsible to the National Assembly. Since the abolition of the Legislative Council in 1968, the National Assembly has all the powers to enact laws in the provincial jurisdiction as specified in the Constitution of Canada. Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ...


Government of Quebec

The government of Quebec consists of all the ministries and governmental branches that do not have the status of independent institutions, such as municipalities and regional county municipalities. This is an article about the politics of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ...


Executive Council

The Executive Council is the body responsible for decision-making in the government. It is composed of the Lieutenant-Governor (known as the Governor-in-Council), the Premier (in French Premier ministre), the government ministers, the ministers of state and delegate ministers. The Executive Council directs the government and the civil service, and oversees the enforcement of laws, regulations and policies. Together with the lieutenant governor, it constitutes the government of Quebec. See also Premier of Quebec.=) The Executive Council of Quebec (informally and more commonly, the Cabinet of Quebec and in French Le Conseil des ministres) is the cabinet of the Canadian province. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ...


Quebec Ombudsman

The Quebec Ombudsman is a governmental institution responsible for handling complaints from individuals, companies and associations who believe the government of Quebec or any of its branches has made an error or treated them unjustly. The Ombudsman has certain powers defined by the Public Protector Act. The Quebec Ombudsman has a social contract with Quebecers to ensure the transparency of the state.


Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission

The Commission des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse (Human Rights and Youth Rights Commission) is a publicly-funded agency created by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Its members are appointed by the National Assembly. The Commission has been given powers to promote and protect human rights within all sectors of Quebec society. Government institutions and Parliament are bound by the provisions of the Charter. The Commission may investigate into possible cases of discrimination, whether by the State or by private parties. It may introduce litigation if its recommendations are not followed. The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (French: Charte des droits et libertés de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975. ...


Quebec Office of the French language

The Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French language) is an organization created in 1961. Its mandate was greatly expanded by the 1977 Charter of the French Language. It is responsible for applying and defining Quebec's language policy pertaining to linguistic officialization, terminology and francization of public administration and businesses. The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Office of the French language) was established on March 24, 1961 along with the Quebec ministry of Cultural affairs. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ...


See language policies for a comparison with other jurisdictions in the world. Many countries have a language policy designed to favour or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages. ...


Council on the Status of Women

Established in 1973, the Conseil du status de la femme (Council on the Status of Women) is a government advisory and study council responsible for informing the government of the status of women's rights in Quebec. The council is made of a chair and 10 members appointed by the Quebec government every four to five years. The head office of the council is in Quebec City and it has 11 regional offices throughout Quebec.


Quebec Commission on Access to Information

A first in North America, the Commission d'accès à l'information du Québec (Quebec Commission on Access to Information) is an institution created in 1982 to administer the Quebec legislative framework of access to information and protection of privacy.


The first law related to privacy protection is the Consumer Protection Act, enacted in 1971. It ensured that all persons had the right to access their credit record. A little later, the Professional Code enshrined principles such as professional secrecy and the confidential nature of personal information.


Today, the CAI administers the law framework of the Act respecting access to documents held by public bodies and the protection of personal information as well as the Act respecting the protection of personal information in the private sector.


Chief electoral officer of Quebec

Independent from the government, this institution is responsible for the administration of the Quebec electoral system.


Judicial bodies

The principal judicial courts of Quebec are the Court of Quebec, the Superior Court and the Court of Appeal. The judges of the first are appointed by the Government of Quebec, while the judges of the two others are appointed by the Government of Canada. The Court of Quebec is the Provincial Court of the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Quebec Superior Court is the highest trial Court in the province of Quebec. ... The Court of Appeal of Quebec (in French: la Cour dappel du Québec) is the highest judicial court in Quebec, Canada. ...


In 1973, the Tribunal des professions was created to behave as an appeal tribunal to decisions taken by the various discipline committees of Quebec's professional orders. The current president is Paule Lafontaine.


On December 10 1990, the Quebec Human Rights Tribunal was created. It became the first judicial tribunal in Canada specializing in human rights. The current president is Michèle Rivet. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ...


An administrative tribunal, the Tribunal administratif du Québec is in operation since April 1 1998 to resolve disputes between citizens and the government. The current president is Jacques Forgues. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ...


Municipal and regional institutions

The territory of Quebec is divided into 17 administrative regions: Bas-Saint-Laurent, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, Capitale-Nationale, Mauricie, Estrie, Montréal, Outaouais, Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Côte-Nord, Nord-du-Québec, Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine, Chaudière-Appalaches, Laval, Lanaudière, Laurentides, Montérégie, and Centre-du-Québec. Map of Quebec showing Bas-Saint-Laurent The Bas-Saint-Laurent (Lower Saint-Lawrence) region is located along the south shore of the lower Saint Lawrence River in Quebec. ... Map of Quebec showing Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean The Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region in Quebec, Canada is distinguished by its physical beauty, especially the Fjord du Saguenay, the estuary of the Saguenay River, stretching through much of the region. ... Capitale-Nationale is a region of Quebec. ... Mauricie is a traditional and current administrative region of Quebec. ... Categories: Regions of Quebec | Quebec geography | Canada-place stubs ... Montréal (06) is one of the administrative regions of Quebec, Canada. ... Outaouais is a region of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... for the federal electoral district of a similar name see Abitibi—Témiscamingue Map of Quebec showing Abitibi-Témiscamingue Abitibi-Témiscamingue is a region of Quebec, Canada. ... Map of Cote-Nord in relation to Quebec Côte-Nord (literally Northern Coast) is the second largest administrative (235,742 km², 17%) region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Quebec. ... Nord-du-Québec (administrative region) Nord-du-Québec is the largest of the seventeen administrative regions of Québec, Canada. ... Map of Quebec with the region highlighted in red Gaspésie-ÃŽles-de-la-Madeleine is an administrative region of Québec consisting of the Gaspé Peninsula and the Magdalen Islands. ... Map of Quebec showing Chaudière-Appalaches in red Chaudière-Appalaches is an administrative region in Quebec, Canada. ... Motto: Unité, progrès, grandeur (Unity, Progress, Greatness) City of Laval Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded Established 1965 [] City Mayor Gilles Vaillancourt (since 1989) Area    - City 247. ... Lanaudière is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec, situated immediately to the northeast of Montreal. ... The Laurentians (in French - Laurentides) is a region of Quebec. ... Map (2001) of the Regional County Municipalities making up Montérégie Montérégie is an administrative region in the southwestern corner of Quebec. ... Map of Quebec showing Centre-du-Québec in red Centre-du-Québec (french for Central Quebec) is a region of Quebec. ...


Inside the regions, there are municipalities and regional county municipalities (RCMs). A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


School boards

Main article: Education in Quebec

On July 1 1998, 69 linguistic school boards, 60 francophone and 9 anglophone, were created in replacement for the former 153 Protestant and Catholic boards. In order to pass this law, which ended a debate of over 30 years, it was necessary for the Parliament of Canada to amend Article 93 of the Constitution Act 1867. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ...


Politics of Quebec today

Recent political history

Main article: History of Quebec
The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

When Quebec became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, guarantees for the maintenance of its language and religion under the Quebec Act of 1774 formed part of the British North America Act. English and French were made the official languages in Quebec Courts and the provincial Legislature. The Quebec school system was provided public funding for a dual system based on the Roman Catholic and Protestant religions. Members of other religions such as Jews or Muslims were required to attend school under the jurisdiction of the Protestant school board. Under the Constitution the provinces were The religious based separate school systems continued in Quebec until the 1990s which, through an amendement to the Canadian Constitution, formally secularized the school system along linguistic lines. Quebec has played a special role in Canada, and its history has taken a somewhat different path from the rest of Canada. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...


The Duplessis years: 1944-1959

Premier Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale party emerged out of the ashes of the Conservative Party of Quebec and the Paul Gouin's Action libérale nationale in the 1930s. This political lineage dates back to the 1850s Parti Bleu of Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, a centre-right party in Quebec that emphasized provincial autonomy and allied itself with Conservatives in English Canada. Under his government, the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches maintained the control they previously gained over social services such as schools and hospitals. The authoritarian Duplessis used the provincial police and the "Padlock Law" to suppress unionism and gave the Montreal-based Anglo-Scot business elite as well as British and American capital a free reign in running the Quebec economy. His government also continued to prevent circulation of books banned by the Catholic Church, combatted communism and even shut down Protestant Churches like the Jehovah's Witnesses who evangelized in French Canada. The clergy used its influence to exhort Catholic voters to continue electing with the Union Nationale and threaten to excommunicate sympathisers of liberal ideas. For the time it lasted, the Duplessis regime resisted the North American and European trend of massive State investment in education, health, and social programs, turning away federal transfers of funds earmarked for these fields; he jealously guarded provincial jurisdictions. Common parlance speaks of these years as "la grande noirceur" {The Great Darkness], as in the first scenes of the film Maurice Richard. Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... The Parti conservateur du Québec (in English: Conservative Party of Quebec) was a political party in Quebec, Canada. ... Paul Gouin (May 20, 1898 - December 4, 1976) was the son of Lomer Gouin and the grandson of Honoré Mercier. ... The Action libérale nationale was a short-lived political party in Quebec, Canada, led by Paul Gouin and founded by dissident Liberal party members in 1934. ... Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... In Quebec, on March 24, 1937, the Union Nationale government of Maurice Duplessis passed the Padlock Law, which permitted closing any premises suspected of producing or distributing communist propaganda. ... A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Venetiis, M. D. LXIIII. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and the faith of its members. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... Joseph-Henri-Maurice Rocket Richard PC, CC, OQ (born August 4, 1921 in Laval, Quebec, Canada, died May 27, 2000 in Montreal, Quebec) was a professional ice hockey player, and played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1942 to 1960. ...


The Quiet Revolution 1960-1966

In 1960, under a new Liberal Party government led by Premier Jean Lesage, the political power of the church was greatly reduced. Quebec entered an accelerated decade of changes known as the Quiet Revolution. Liberal governments of the 1960s followed a robust nationalist policy of "maître chez nous" (Master in our own house) that would see French-speaking Quebeckers use the state to elevate their economic status and assert their cultural identity. The government took control of the education system, nationalized power production and distribution into Hydro-Quebec (the provincial power utility), unionized the civil service, founded the Caisse de Depot to manage the massive new government pension program, and invested in companies that promoted French Canadians to management positions in industry. In 1966, the Union Nationale returned to power despite losing the popular vote by nearly seven points to the Liberal Party, but could not turn the tide of modernization and secularization that the Quiet Revolution had started. Both Liberal and Union Nationale governments continued to oppose federal intrusion into provincial jurisdiction. The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ...


René Levesque and "Sovereignty-Association"

A non-violent Quebec independence movement slowly took form in the late 1960s. The Parti Québécois was created by the sovereignty-association movement of René Lévesque; it advocated recognizing Quebec as an equal and independent (or "sovereign") nation that would form an economic "association" with the rest of Canada. An architect of the Quiet Revolution, Levesque was frustrated by federal-provincial bickering over what he saw as increasing federal government intrusions into provinicial jurisdictions.[citation needed] He saw a formal break with Canada as a way out of this. He broke with the provincial Liberals who remained committed to the policy of defending provincial autonomy inside Canada.[citation needed] The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ...


Pierre Trudeau's Liberalism

In reaction to events in Quebec and formal demands of the Lesage government, Lester Pearson's ruling Liberal government in Ottawa sought to address the new political assertiveness of Quebec. He commisoned the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in 1963. Pearson also recruited Pierre Trudeau, who campaigned against the violation of civil liberties under Duplessis and the ecomomic and political marginalization of French Quebeckers in the 1950's. Trudeau saw official bilingualism in Canada as the best way of remedying this. The Right Honourable Lester Bowles Mike Pearson (April 23, 1897 - December 27, 1972) was the fourteenth Prime Minister of Canada from April 22, 1963, to April 20, 1968, and also a 1957 Nobel Laureate. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was a Canadian royal commission established on July 19, 1963, by the government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson to inquire into and report upon the existing state of bilingualism and biculturalism in Canada and to recommend what steps should be taken to... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ...


In 1968, Trudeau was elected Prime Minister on a wave of "Trudeaumania". In 1969, his government instituted Official Bilingualism with the Official Languages Act which made French and English official languages and guaranteed linguistic minorities (English-speaking in Quebec, French-speaking elsewhere) the right to federal services in their language of choice, where the number justifies federal spendings. He also implemented the policy of multiculturalism, answering the concern of immigrant communitees that their cultural identities were being ignored. In 1971, Trudeau also failed in an attempt to bring home the Canadian Constitution from Great Britain at the Victoria conference when Robert Bourassa refused to accept a deal that would not include a Constitutional veto on federal institutions for Quebec. Trudeaumania was the affectionate nickname given to the great excitement generated by Pierre Trudeaus entry into Canadian politics in 1968. ... Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... The Official Languages Act of Canada of 1988 is an Act of Parliament which recognizes English and French as the official languages of Canada. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... The Act for the Preservation and Enhancement of Multiculturalism in Canada was passed in 1988, with minor organizational amendments since that time (Multiculturalism & Citizenship Canada, 1991). ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ...


Trudeau's vision was to create a Constitution for a "Just Society" with a strong federal government founded on shared values of individual rights, bilingualism, social democratic ideals, and, later on, multiculturalism. As Liberal Justice Minister in 1967, he eliminated Canada's sodomy law stating "The state has no business in the bedrooms of the nation", he also created the first Divorce Act of Canada. This government also repealed Canada's race-based immigration law. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Act for the Preservation and Enhancement of Multiculturalism in Canada was passed in 1988, with minor organizational amendments since that time (Multiculturalism & Citizenship Canada, 1991). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ...


The FLQ and the October Crisis

During the 1960s, a violent terrorist group known as the Front de libération du Québec was formed in an effort to attain Quebec independence. In October 1970, their activities culminated in events referred to as the October Crisis when the British Trade commissioner James Cross was kidnapped along with Pierre Laporte, a provincial minister and Vice-Premier, who was murdered a few days later. Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa called for military assistance to guard government officials. Prime Minister Trudeau responded by declaring the War Measures Act to stop what was described as an "Apprehended Insurrection" by the FLQ. Critics charge that Trudeau violated civil liberties by arresting thousands of political activists without a warrant as allowed by the Act. Supporters of these measures point to their popularity at the time, and the fact that the FLQ was wiped out. Independence-minded Quebeckers would now opt for the social democratic nationalism of the Parti Québécois. The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five people, which culminated in 1970 with what is known as the October... Military cordon in support of police taking surrender of terrorist Liberation cell, December 3, 1970 The October Crisis was a series of dramatic events triggered by two terrorist kidnappings by members of the Front de libération du Québec in the province of Quebec, Canada, in October 1970, which... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pierre Laporte (February 25, 1921 - October 1970), was a Canadian politician who was assassinated by members of the terrorist group, the Front de Libération du Québec (Quebec Liberation Front). ... A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ... The War Measures Act (enacted in August 1914, replaced by the Emergencies Act in 1988) was a Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ...


Sovereignists take power and the Quebec diaspora

Broad-based dissatisfaction by both English and French speaking Quebecers with the government of Robert Bourassa saw Parti Québécois led by René Lévesque win the Quebec provincial election in 1976. The first PQ government was known as the "republic of teachers" for its high number of candidates teaching at the university level. The PQ government passed laws limiting financing of political parties and the Charter of the French Language (Bill 101). The Charter established French as the sole official language of Quebec. The government claimed the Charter was needed to preserve the French language in an overwhelmingly English North American continent. A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... The Quebec general election of 1976 was held on November 15, 1976 to elect members to National Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Charter of the French Language (also known as Bill 101 and Loi 101) is a law in the province of Quebec, Canada defining French as the only official language of Quebec. ...


The enactment of Bill 101 was highly controversial and led to an immediate and sustained exodus of anglophones from Quebec that, according to Statistics Canada (2003), since 1971 saw a drop of 599,000 of those Quebecers whose mother tongue was English.[1] This exodus of English speakers provided a substantial and permanent boost to the population of the city of Toronto, Ontario.[2] This Quebec diaspora occurred for a number of reasons including regulations that made French the only language of communication allowed between employers and their employees. Under pain of financial penalties, all businesses in Quebec having more than fifty employees were required to obtain a certificate of francization [Reg.139-140] and those businesses with over one hundred employees were obliged to establish a Committee of francization [Reg.136][3] As well, the language law placed restrictions on school enrollment for children based on parental language of education and banned outdoor commercial signs displaying languages other than French. The section of the law regarding language on signs was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Canada under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, see: Ford v. Quebec (A.G.). The revised law of 1988 adheres to the Supreme Court judgment, specifying that signs can be multilingual so long as French is predominant. The maintenance of an inspectorate to enforce the sign laws remains controversial. Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... The Quebec diaspora consists of hundreds of thousands of people who left the Province of Quebec in Canada for the United States, Ontario and the Canadian prairies between 1840 and through the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... Francization is the process of giving a French character to something (a word, an organization) or someone. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Ford v. ...


Bill 101 transformed Quebec from a traditionally bilingual province into a unilingual, French one. The law made many anglophone Quebecers feel unwelcome in a province in which they had been established since the arrival of English and Scots-Quebecer immigrant entrepreneurs in the late 18th century; descendants of these immigrants had built the business infrastructure of the province, which had turned Montreal into an economic powerhouse. [4] The English are an ethnic group and nation primarily associated with England and the English language. ... The Scot-Quebecers (French language: Écossais-Québécois), were pioneer settlers who emigrated from their native Scotland to Quebec in British North America beginning in the late 1700s. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


1980 referendum and the Constitution Act of 1982

In the 1980 Quebec referendum, Premier René Lévesque asked the Quebec people for "a mandate to negotiate" his proposal for "sovereignty-association" with the federal government. The Referendum promised that a subsequent deal would be ratified with a second referendum. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau would campaign against it, promising a renewed federalism based on a new Canadian Constitution. Sixty per cent of the Quebec electorate voted against the sovereignty-association project. After opening a final round of constitutional talks, the Trudeau government patriated the constitution in 1982 without the approval of the Quebec government, which sought to retain a veto on constitutional amendments along with other special legal recognition within Canada. The new constitution featured a modern Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms based on individual freedoms that would ban racial, sexual, and linguistic discrimination and enshrine minority language rights (English in Quebec, French elsewhere in Canada). After dominating Quebec politics for more than a decade, both Lévesque and Trudeau would then retire from politics shortly in the early 1980s. The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...


The Meech Lake Accord of 1987

(See Meech Lake Accord) The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ...


From 1985 to 1994, the federalist provincial Liberal Party governed Quebec under Robert Bourassa. The Progressive Conservatives removed the Liberals from power in 1984 and governed until 1992. Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney brought together all provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, to get the Quebec government's signature on the constitution. The Meech Lake Accord in 1987 recognized Quebec as a "distinct society." The Mulroney government also transferred considerable power over immigration and taxation to Quebec. 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... A portrait of Robert Bourassa, taken during his second term as premier of Quebec (1985–1994). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ...


The Accord faced stiff opposition from a number of quarters. In Quebec and across Canada, some objected to it arguing that "distinct society" provisions were unclear and could lead to attempts at a gradual independence for Quebec from Canada, and compromising the Charter of Rights. The Parti Québécois, now led by sovereignist Jacques Parizeau, opposed the Meech Lake agreement because it did not grant Quebec enough autonomy. The Reform Party in Western Canada led by Preston Manning said that the Accord compromised principles of provincial equality, and ignored the grievances of the Western provinces. Aboriginal groups demanded "distinct society" status similar to Quebec's. Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ... Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ...


The Accord collapsed in 1990 when Liberal governments came to power in Manitoba and Newfoundland, and did not ratify the agreement. Prime Minister Mulroney, Premier Bourrassa, and the other provincial premiers negotiated another constitutional deal, the Charlottetown Accord. It weakened Meech provisions on Quebec and sought to resolve the concerns of the West, and was soundly rejected by a country-wide referendum in 1992.[citation needed] Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The collapse of the Meech Lake Accord reshaped the entire Canadian political landscape. Lucien Bouchard, a Progressive Conservative Cabinet Minister who felt humiliated by the defeat of the Meech Lake Accord, led other Quebec Progressive Conservatives and Liberals out of their parties to form the sovereigntist Bloc Québécois. Mario Dumont, leader of the Quebec Liberal Party's youth wing left Bourrassa's party to form a "soft nationalist" and sovereignist Action démocratique du Québec party. The Progressive Conservative Party collapsed in the 1993 election, with Western conservatives voting Reform, Quebec conservatives voting for the Bloc Quebecois, and Ontario and Western Montreal voters putting the Liberal Party led by Jean Chrétien into power. Jean Charest in Sherbrooke, Quebec was one of two Progressive Conservatives left in Parliament, and became party leader. Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Bloc Québécois is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a provincial populist fiscally right-of-center political party in Quebec, Canada. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... The Bloc Qu cois is a federal political party in Canada that is primarily devoted to promoting sovereignty for the province of Quebec. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sherbrooke (2006 population: 147,427) is a city in south-eastern Quebec, Canada, the only major city in the Eastern Townships. ...


The 1995 referendum and its aftermath

(See 1995 Quebec referendum) Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ...


The Parti Québécois won the 1994 provincial election under the leadership of Jacques Parizeau amid continued anger over the rejection of the Meech Lake Accord. The Parizeau government quickly held a referendum on sovereignty in 1995. Premier Parizeau favoured a unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) followed by negotiations with the federal government if sovereignty were endorsed in the referendum. Bouchard and Dumont insisted that negotiations with the federal government should come before a declarion of independence. They compromised with an agreement to work together followed by a referendum question that would propose resorting to a UDI by the National Assembly only if negotiations to negotiate a new political "partnership" under Lucien Bouchard failed to produce results after one year. The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Categories: Stub | Quebec general elections ... Jacques Parizeau, (born August 9, 1930) is an economist and noted Quebec sovereigntist who served as Premier of Quebec, Canada, from September 26, 1994 to January 29, 1996. ... A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. ...


The sovereignist campaign remained moribund under Parizeau. It was only when the charismatic Lucien Bouchard took over with a few weeks to go in the campaign with an emotional attack[citation needed] on federalism that support for sovereignty skyrocketed to above 50%. On October 30, 1995, the partnership proposal was rejected by an extremely slim margin of less than one per cent. Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Parizeau resigned and was replaced by Bouchard. The sovereignist option was pushed aside until they could establish "winning conditions". Bouchard was suspected by hard-line sovereignists as having a weak commitment to Quebec independence. Bouchard, in turn, was ill at ease with the ardent nationalism of some elements in the Parti Quebecois. He eventually resigned over alleged instances of anti-Semitism within the hard-line wing of the party, and was replaced by Bernard Landry. Tensions between the left wing of the party and the relatively fiscal conservative party executive under Bouchard and Landry also led to the formation of the Union des forces progressistes, another social-democratic sovereignist party that later merged with other left-wing groups to form Québec solidaire. Jean-Bernard Landry, born March 9, 1937 in Saint-Jacques, Quebec, (near Joliette), is a Quebec lawyer, teacher, politician, past Premier of Quebec, Canada, (2001–2003), former leader of the Opposition (2003–2005) and former leader of the Parti Québécois (2001–2005). ... The Union des forces progressistes (UFP) is a left wing political party in Quebec, Canada. ... Québec solidaire is a broadly left-wing and sovereignist political party in Quebec, Canada, that was created on February 4, 2006 in Montreal. ...


Mario Dumont and the Action Démocratique du Québec put the sovereignist option aside entirely, and ran on a fiscally conservative agenda. They won three consecutive byelections, and their popularity soared fleetingly in opinion polls shortly before the 2003 provincial election, in which they won only four seats and 18% of the popular vote. The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a provincial populist fiscally right-of-center political party in Quebec, Canada. ...


The federal Liberal Party Prime Minister Jean Chrétien came under sharp criticism for mishandling the "No" side of the referendum campaign. He launched a hard-line "Plan B" campaign by bringing in Montreal constitutional expert Stéphane Dion, who would attack the perceived ambiguity of the referendum question through a Supreme Court reference on the unilateral secession of Quebec in 1998 and draft the Clarity Act in 2000 to establish strict criteria for accepting a referendum result for sovereignty and a tough negotiating position in the event of a Quebec secession bid. The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Wikinews has news related to: Dion wins Canadian Liberal leadership on fourth ballot Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, BA, MA, Ph. ... Reference re Secession of Quebec [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217 was an opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada. ... The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ...


Jean Charest was lauded by federalists for his impassioned and articulate defense of Canada during the referendum. He left the Progressive Conservative Party to lead the provincial Liberals (no legal relation to its federal counterpart) and a "No" campaign in the event of another referendum, and led his new party to an election victory in 2003. He served as provincial Premier until the election of 2007. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Still today, the political status of Quebec inside Canada remains a central question. This desire for greater provincial autonomy has often been expressed during the annual constitutional meetings of provincial premiers with the Prime Minister of Canada. In Quebec, no single option regarding autonomy currently gathers a majority of support. Therefore, the question remains unresolved after almost 50 years of debate.


General political culture

Aside from the separation issue, Quebec is arguably the most left-wing region in Canada and all of North America. Such is especially true on foreign policy and social policies. Support for military action is much lower in Quebec than any other province. Quebec also defied the rest of Canada during the conscription crisis, strongly opposing such actions. “Leftism” redirects here. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A conscription crisis is a public dispute about a policy of conscription, or mandatory service in the military. ...


On social policies, Quebec is also significantly more liberal than other areas of Canada. Support for same-sex marriage, abortion and gun control are all significantly higher in Quebec than any other provinces, and are almost unanimously supported by the Quebec National Assembly and most Quebec federal politicians. In fact, even before the courts ruled same-sex marriage to be legal, civil unions had already been legalized. Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly is the legislative body of the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Civil unions in Quebec: Pursuant to a range of activism and to the M. v. ...


Regionally, there are some differences though. The Greater Montreal Area is the most liberal area of Quebec (and all of Canada), and the most conservative is the Beauce region and the rural areas south of Quebec City. However, even there, it is not as conservative as most of western Canada, or even rural Ontario or New Brunswick. The Greater Montreal Area is a term used to describe either the Montreal, Quebec, Canada Census Metropolitan Area or the Montreal Metropolitan Community (French: Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal) The CMA is defined by Statistics Canada while the Montreal Metropolitan Community is a level of government in Quebec, and... Beauce is a major geographic region located south of Quebec City in the province of Quebec. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... Western Canada is a geographic region of Canada, also known as simply the West, generally considered to be west of the province of Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st...


The National Question

The National Question is the debate regarding the future of Quebec and the status of it as a Province of Canada. Political parties are organized along ideologies that favor independence from Canada (sovereignist or separatist) and various degrees of autonomy within Canada (federalists). Social democrats, liberals, and conservatives are therefore present in most major parties, creating internal tensions. In Quebec, the National Question (in French la Question nationale) is an expression referring to the reflexion over the status and autonomy of the Quebec State. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces and territories of Canada. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Conservatism is a relativistic term used to describe political philosophies that favor traditional values, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ...


Federalism

Main article: Quebec federalism

Quebec federalism, in regards to the future of the Quebec people, defends the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada as opposed to Quebec sovereigntism, proponent of Quebec independence (most often, but not for all followers, along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union). ...

Canadian Liberalism

Federal Liberals largely defend Quebec's remaining within Canada and keeping the status quo regarding the Canadian constitution. They embrace the liberalism held by former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and view Canada as a bilingual, multicultural nation based on individual rights. They stress that their nationalism is based on shared civic values, and reject nationalism defined solely on English or French Canadian culture. They defend the need for the federal government to assume the major role in the Canadian system, with occasional involvement in areas of provincial jurisdiction. English-speaking Quebecers, immigrants, and aboriginal groups in northern Quebec strongly support this form of federalism. They may recognize the national status of Quebec, but only informally in the cultural and sociological sense. The traditional vehicle for "status-quo" federalists is the Liberal Party of Canada, although elements of the Conservative Party of Canada have adopted aspects of this position. Status Quo are an English rock band whose music is characterised by a strong boogie line. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... English Canada is a term used to describe either: the anglophone residents of Canada or the Canadian provinces other than Quebec and, sometimes, New Brunswick, in which French is an official language of the provincial governments. ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions. ... The Arcade Fire: Montreal Indie band English-speaking Quebecers (also Anglo-Quebeckers, English Quebecker, or Anglophone Quebecker) are English-speaking (anglophone) residents of the primarily French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Nord-du-Québec is the largest of the 17 regions of the province of Quebec in Canada. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


Federalist Quebec nationalism

The federalist nationalists are nationalists who believe it is best for the people of Quebec to reform the Canadian confederation in order to accommodate the wish of Quebecers to continue to exist as a distinct society by its culture, its history, its language, and so on. They recognize the existence of the Quebec political (or civic) nation; however, they do not think Quebecers truly wish to be independent from the rest of Canada. Before the arrival of the Parti Québécois, all major Quebec parties were federalist and nationalist. Since then, the party most associated with this view is the Liberal Party of Quebec. On two occasions, federalist nationalists of Quebec attempted to reform the Canadian federation together with allies in other provinces. The 1990 Meech Lake Accord and the 1992 Charlottetown Accord were both ultimately unsuccessful. The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ...


Sovereignism (separatism)

Main article: Quebec Sovereignism

Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ...

Soft nationalists

Soft nationalists can in fact switch back and forth between a desire for independence and for the recognition of Quebec nationhood within Canada. They tend to be swayed by the political climate, and are angered by signs of rejection by English Canada such as the blocking of the Meech Lake Accord [5]. On the other hand, they can also be swayed by the economic and social stability seemingly afforded by Canadian federalism. Mario Dumont is an example of a soft nationalist. The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Many also view the spectre of Quebec secession as a useful negotiation tool to gain more powers within Confederation. For example, Daniel Johnson, Sr ran on a platform of Égalité ou indépendance (Equality or independence) in the late 1960s as a way of pressing for increased powers from the federal government. Lucien Bouchard expressed similar sentiments as a student.[citation needed] The Honourable Francis Daniel Johnson, Sr. ... Lucien Bouchard, PC , B.Sc , LL.B (born December 22, 1938 in Saint-Coeur-de-Marie, Quebec, Canada) is a Quebec lawyer, diplomat and politician. ...


Sovereignists

Sovereigntists are moderate nationalists who do not believe Canada to be reformable in a way that could answer what they see as the legitimate wish of Quebecers to govern themselves freely. They opt for the independence of Quebec; however, at the same time they insist on offering an economic and political partnership to the rest of Canada on the basis of the equality of both nations. The political parties created by the sovereignists created are the Bloc Québécois and the Parti Québécois, which its members define as a party of social democratic tendency. The Parti Québécois organized a 1980 referendum and a 1995 referendum, each of which could have led to negotiations for independence had it succeeded. The No side prevailed in both, but its margin was very narrow in the second referendum (50.6% No, against 49.4% Yes). Sovereigntists find their ideological origins in the Mouvement Souveraineté-Association, René Lévesque's short-lived precursor to the Parti Québécois. The Bloc Québécois is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... The Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (MSA, or Movement for Sovereignty-Association) was formed on November 19, 1967 by René Lévesque to promote the concept of sovereignty-association between Quebec and the rest of Canada. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ...


Indépendentistes

Indépendentistes are fully nationalist in outlook. They view the federal government as a successor state to the British Empire, and as a de facto colonizing agent of English Canada. Consequently, they demand complete independence for Quebec, which they view in the context of national liberation movements in Africa and the Caribbean of the 1960s. Independence is seen as the culmination of a natural societal progression, from colonization to provincial autonomy to outright independence.[6]. Accordingly, they tend to favor assertive declarations of independence over negotiations, idealizing the Patriote movement of the 1830s. Their ideological origins can be found within the Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale headed by Pierre Bourgault, a founding organization of the Parti Québécois. They are known derisively as "Souverainistes de Religion"[7] among more moderate sovereignists, who they in turn view as wafflers. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pierre Bourgault speaks as leader of the Rassemblement pour lIndépendance Nationale. ... Pierre Bourgault (January 23, 1934-June 15, 2003) was a Quebec politician and essayist and public speaker who advocated Quebec sovereignty. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... British usage of the term waffle denotes language without meaning; blathering, babbling, droning. ...


Presently, according to various polls, support for the "yes" side varies between 37% and 55%, depending on the question being asked[8] .


Political parties

This article lists political parties in Canada. ...

Major political parties

Provincial

The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... The Action démocratique du Québec (ADQ) is a provincial populist fiscally right-of-center political party in Quebec, Canada. ...

Federal

The Bloc Québécois is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that is devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ...

Other recognized provincial parties

Québec solidaire is a broadly left-wing and sovereignist political party in Quebec, Canada, that was created on February 4, 2006 in Montreal. ... The Bloc pot is a political party in the Canadian province of Quebec that is dedicated to the legalization of marijuana. ... The Parti marxiste-léniniste du Québec or PMLQ (in English: Marxist-Leninist Party of Quebec) is a Quebec communist political party. ... Template:Parti politique canadien The Parti démocratie chrétienne du Québec is a social conservative political party in Quebec, Canada. ... The Parti vert du Québec or PVQ (in English: Green Party of Quebec) is a Quebec political party whose platform is the promotion of green values . ...

Historical parties

The Equality Party (French: Parti Égalité) is a political party in Quebec, Canada, that promotes the use of English in Quebec on an equal basis with French. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... The Parti créditiste or PC (in English: Creditist Party) is the name under which the Ralliement créditiste du Québec ran candidates in the 1973 Quebec general election. ... Historically in Quebec, Canada, there was a number of political parties that were part of the Canadian social credit movement. ... The Bloc populaire canadien was a political party in the Canadian province of Quebec founded on September 8, 1942 by opponents of conscription during World War II. In the April 27, 1942 national referendum held in Canada, a little more than 70% of Quebec voters refused to free the federal... The Action libérale nationale was a short-lived political party in Quebec, Canada, led by Paul Gouin and founded by dissident Liberal party members in 1934. ... The Parti conservateur du Québec (in English: Conservative Party of Quebec) was a political party in Quebec, Canada. ... The Ralliement national was political party that advocated the political independence of Quebec from Canada in the 1960s. ... Pierre Bourgault speaks as leader of the Rassemblement pour lIndépendance Nationale. ... The Parti républicain du Québec or PRQ (in English: Quebec Republicain Party) was a political party that advocated the independence of Quebec from Canada. ... The parti bleu was a moderate political group in Quebec, Canada that emerged in 1854. ... The Parti rouge (alternatively known as the parti democratique) was formed in what is now Quebec, Canada, around 1848 by radical French-Canadians inspired by the ideas of Louis-Joseph Papineau, the Institut canadien de Montréal, and the reformist movement lead by the Parti patriote of the 1830s. ...

International organizations

Quebec is a participating government in the international organization the Francophonie, which can be seen as a sort of Commonwealth of Nations for French-speaking countries. Since the 1960s, Quebec has an international network of delegations which represent the Government of Quebec abroad. It is currently represented in 28 foreign locations and include six General delegations (government houses), four delegations (government offices), nine government bureaus, six trade branches, and three business agents. The Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments. ... The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as The Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states all of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom, except for Mozambique and the United Kingdom itself. ...


Through its civil society, Quebec is also present in many international organizations and forums such as Oxfam, Clowns sans frontières, World Social Forum, World March of Women, etc. . Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 independent, non-profit, secular, community-based aid and development organizations who work with local partners in over 100 countries worldwide to reduce poverty, suffering, and injustice. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ [1]. CBC Television. The National Broadcast Date: March 2, 1982 and Did You Know? URL accessed on December 6, 2006.
  2. ^ [2]. National Post November 18, 2006 Exodus from Quebec to Toronto. URL accessed on December 6, 2006.
  3. ^ [3].Quebec History, Marianopolis College article "Language Laws of Quebec" URL accessed on December 6, 2006.
  4. ^ [4]. CBC News Broadcast Date: Aug. 26, 1977 and Did You Know? URL accessed on December 6, 2006.

December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

The French language expression État québécois (English: Quebec State) or État du Québec is a term used by some Quebeckers to refer to their province or provincial government. ... This is a list of Quebec general elections since Canadian confederation in 1867, when Quebec was created as one of the Canadas provinces. ... This is a list of the Premiers of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... This is a list of the leaders of the Opposition of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... This is a list of members of the Canadian Senate from the Province of Quebec. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... Quebec has played a special role in Canada, and its history has taken a somewhat different path from the rest of Canada. ... This article presents a detailed timeline of Quebec history both as part of the British Empire and the Dominion of Canada. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... Quebec federalism, in regards to the future of the Quebec people, defends the concept of Quebec remaining within Canada as opposed to Quebec sovereigntism, proponent of Quebec independence (most often, but not for all followers, along with an economic union with Canada similar to the European Union). ... The Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (French: Charte des droits et libertés de la personne) is a statutory bill of rights adopted by the National Assembly of Quebec on June 27, 1975. ... Reference re Secession of Quebec [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217 was an opinion of the Supreme Court of Canada regarding the legality, under both Canadian and international law, of a unilateral secession of Quebec from Canada. ...

External links


Politics of Quebec
v  d  e
Lieutenant-Governor: Lise Thibault | Former lieutenant-governors
Premier: Jean Charest | Former premiers
Opposition Leader: Mario Dumont | Former Opposition Leaders
Government of Quebec: Cabinet · Government departments
National Assembly: Current assembly · Government House Leader
President of the Assembly: Michel Bissonnet
National Question: Quebec nationalismQuebec federalist ideology
Quebec sovereignty movementReferenda on independence: 1995 · 1980
Elections; Quebec general election, 2003Quebec general election, 2007
Political parties: Parti libéral du QuébecParti QuébécoisAction démocratique du QuébecParti vert du Québec • Québec solidaire
Other provinces and territories: BCABSKMBONQCNBNSPEI • NL • YU • NT • NU

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