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Encyclopedia > Politics of Poland
Poland


This article is part of the series:
Politics of Poland,
Subseries of the Politics series Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Politics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political...

Constitution
President-elect: Lech Kaczyński

Sejm
Senate Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland plays a very important part in the Polish legal system. ... Lech Kaczyński, Mayor of Warsaw; leader of Law and Justice Party Lech Aleksander Kaczyński ▶(?) (born: 18th June 1949, Warsaw) is Polands president-elect. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

Prime Minister: Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz
Council of Ministers
Ministries
Law
Supreme Court
Constitutional Tribunal
State Tribunal
Supreme Administrative Court
Supreme Chamber of Control
Attorney General
Ombudsman
Political Parties:
LPR PD PiS PO PSL SDPL SLD SRP UP
Elections
Presidential (after 1989):
1990 1995 2000 2005
Parliamentary (after 1989):
1989 1991 1993 1997 2001 2005
European Parliament:
2004
Polish referenda
Local elections
See also
Economy
Foreign relations
History
Military

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician, prime minister since 31 October 2005. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin) is a conservative-nationalist opposition party within the Polish Parliament. ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish right political party, established in 2001, by the KaczyÅ„ski brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and JarosÅ‚aw, who is the President of the party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish conservative-liberal political party. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej, SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ... Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the first centuries of its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ...

Politics Portal

Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, Sejm and Senate. The current government structure consists of a council of ministers led by a Prime Minister, typically chosen from a majority coalition in the bicameral legislature's lower house. The president elected every 5 years is head of state. The judicial branch plays a minor role in decisionmaking. The Parliamentary system refers to one of three legislative systems that exist in the world today. ... Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

Contents


Political developments

Former SLD leader Aleksander Kwaśniewski was re-elected President in October 2000. Kwaśniewski received in the first round 53.9% of the popular vote. In second place was Andrzej Olechowski -- 17.3%. President Kwaśniewski has supported Polish membership in NATO and the European Union and backed the SLD's legislative agenda on issues such as redrafting the constitution and abortion liberalization. SLD can mean the following: In Polish, SLD is short for Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej which is a Polish political party. ... Office President of Poland Term of office from December 23, 1995 until December 23, 2005 Profession Journalist Political party SLD Spouse Jolanta KwaÅ›niewska Date of birth November 15, 1954 Place of birth BiaÅ‚ogard, Poland Date of death Place of death Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski (pronounced: [alεksandεr... This article is about the year 2000. ... Andrzej Olechowski (b. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4...


The new Constitution and the reformed administrative division (as of 1999) required a revision of the election ordinance (passed in April 2001). The most important changes were liquidation of a national list (all deputies were since elected by voters in constituencies) and introduction of a new method of allocating seats (the modified Sainte-Laguë method had replaced the d'Hondt method, thus eliminating the premium for the top parties). The d'Hondt method was restored in 2002. The law stipulated that with the exception of national minority parties, only parties receiving at least 5% of the total vote could enter the Sejm (save the coalitions, that were to obtain at least 8% of the total vote). 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Sainte-Laguë method of the highest average (also known as Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The dHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The cabinet led by Leszek Miller resigned on 2nd of May 2004, just after Poland's admission to the European Union. This move was caused by the numerous corruption scandals (including an alleged attempt to interfere with the legislative process (Rywin-gate, so named after main suspect Lew Rywin) -- this case was investigated by parliament's special committee, whose proceedings were televised; and SLD's MPs and government ministers informing members of their party about secret investigation about them and their links with organized crime) and falling support for the SLD party. Leszek Miller Leszek Miller (born 3 July 1946) was Prime Minister of Poland from September 2001 to May 2, 2004. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rywin affair (in Polish: afera Rywina, also labelled Rywingate in allusion to Watergate) is a corruption scandal in Poland, which began in late 2002 and has not been fully uncovered to this date. ... Lew Rywin (born November 10, 1945 in a Siberian village) is a Polish film producer associated with Heritage Films (est. ...


In March some prominent SLD politicians and MPs (including the then Speaker of the Sejm: Marek Borowski) seceded from SLD creating anew party: Polish Social Democracy (Socjaldemokracja Polska) SDPL. This was the ultimate reason for Miller's resignation. Marek Borowski (b. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ...


A new Prime Minister was nominated, but Marek Belka's cabinet, failed to win parliamentary support in a vote of confidence, and resigned. Attempts to form a new government by the Sejm failed, and Belka was again designated (11 June) Prime Minister by the President. He finally received Sejm's support in third and last attempt on 24 June. Marek Belka Marek Belka (b. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ...


In the autumn of 2005 Poles voted in both parliamentary and presidential elections. September's parliamentary poll was expected to produce a coalition of two centre-right parties, PiS(Law and Justice) and PO(Civic Platform). During the increasingly bitter campaign, however, PiS launched a strong attack on the economic policies of their free-market favouring allies and overtook PO in opinion polls. PiS eventually gained 27% of votes cast and became the largest party in the sejm ahead of PO on 24%. Coalition talks followed, but the severity of the campaign attacks and the willingness of PiS to court the populist vote made the creation of a stable coalition impossible and PO decided to form the opposition. PiS has formed a minority government under little-known Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz which will rely on the support of smaller Catholic and Peasant parties to govern. The out-going ruling party, the socialist SLD, achieved just 11%.


Presidential elections in October followed a similar script. The early favourite, Donald Tusk, leader of the PO saw his opinion poll lead slip away as he was beaten 54% to 46% in the second round by one of the twins controlling PiS, Lech Kaczynski.


Both elections were blighted by low turn-outs: only 51% in the second and deciding round of the presidential election and just over 40% in the parliamentary election. These figures illustrate the popular disillusionment with politicians and the democratic process, of which Poles fought so hard to be part, in contemporary Poland.


National Security

Poland's top national security goal is to further integrate with NATO and other west European defense, economic, and political institutions via a modernization and reorganization of its military. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defense nature as its NATO partners. Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ...


Poland maintains a sizable armed force currently numbering about 175,343 troops divided among an army of 96,733, an air and defense force of 39,649, and a navy of 15,980. The Ministry of Defense has announced that the armed forces of Poland will number 150,000 by 2006. Poland relies on military conscription for the majority of its personnel strength. All males (with some exceptions) are subject to a 12-month term of military service. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Polish military continues to restructure and to modernize its equipment. The Polish Defense Ministry General Staff and the Land Forces staff have recently reorganized the latter into a NATO-compatible J/G-1 through J/G-6 structure. Budget constraints hamper such priority defense acquisitions as a multi-role fighter, improved communications systems, and an attack helicopter.


Poland continues to be a regional leader in support and participation in the NATO Partnership for Peace Program and has actively engaged most of its neighbors and other regional actors to build stable foundations for future European security arrangements. Poland continues its long record of strong support for UN Peacekeeping Operations by maintaining a unit in Southern Lebanon, a battalion in NATO's Kosovo Force (KFOR), and by providing and actually deploying the KFOR strategic reserve to Kosovo. Poland is a strong ally of the US in Europe and leads the Multinational Division Central South in Iraq This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Kosovo and Metohia (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija , Albanian: Kosovë / Kosova) , in English most often called just Kosovo, is a province of Serbia. ... Pocket badge of the KFOR Ukrainian soldier on foot patrolling in Serbian village near Brezovica KFOR vehicle of the French Army The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ...


Executive branch

Office Name Party Since
President-elect Lech Kaczyński PiS 2005)
Prime Minister Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz PiS [[31 October 2005}}

The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, the prime minister and deputy prime ministers are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Sejm. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the prime minister and the Sejm; the prime minister proposes, the president appoints, and the Sejm approves the Council of Ministers. Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland plays a very important part in the Polish legal system. ... Lech Kaczyński, Mayor of Warsaw; leader of Law and Justice Party Lech Aleksander Kaczyński ▶(?) (born: 18th June 1949, Warsaw) is Polands president-elect. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish right political party, established in 2001, by the Kaczyński brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and Jarosław, who is the President of the party. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician, prime minister since 31 October 2005. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish right political party, established in 2001, by the Kaczyński brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and Jarosław, who is the President of the party. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...


Legislative branch

The National Assembly has two chambers. The parliament (Sejm) has 460 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies with a 5 % threshold (8% for coalitions, requirement waived for national minorities). The Senate (Senat) has 100 members elected for a four year term in 40 multi-seat constituencies. Since 1991 elections are supervised by National Electoral Commission (Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza), whose administrative division is called the National Electoral Office (Państwowe Biuro Wyborcze). The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Diet (Sejm) and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Proportional representation (PR) is any election system which ensures a proportionally representative result of a democratic election, x% of votes should be represented by x% in the democratic institutions, parliament or congress. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ...


Political parties and elections

Election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Poland. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Poland.
Summary of 9 October Presidential election results Votes 1st round % Votes 2nd round %
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński - Law and Justice 4,947,927 33.1 8,257,468 54.04
Donald Franciszek Tusk - Citizens Platform 5,429,666 36.3 7,022,319 45.96
Andrzej Zbigniew Lepper - Self-Defense of the Polish Republic 2,259,094 15.1 - -
Marek Stefan Borowski - Social Democracy of Poland 1,544,642 10.3 - -
Jarosław Kalinowski - Polish Peasant Party 269,316 1.8 - -
Janusz Ryszard Korwin-Mikke - Real Politics Union 214,116 1.4 - -
Henryka Teodora Bochniarz - Democratic Party 188,598 1.3 - -
Liwiusz Marian Ilasz 31,691 0.2 - -
Stanisław Tymiński 23,545 0.2 - -
Leszek Henryk Bubel 18,828 0.1 - -
Jan Pyszko 10,371 0.1 - -
Adam Andrzej Słomka 8,895 0.1 - -
Total (turnout 49.7 %) 15,046,350 100    
More info: Polish presidential election, 2005
Summary of the 25 September 2005 Sejm and Senate election results Votes % Seats +/- Senators
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS) 3,185,714 27.0 155 +111 49
Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO) 2,849,259 24.1 133 +68 34
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona RP) 1,347,355 11.4 56 +3 3
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) 1,335,257 11.3 55 -161 -
League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) 940,726 8.0 34 -4 7
Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, PSL) 821,656 7.0 25 -17 2
Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL)   3.9 -   -
Democratic Party (Partia Demokratyczna)   2.5 -   -
Election Committee German Minority (Komitet Wyborczy Mniejszość Niemiecka) 34.469 0,3 2    
Non-partisans         5
Total (turnout 40.6 %) 11,804,676   460   100
  • Registered voters: 30,338,316
  • Votes counted: 12,255,875
  • Invalid votes: 451,199
  • Valid votes: 11,804,676
More info: Polish parliamentary election, 2005

Some contemporary Polish politicians in alphabetical order: Artur Balazs, Leszek Balcerowicz, Marek Belka, Marek Borowski, Jerzy Buzek, Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, Jarosław Kaczyński, Lech Kaczyński, Janusz Korwin-Mikke, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Andrzej Lepper, Leszek Miller, Andrzej Olechowski, Marek Pol, Maciej Płażyński, Jan Maria Rokita, Jerzy Szmajdziński, Donald Tusk, Lech Wałęsa An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... See Election (movie) for the film directed by Alexander Payne. ... Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Lech KaczyÅ„ski, Mayor of Warsaw; leader of Law and Justice Party Lech Aleksander KaczyÅ„ski â–¶(?) (born: 18th June 1949, Warsaw) is Polands president-elect. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish right political party, established in 2001, by the KaczyÅ„ski brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and JarosÅ‚aw, who is the President of the party. ... Donald Tusk, born 22 April 1957 in GdaÅ„sk, is a Polish politician, co-founder and now chairman of the moderately conservative Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska). ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish conservative-liberal political party. ... Andrzej Zbigniew Lepper (born June 13, 1954 in StowiÄ™cino, Poland) is a Polish politician, leader of Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland political party and Member of Parliament. ... Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej, SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Marek Borowski (b. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Janusz Korwin-Mikke (b. ... Unia Polityki Realnej (Real Politics Union) is a conservative free-market party in Poland. ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... StanisÅ‚aw Stan TymiÅ„ski (born: 27th January 1948, Pruszków) is a Canadian businessman of Polish origin, dealing in electronics and computers, and a sometime-politician in both Poland and Canada. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish right political party, established in 2001, by the KaczyÅ„ski brothers: Lech, the former justice minister and the current mayor of the capital, Warsaw, and JarosÅ‚aw, who is the President of the party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a Polish conservative-liberal political party. ... Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SO or SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin) is a conservative-nationalist opposition party within the Polish Parliament. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. ... See also Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | 1947 births | Polish economists | Finance Ministers of Poland ... Marek Belka Marek Belka (b. ... Marek Borowski (b. ... Jerzy Buzek Professor Jerzy Buzek (born 3 July 1940 in Śmiłowice, then Silesian Voivodship, now Smilovice, Czech Republic) is a Polish academic lecturer and politician, prime minister of Poland in years 1997-2001 and today a Member of European Parliament, elected 13th June, 2004 with the record number of votes... WÅ‚odzimierz Cimoszewicz (born September 13, 1950 in Warsaw, Poland) is a renowned Polish politician, the Prime Minister of Poland from 1996 to autumn 1997, the Foreign Minister of Poland in the governments of Leszek Miller (2001-2004) and Marek Belka (2004-2005) , and speaker of the Sejm (lower chamber... JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski (June 18, 1949 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish politician, the chairman of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party. ... Lech KaczyÅ„ski, Mayor of Warsaw; leader of Law and Justice Party Lech Aleksander KaczyÅ„ski â–¶(?) (born: 18th June 1949, Warsaw) is Polands president-elect. ... Janusz Korwin-Mikke (b. ... Office President of Poland Term of office from December 23, 1995 until December 23, 2005 Profession Journalist Political party SLD Spouse Jolanta KwaÅ›niewska Date of birth November 15, 1954 Place of birth BiaÅ‚ogard, Poland Date of death Place of death Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski (pronounced: [alεksandεr... Andrzej Zbigniew Lepper (born June 13, 1954 in StowiÄ™cino, Poland) is a Polish politician, leader of Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland political party and Member of Parliament. ... Leszek Miller Leszek Miller (born 3 July 1946) was Prime Minister of Poland from September 2001 to May 2, 2004. ... Andrzej Olechowski (b. ... Maciej PÅ‚ażyÅ„ski (born February 10, 1958 in MÅ‚ynary) is a Polish conservative-liberal politician. ... Jan Maria Władysław Rokita (born June 18, 1959 in Cracow) is a Polish conservative-liberal politician, a member of Sejm, the lower chamber of the Polish parliament, and chairman of the parliamentery caucus of Platforma Obywatelska (Citizens Platform). ... Jerzy SzmajdziÅ„ski Jerzy SzmajdziÅ„ski (born April 9, 1952) is a Polish minister of defence. ... Donald Tusk, born 22 April 1957 in GdaÅ„sk, is a Polish politician, co-founder and now chairman of the moderately conservative Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska). ... Office President of Poland Term of office from December 22, 1990 until December 23, 1995 Profession Electrician and shipyard worker Political party none, see Solidarity for details Spouse Danuta WaÅ‚Ä™sa Date of birth September 29, 1943 Place of birth Popowo, Poland Date of death Place of death Lech Wa...

Main article: List of politicians in Poland

This is the list of the most popular politicians in Poland ranked by the level of the trust and distrust among the voters. ...

Judicial branch

The judges of Poland's Supreme Court are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council of the Judiciary for an indefinite period. Constitutional Tribunal, judges are chosen by the Sejm for nine-year terms. Other courts include the State Tribunal, and the Supreme Administrative Court. Furthermore the Supreme Chamber of Control, the Attorney General and the Ombudsman are relevant institutions. Poland has a mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and holdover communist legal theory. Changes being gradually introduced as part of broader democratization process; limited judicial review of legislative acts although under the new constitution, the Constitutional Tribunal ruling are final (since October 1999); court decisions can be appealed to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights, often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints from Council of Europe member states. ...


Administrative divisions

Poland is divided in 16 provinces or Voivodships (województwa, singular - województwo); Dolnoslaskie, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, Lodzkie, Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Malopolskie, Mazowieckie, Opolskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Pomorskie, Slaskie, Swietokrzyskie, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie. A voivodship (in Polish województwo) has been a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland since the 14th century. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: voievodat, Polish: województwo, Serbian: vojvodstvo or vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... Lower Silesian voivodship since 1999 Lower Silesia (Polish Dolny Śląsk, German Niederschlesien, Latin Silesia Inferior) is the north-western part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia in Poland, located along the middle Oder River and organized into Lower Silesian Voivodship, (Polish: województwo dolnośląskie) with capital Wrocław It was... Kujavian-Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland. ... Lodz voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Lodz Voivodship Łódź Voivodship (1) (Polish województwo łódzkie) is an administrative and local government region in central Poland created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Skierniewice and partly Plock voivodships as a result of Local... Lublin voivodship since 1999 Lublin Voivodship (in Polish województwo lubelskie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship in the eastern part of Poland. ... Lubusz voivodship since 1999 The Lubusz Voivodship (in Polish województwo lubuskie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship in the western part of Poland. ... The Lesser Poland Voivodship or Little Poland Voivodship (in Polish województwo małopolskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in the south of Poland that contains core areas of the historical and geographical region of Lesser Poland (Malopolska). ... Masovian voivodship since 1999 The Masovian Voivodship (in Polish województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the sixteen Polish administrative regions or voivodships created in 1999. ... Opole voivodship since 1999 1) Opole Voivodship (since 1999) or Opole Silesia (Polish: województwo opolskie, Śląsk Opolski) is an administrative and local government region created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Opole (2) and parts of Czestochowa voivodships as a result of the Local Government Reorganization Act of... Subcarpathian voivodship since 1999 The Subcarpathian Voivodship (in Polish województwo podkarpackie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship of south-eastern Poland. ... The Podlasie Voivodship (in Polish województwo podlaskie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. ... The Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomerania. ... Silesian voivodship since 1999 Silesia or Silesian Voivodship(1) is an administrative region and local government unit in Poland, established in 1999 out of Katowice, Czętochowa and Bielsko-Biała voivodships as a result of Local Government Reorganisation Act of 1998 (effective 1 January 1999). ... Swietokrzyskie voivodship since 1999 Holy Cross Voivodship or Swietokrzyskie Voivodship (Polish Województwo świętokrzyskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central Poland. ... Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Warmia-Masuria Warmia i Mazury (officially, the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship) is an administrative region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. ... This article describes one of the current regional administrative subdivisions of Poland. ... West Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 West Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze Zachodnie, German: West Pommern; Latin Pomerania Occidentalis) or West Pomeranian Voivodship (Polish: województwo zachodniopomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in the northwestern part of Poland. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2888 words)
The Republic of Poland is a country located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and Russia (in the form of the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave) to the north.
Poland has a large agricultural sector of private farms, that could be a leading producer of food in the European Union now that Poland is a member.
The principal ports and harbours are: Port of Gdańsk, Port of Gdynia, Port of Szczecin, Port of Swinoujscie, Port of Ustka, Port of Kolobrzeg, Gliwice, Warsaw, Wroclaw.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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