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Encyclopedia > Politics of New Zealand
New Zealand

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
New Zealand
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Politics of New Zealand takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy. The basic system is closely patterned on that of the Westminster System, although a number of significant modifications have been made. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, but actual government is conducted by a Prime Minister and Cabinet drawn from an elected Parliament. New Zealand was the first country in the world in which all the highest offices were occupied by women, between March 2005 and August 2006 - The Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II of New Zealand, Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright, Prime Minister Helen Clark, Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives Margaret Wilson and Chief Justice Sian Elias. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Flag of the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... Anand Satyanand with Dame Silvia Cartwright Wikinews has news related to: New Governor-General of New Zealand announced Anand Satch[1] Satyanand, PCNZM (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... The Executive Council of New Zealand is the body which provides the formal basis for the Cabinet. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Parliament of New Zealand consists of the Queen of New Zealand and the New Zealand House of Representatives and, until 1951, the New Zealand Legislative Council. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the countrys legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives (often also referred to as Parliament). The Speaker fulfils a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based... The Official Opposition in New Zealand is usually the largest political party or coalition which is not a member of the ruling government. ... The Leader of the Opposition in New Zealand is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Opposition bloc in the New Zealand Parliament. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their seats in nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... In New Zealand, an electorate is a voting district for Parliamentary elections. ... Referendums (or referenda) are held only occasionally by the government of New Zealand. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The Chief Justice of New Zealand is the senior judge of the High Court of New Zealand, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand. ... The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ... Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... The following is a list of New Zealand politicians, both past and present. ... New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. ... This page lists a number of articles relating to issues, ideas, and events in New Zealand politics. ... Apirana Ngata, perhaps the most prominent Maori politician Māori politics is the politics of the Māori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the countrys largest minority. ... New Zealand’s foreign policy is oriented chiefly toward developed democratic nations and emerging Pacific economies. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The Westminster system is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of 16 sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Silvia Rose Cartwright, Governor-General of New Zealand Her Excellency Dame Silvia Rose Cartwright PCNZM DBE (née Poulter) (born November 7, 1943) is New Zealands second female Governor-General, and as the Queens representative, lives in Government House in the capital city of Wellington. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... In New Zealand the Speaker of the House of Representatives is the individual who chairs the countrys legislative body, the New Zealand House of Representatives (often also referred to as Parliament). The Speaker fulfils a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... Margaret Wilson could also refer to a writer, or a tennis player Margaret Wilson (20th May 1947 - ), a New Zealand politician, currently serves as Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives. ... The Chief Justice of New Zealand is the senior judge of the High Court of New Zealand, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand. ... The Right Honourable Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias, GNZM, (born March 12, 1949) is the Chief Justice of New Zealand, and is therefore the most senior member of the countrys judiciary. ...

Contents

Constitution

New Zealand has no formal, written constitution; the constitutional framework consists of a mixture of various documents (including certain acts of the United Kingdom and New Zealand Parliaments), the Treaty of Waitangi and constitutional conventions. Most constitutional provisions became consolidated into the Constitution Act 1986. There have, at times, been proposals for a formal constitution, but there have not yet been any serious moves to adopt one. The Treaty of Waitangi is an increasingly important source of constitutional law in New Zealand The constitution of New Zealand consists of a collection of statutes (Acts of Parliament), Treaties, Orders-in-Council, Letters patent, decisions of the Courts and unwritten constitutional conventions. ... The Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Te Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... The Constitution Act of 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealands Constitution. ...


Monarchy

New Zealand's head of state is the Queen of New Zealand, currently Elizabeth II. The New Zealand monarchy has been distinct from the British monarchy since the New Zealand Royal Titles Act of 1953, and all Elizabeth II's official business in New Zealand is conducted in the name of the Queen of New Zealand, not the Queen of the United Kingdom. In practice, the functions of the monarchy are conducted by a Governor General, appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. Under Letters Patent regulating the office of Governor General, which are granted by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister, when there is a vacancy in the office of Governor General, several of the duties of the said office are exercised by a caretaker, known as the Administrator of the Government. As of August 2006, Governor General Anand Satyanand. Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Image File history File links Queen_Elizabeth_II_of_New_Zealand_cropped. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... This article describes the British monarchy from the perspective of the United Kingdom. ... A Governor-General (in Canada, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to the royally-appointed territorial governor of a region, or royal representative in a country... An Administrator (Administrator of the Government, Officer Administering the Government) in some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General. ... Anand Satyanand with Dame Silvia Cartwright Wikinews has news related to: New Governor-General of New Zealand announced Anand Satch[1] Satyanand, PCNZM (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is the Governor-General of New Zealand. ...

See also: Republicanism in New Zealand

Republicanism in New Zealand is a movement to replace the countrys current status as a Commonwealth realm and constitutional monarchy with that of a Commonwealth republic. ...

Executive

The Governor-General has the power to appoint and dismiss Prime Ministers and to dissolve Parliament. The Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet. Cabinet is the most senior policy-making body and is led by the Prime Minister, who is also, by convention, the Parliamentary leader of the governing party or coalition. The Cabinet is responsible to Parliament. All Cabinet Ministers must be Members of Parliament (MPs) and are collectively responsible to it. An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system exercizes executive power and is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Administrator (all governors). Until the advent of responsible government, Executive Councils existed primarily to advise the governor of... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of the New Zealand governments executive branch. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...

The Right Honourable Helen Clark, MP, Prime Minister of New Zealand and leader of the Labour Party
The Right Honourable Helen Clark, MP, Prime Minister of New Zealand and leader of the Labour Party
Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
Queen Elizabeth II 6 February 1952
Governor-General Anand Satyanand 23 August 2006
Prime Minister Helen Clark Labour 5 December 1999

The current Prime Minister is Helen Clark, leader of the Labour Party. She has served two full terms as Prime Minister and has begun her third. On 17 October 2005 she announced that she had come to a complex arrangement that guaranteed the support of enough parties for her Labour-led coalition to govern. The formal coalition consists of the Labour Party and Jim Anderton, the Progressive Party's only MP. In addition to the parties in formal coalition, New Zealand First and United Future provide confidence and supply in return for their leaders being ministers outside cabinet. A further arrangement has been made with the Green Party, which has given a commitment not to vote against the government on confidence and supply. This commitment assures the government of a majority of seven MPs on confidence. Image File history File linksMetadata HelenClark_2006_head_shot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata HelenClark_2006_head_shot. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch, since February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the local representative of the Queen of New Zealand, Queen Elizabeth II, and as such is the highest office in the Government of New Zealand. ... Anand Satyanand with Dame Silvia Cartwright Wikinews has news related to: New Governor-General of New Zealand announced Anand Satch[1] Satyanand, PCNZM (born 22 July 1944 in Auckland) is the Governor-General of New Zealand. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... -1... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... -1... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with eight MPs-- seven list MPs, and one electorate MP, leader Peter Dunne (see MMP for the difference). ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ...


The Leader of the Opposition is National Party leader Don Brash, who was formerly Governor of the Reserve Bank. The ACT party alongside the Māori Party, are both also in opposition. The Greens, New Zealand First and United Future all vote against the government on some legislation. The Leader of the Opposition in New Zealand is the politician who, at least in theory, leads the Opposition bloc in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... Dr Donald Thomas Brash (born 24 September 1940), New Zealand politician, served as the Leader of the Opposition and parliamentary leader of the National Party, the countrys main opposition party from 28 October 2003 to 27 November 2006. ... The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand. ... ACT New Zealand is a free market liberal party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Māori Party, a political party in New Zealand based around Māori citizens, formed around Tariana Turia, a former Labour Party member who had been a New Zealand Cabinet minister in the current Labour-dominated coalition government. ...


Legislature

New Zealand's main legislative body is a unicameral Parliament known as the House of Representatives. Since 1996, New Zealand has used the mixed member proportional (MMP) voting system, under which each MP is either elected by voters in a single-member constituency via first past the post or appointed from party lists. Normally, the parliament is 120 members large, however this can sometimes differ due to overhangs and underhangs. Several seats are currently reserved for members elected on a separate Māori roll. However, Māori may choose to vote in and to run for the non-reserved seats, and several have entered Parliament in this way. Parliaments have a maximum term of three years, although an election can be called earlier. In New Zealand, suffrage is extended to everyone over the age of 18 years, women having gained the vote in 1893. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... Download high resolution version (766x916, 93 KB)Photo of the Beehive, Parliament Buildings, Wellington, New Zealand. ... Download high resolution version (766x916, 93 KB)Photo of the Beehive, Parliament Buildings, Wellington, New Zealand. ... The Beehive, Wellington The Beehive is the common name for the Executive Wing of the New Zealand Parliament Buildings, located at the corner of Molesworth Street and Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their seats in nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Overhang seats can arise in elections under mixed member proportional (MMP), when a party is entitled to fewer seats as a result of party votes than it has won constituencies. ... Underhang seats can arise in elections under any list electoral system, when a party is entitled to more seats according to party votes than it has put candiates forward for. ... Māori Seats giving positions for Māori in the New Zealand Parliament were not created until 1867 even though Westminster-style Parliamentary Government was established in New Zealand in 1852. ... Several politico-constitutional arrangements use reserved political positions, especially when endeavoring to ensure the rights of minorities or preserving a political balance of power. ... The word Māori refers to the indigenous people of New Zealand and to their language. ...


Judiciary

The highest court in New Zealand is the Supreme Court of New Zealand, which was established in 2004 following the passage of the Supreme Court Act in 2003. The Act abolished the option to appeal Court of Appeal rulings to the Privy Council in London. The current Chief Justice is Dame Sian Elias. New Zealand's judiciary also includes the High Court, which deals with serious criminal offences and civil matters, and the Court of Appeal, as well as subordinate courts. Some Judges may sit on more than one. The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Dame Sian Seerpoohi Elias, GNZM, (born March 12, 1949) is the Chief Justice of New Zealand, and is therefore the most senior member of the countrys judiciary. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ... The Court of Appeal of New Zealand, located in Wellington, is New Zealand’s principal intermediate appellate court. ...


New Zealand law has three principal sources - English common law, certain statutes of the United Kingdom Parliament enacted before 1947 (notably the Bill of Rights 1689), and statutes of the New Zealand Parliament. In interpreting common law, the courts have endeavoured to preserve uniformity with common law as interpreted in the United Kingdom and related jurisdictions. The maintenance of the Privy Council in London as the final court of appeal and judges' practice of following British decisions, even though, technically, they are not bound by them, both bolstered this uniformity. However, in October 2003, the House of Representatives passed legislation to end this right of appeal from 2004, and to establish the Supreme Court of New Zealand in Wellington, which began hearings in July 2004. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England (1 Will. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court of appeal in New Zealand, having formally come into existence at the beginning of 2004, and sitting for the first time on 1 July 2004. ...


Local government

New Zealand is a unitary state rather than a federation — regions are created by the authority of the central government, rather than the central government being created by the authority of the regions. Local government in New Zealand has only the powers conferred upon it by Parliament. These powers have traditionally been distinctly fewer than in some other countries. For example, police and education are run by central government, while the provision of low-cost housing is optional for local councils. Many of them used to control gas and electricity supply, but nearly all of that was privatised or centralised in the 1990s. A map showing the unitary states. ... A map displaying todays federations. ...


New Zealand is divided into sixteen regions. These form the highest level of local government. New Zealand is also divided into seventy-four territorial authorities. Some of these are called Cities, while most are Districts. Most territorial authorities are wholly within one region, but there are a few that cross regional boundaries. There are also four instances in which regional and territorial authorities are combined into a single unitary authority, and the isolated Chatham Islands have a body with its own special legislation, making it very like a unitary authority. Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ...


In each territorial authority there are commonly several community boards or area boards (see below). These form the lowest and weakest arm of local government.


Each of the regions and territorial authorities is governed by a council, which is directly elected by the residents of that region, district or city. Each council may use a system chosen by the outgoing council (after public consultation), either the bloc vote (a.k.a. first-past-the-post in multi-member constituencies) or single transferable vote. Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ...


Regions

Regional councils each generally have a ward or constituency system, and the elected members elect one of their number to be chairperson. They set their own levels of rates (tax), though the mechanism for collecting it usually involves channelling through the territorial authority collection system. Regional council duties include: Region is the formal term for the top tier of local government in New Zealand. ... Rates are a form of taxation system in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, such as New Zealand, historically used to fund local government. ...

  • environmental management, particularly air and water quality and catchment control
  • regional aspects of civil defence
  • transportation planning and contracting of subsidised public passenger transport.

Devils Punchbowl Waterfall, New Zealand. ... The old American Civil Defense logo, used today federally only as a historical reminder on FEMAs seal, the triangle emphasises the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management. ...

Cities and districts

The 74 territorial authorities — 16 city councils, 57 district councils in more rural areas, and one council for the Chatham Islands — each generally have a ward system, but an additional councillor is the mayor, who is elected at large and chairs the council. They too set their own levels of rates. Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... // Usage of the term city in New Zealand After the local government reforms of 1989, the term city began to take on two meanings. ... Territorial authorities is the formal term for the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... now. ... Rates are a form of taxation system in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, such as New Zealand, historically used to fund local government. ...


The territorial authorities may delegate powers to local community boards. These boards, instituted at the behest of either local citizens or territorial authorities, advocate community views but cannot levy taxes, appoint staff, or own property.


District health boards

New Zealand's health sector was restructured several times during the 20th century. The most recent restructuring occurred in 2001, with new legislation creating twenty-one District Health Boards (DHB's). These boards are responsible for the oversight of health and disability services within their communities. Seven members of each District Health Board are directly elected by residents of their area using the Single Transferable Vote system. In addition, the Minister of Health may appoint up to four members. The last District Health Board elections took place in 2004. District Health Boards are health management units accountable to the Ministry of Health. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ...


Elections and Party politics

New Zealand has a strong party system in place. The first political party was founded in 1891, and its main rival was founded in 1909 — from that point until a change of electoral system in 1996, New Zealand had a two-party system in place. Today, New Zealand has a genuinely multi-party system, with eight parties currently represented in Parliament. Neither of the two largest parties have been able to govern without support from other groups since 1996, meaning that coalition government is required. New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, is chosen by nationwide election. ... New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ... Until 1996, New Zealand used the British system of first past the post (FPP) for parliamentary elections . ... A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ...


The two largest, and oldest, parties are the Labour Party (centre-left progressive) and the National Party (centre-right conservative). Other parties currently represented in Parliament are New Zealand First (populist, nationalist), ACT (free market), the Greens (left-wing, environmentalist), United Future (family values), the Progressives (leftist), and the Māori Party (ethnic).-1... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... ACT New Zealand is a free market liberal party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand logo Wikinews has news related to: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... Bold textHello ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with three MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and two list MPs (see MMP for the difference). ... This article discusses family values as a moral and political concept. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... The Māori Party, a political party in New Zealand based around Māori citizens, formed around Tariana Turia, a former Labour Party member who had been a New Zealand Cabinet minister in the current Labour-dominated coalition government. ...

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 17 September 2005 New Zealand House of Representatives election results
Parties Votes % Change Electorate
seats
List seats Total +/-
New Zealand Labour Party 935,319 41.1 -0.2 31 19 50 -2
New Zealand National Party 889,813 39.1 +18.0 31 17 48 +21
New Zealand First 130,115 5.7 -4.7 0 7 7 -6
Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand 120,521 5.3 -1.7 0 6 6 -3
Māori Party 48,263 2.1 +2.1 4 0 4 +4
United Future New Zealand 60,860 2.7 -4.0 1 2 3 -5
ACT New Zealand 34,469 1.5 -5.6 1 1 2 -7
New Zealand Progressive Party 26,441 1.2 -0.5 1 0 1 -1
Other parties 29,828 1.3 0 0 0 0
Total 2,275,629 100.0 69 52 121 +1
Informal votes 10,561
Total votes cast 2,286,190

  September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Zealand House of Representatives is the legislature of New Zealand. ... -1... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand logo Wikinews has news related to: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ... The Māori Party, a political party in New Zealand based around Māori citizens, formed around Tariana Turia, a former Labour Party member who had been a New Zealand Cabinet minister in the current Labour-dominated coalition government. ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with three MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and two list MPs (see MMP for the difference). ... ACT New Zealand is a free market liberal party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ...

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  Members of New Zealands House of Representatives, commonly called Parliament, normally gain their seats in nationwide general elections, or (less frequently) in by-elections. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... The 1853 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 1st term. ... The 1855 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 2nd term. ... The New Zealand general election of 1860 was held between December 12 and March 28 to elect 53 MPs to the third session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1866 was held between February 12 and April 6 to elect 70 MPs to the fourth session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1871 was held between January 14 and February 1 to elect 78 MPs to the fifth session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1875 was held between December 29 and January 4 (1876) to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 6th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1879 was held between August 15 and September 1 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1881 was held December 9 to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 8th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1884 was held July 22 to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 9th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1887 was held July 22 to elect 95 MPs to the ninth session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1890 was held on December 5 to elect 74 MPs to the 11th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1893 was held November 28 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 12th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1896 was held December 4 to elect a total of 74 MPs to the 13th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1899 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 14th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1902 was held November 25 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 15th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1905 was held December 6 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 16th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1908 was held November 17, November 24 and December 1 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 17th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1911 was held December 7 and December 14 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 18th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1914 was held December 10 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 19th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1919 was held December 17 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 20th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1922 was held December 7 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 21st session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1925 was held November 4 to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 22nd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand general election of 1928 was held on November 14 to elect 80 MPs to the 23rd session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1931 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 24th term. ... The 1935 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 25th term. ... The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 26th term. ... The 1943 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 27th term. ... The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 28th term. ... The 1949 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 29th term. ... The 1951 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 30th term. ... The 1954 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 31st term. ... The 1957 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 32nd term. ... The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 33rd term. ... The 1963 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 34th term. ... The 1966 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 35th term. ... The final results of the New Zealand General Election 1969 were 45 seats won by the National Party, and 39 seats won by the Labour Party, with no minor parties winning any seats. ... The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1975 New Zealand general election was held to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1978 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to elect the 39th New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1981 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1987 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1990 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliaments 43rd term. ... The 1993 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... Until 1996, New Zealand used the British system of first past the post (FPP) for parliamentary elections . ... The 1996 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 2002 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. ... Wikinews has news related to: Results of the 2005 New Zealand General Election The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. ... The next New Zealand general election is expected to take place in late 2008, and must be held no later than 15 November 2008. ...

Modern political history

The conservative National Party and the left-leaning Labour Party have dominated New Zealand political life since a Labour government came to power in 1935. During 14 years in office (1935 - 1949), the Labour Party implemented a broad array of social and economic legislation, including comprehensive social security, a large scale public works programme, a 40-hour working week, a minimum basic wage, and compulsory unionism. The National Party won control of the government in 1949 and adopted many welfare measures instituted by the Labour Party. Except for two brief periods of Labour governments in 1957 - 1960 and 1972 - 1975, National held power until 1984. The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... -1... Social security primarily refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


After regaining control in 1984, the Labour government instituted a series of radical market-oriented reforms in response to New Zealand's mounting external debt. It also enacted anti-nuclear legislation that effectively brought about New Zealand's suspension from the ANZUS security alliance with the United States of America and Australia, and instituted a number of other more left-wing reforms, such as allowing the Waitangi Tribunal to hear claims of breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi to be made back to 1840, reinstituting compulsory unionism and creating new government agencies to implement a social and environmental reform agenda (womens' affairs, youth affairs, Pacific Island affairs, consumer affairs, Minister for the Environment). The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ...


In October 1990, the National Party again formed a government, for the first of three 3-year terms. In 1996, New Zealand inaugurated the new electoral system, Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) to elect its Parliament. The system was expected (among numerous other goals) to increase representation of smaller parties in Parliament and appears to have done so in the MMP elections to date. Since 1996, neither National nor Labour has had an absolute majority in Parliament, and for all but two of those years a minority government has ruled. Until 1996, New Zealand used the British system of first past the post (FPP) for parliamentary elections . ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ... In 1993 New Zealand adopted Mixed Member Proportional as its electoral system after many years of first-past-the-post. ...


After 9 years in office, the National Party lost the November 1999 election. Labour under Helen Clark out polled National by 39% to 30% and formed a coalition, minority government with the left-wing Alliance. The government often relied on support from the Green Party to pass legislation. The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... Current Alliance logo The Alliance, when referring to New Zealand politics, refers to a left-wing political party. ... Current Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand logo Wikinews has news related to: Greens Party refines Buy Kiwi Made scheme The Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament. ...


The Labour Party retained power in the 27 July 2002 election, forming a coalition with Jim Anderton's new party, the Progressive Coalition, and reaching an agreement for support with the United Future party. Helen Clark remained Prime Minister. July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The 2002 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 47th New Zealand Parliament. ... James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with three MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and two list MPs (see MMP for the difference). ...


Following the 2005 general election on 17 September 2005, negotiations between parties culminated in Helen Clark announcing a third consecutive term of Labour-led government. The Labour Party again formed a coalition with Jim Anderton's Progressive Party, with confidence and supply from Winston Peters' New Zealand First and Peter Dunne's United Future. Jim Anderton retains his Cabinet position; Winston Peters becomes Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Racing and Associate Minister for Senior Citizens; Peter Dunne becomes Minister of Revenue and Associate Minister of Health. Neither Peters nor Dunne will be in Cabinet, however. Wikinews has news related to: Results of the 2005 New Zealand General Election The 2005 New Zealand general election took place on 17 September 2005 and determined the composition of the 48th New Zealand Parliament. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... James Patrick Anderton, almost always referred to as Jim Anderton, is leader of the Progressive Party, a political party in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The Progressive Party is a political party in New Zealand. ... The Right Honourable Winston Raymond Peters (born April 11, 1945) is a New Zealand politician and the current Minister of Foreign Affairs, outside cabinet. ... New Zealand First functions as a political party in New Zealand. ... Peter Dunne (born 17 March 1954 - ) leads New Zealands United Future political party. ... Current United Future logo United Future New Zealand is a political party in the New Zealand parliament with three MPs -- one electorate MP (leader Peter Dunne) and two list MPs (see MMP for the difference). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
New Zealand - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4235 words)
The population of New Zealand is mostly of European descent, with the indigenous Māori as the largest minority.
Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and is represented in the country by a non-political Governor-General.
New Zealand was involved in a Constitutional Convention in March 1891 in Sydney, New South Wales, along with the then-colonies of Australia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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