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Encyclopedia > Politics of Moldova

yyy Politics of Moldova takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The position of the break-away republic of Transnistria and the relations with Romania dominate the political agenda. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Moldova. ... The Head of Government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ...

Contents

Developments since independence

Mircea Snegur was elected president of Moldova in October 1990 by the Parliament. A former Communist Party official, he endorsed independence and actively sought Western recognition. Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991. However, Snegur's opposition to immediate reunification with Romania led to a split with the Moldovan Popular Front in October 1991 and to his decision to run as an independent candidate in a December 1991 presidential election. Running unopposed, he won after the Popular Front's efforts to organize a voter boycott failed. Mircea Ion Snegur (b. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical ideology based on Marxism. ...


Moldova's transition to democracy initially had been impeded by an ineffective Parliament, the lack of a new constitution, a separatist movement led by the Gagauz (Christian Turkic) minority in the south, and unrest in the Transnistria region on the left bank of the Nistru/Dniester River, where a separatist movement--assisted by uniformed Russian military forces in the region and led by supporters of the 1991 coup attempt in Moscow--declared a "Dniester republic." The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ...


Progress has been made on all these fronts. In 1992, the government negotiated a cease-fire arrangement with Russian and Transnistrian officials--although tensions continue--and negotiations are ongoing. In February 1994, new legislative elections were held, and the ineffective Parliament that had been elected in 1990 to a 5-year term was replaced. A new constitution was adopted in July 1994. The conflict with the Gagauz minority was defused by the granting of local autonomy in 1994. Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ...


The February 1994 Parliamentary elections were conducted peacefully and received good ratings from international observers for their fairness. Prime Minister Andrei Sangheli was re-elected to his post in March 1994, as was Petru Lucinschi to his post as speaker of the Parliament. Authorities in Transnistria, however, refused to allow balloting there and discouraged the local population from participating. Inhabitants of the Gagauz separatist region did participate in the elections, however.


In the presidential elections of 1996, Parliamentary speaker Petru Lucinschi surprised the nation with an upset victory over the incumbent, Mircea Snegur, in a second round of balloting. The elections were widely judged as free and fair by international observers, a hallmark that would come to characterize every other nationwide election in Moldova as well. Petru Chiril Lucinschi (Russian: Пётр Кириллович Лучинский, Ukrainian: Петро Кирилович Лучинський)(born 1940) was Moldovas second president from 1996 until his defeat after parliamentary elections in 2001. ... Mircea Ion Snegur (b. ...


Though President Lucinschi managed to institute some very important reforms--among them the successful fight for the "Pamint" land privatization program--his tenure was marked by constant legislative struggle with Moldova's Parliament. Several times, the Parliament considered votes of no confidence in the president's government, and a succession of moderate, pro-reform prime ministers were dismissed by a Parliament increasingly dominated by its single-minded Communist Party faction.


In 2000, Parliament passed a decree declaring Moldova a Parliamentary republic, with the presidency henceforth to be decided not by popular vote, but by Parliamentary vote. However, since no single candidate was able to garner a majority of votes, Lucinschi temporarily remained president. Later that year, when Parliament failed three times to successfully elect a new president, Lucinschi exercised his right to dissolve Parliament, calling for new parliamentary elections in the hope that a new Parliament would be more open to his initiatives--and, possibly, even rescind the decree on election of the president.


Widespread popular dissatisfaction with the government and the economy, however, led to a surprise at the polls, in February 2001. In elections certified by international observers as free and fair, Moldova's populace voted overwhelmingly for the communists. The communist faction, which had consisted of 40 of Parliament's 101 seats, jumped to 71--a clear majority. Communist deputies were then able to elect as president Vladimir Voronin, the leader of their faction. Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ...


Since election, President Voronin has proceeded with President Lucinschi's plans to privatize several important state-owned industries, and has even on occasion broken with his own party over important issues. Under President Voronin, however, relations with Romania have become very tense, with the president himself declaring that the Romanian element of Moldova, constituting a ⅔ majority, as a fanatical minority. Other key feuds have occurred with the President desperate to establish a separate Moldovan identity from that of Romania at the same time denying his own ethnic group independence in the Transnistrian region. The ethnic Romanians are now called "Moldovans" and the Romanian language in Moldova has come to be called "Moldavan" when it is actually identical to Romanian.


The re-introduction of Russian into Moldovan schools caused widespread protests from the suppressed Romanian majority and much criticism over the increasingly authoritarian rule in Chişinău.


The key aspect of the new leadership in Moldova is to try and create a new nation-hood, perhaps a fusion of Romanians and ethnic Slavs in Moldova and to try to re-ignite Soviet style tactics to Russify the area, ironically in the post Soviet world this might be more probable than at the height of Soviet Power when millions of ethnic Romanians were deported as well as abused and oppressed by the Kremlin to make way for the lage scale Russification of Moldova, a policy which was met with some success in areas such as Transnistria.


The Moldovan people's long-expected fusion with their Romanian kin seems to be a dead prospect as national sentiment continues to be eroded by zealous minorities and a Soviet-style government which endorses a communist agenda amidst economic collapse in the country and profits from the Russian colonists of the area, who were relocated there during Stalin's rule in accordance with the Molotov Pact.


Criticism

There is disagreement as to whether elections and politics in Moldova is carried out in a free and democratic climate on the part of certain organizations. The United States Senate has held committee hearings on irregularities that marred elections in Moldova, including arrests and harassment of opposition candidates, intimidation and suppression of independent media, and state run media bias in favor of candidates backed by the Communist-led Moldovan Government.[1] Other critics have also referred to the Communist Party government as being authoritarian.[2][3] Nevertheless, President Bush stated that: "We note and welcome Moldova's positive record since independence in conducting free and fair elections and in implementing democratic reforms."[4] Seal of the U.S. Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the House of Representatives. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


There have also been reports of politically motivated arrests and arrests without valid legal grounds. Such arrests are allegedly carried out against opponents of the Communist Party government of President Vladimir Voronin. In one case which was criticized by vrious Western organizations and individuals, opposition politician Valeriu Pasat was sentenced to ten years imprisonment on dubious grounds.[5]


Transnistria

The population of the Moldovan region of Transnistria is 30% Romanian, 30% Ukrainian, and 30% Russian. Moldova has tried to meet the Russian minority's demands by offering the region rather broad cultural and political autonomy. The dispute has strained Moldova's relations with Russia. The July 1992 cease-fire agreement established a tripartite peacekeeping force comprised of Moldovan, Russian, and Transnistrian units. Negotiations to resolve the conflict continue, and the cease-fire is still in effect. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) also is trying to facilitate a negotiated settlement and has had an observer mission in place for several years. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


In February 2001, the Communist Party of Moldova won more than two-thirds of the seats in the Parliament and selected party chairman Vladimir Voronin as President. Moldova succeeded during 2001 in joining the World Trade Organization and the Southeast European Stability Pact. Of primary importance have been the government's efforts to improve relations with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and to comply with agreements negotiated in 2000 by the former government. Agreement in these areas is critical because large government debts that come due in 2002 must be rescheduled. The government has made concerted efforts to find ways to pay for Moldova's energy supplies. Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ... The World Trade Organization (WTO, French: Organisation mondiale du commerce) is an international, multilateral organization, which sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between its member states; all of whom are signatories to its approximately 30 agreements. ... The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...


Politically the government is committed to present a budget that will deal with social safety net items such as health, education, and increasing pensions and salaries. The Moldovan Government supported democracy and human rights in FY 2001. The country remained divided, with the Transnistrian region along the Ukrainian border controlled by separatist forces. The new communist government has shown increased determination to resolve the ongoing conflict but has been unable to make significant progress because of fundamental disagreements with the separatist authorities in Transnistria over the status of that region. Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ...


Recent progress by Russia in destroying the weapons and munitions of the Organized Group of Russian Forces stationed in Transnistria have raised hopes that Russia intends to comply with the 1999 Istanbul Accords. In recent months, the leadership of the autonomous region of Gagauzia has become more vocal in its complaints that the Moldovan Government does not respect the region's statutory-enshrined autonomy.


Political parties and other groups publish newspapers which often criticize government policies. There are several independent news services, radio stations, and an independent television station. Peaceful assembly is allowed, though permits for demonstrations must be obtained; private organizations, including political parties, are required to register with the government. Legislation passed in 1992 codified freedom of religion but required that religious groups be recognized by the government.


A 1990 Soviet law and a 1991 Parliamentary decision authorizing formation of social organizations provide for independent trade unions. However, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Moldova, successor to the former organizations of the Soviet trade union system, is the sole structure. It has tried to influence government policy in labor issues and has been critical of many economic policies. Moldovan labor law, which is based on former Soviet legislation, provides for collective bargaining rights. The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Moldova (FITU) broke with the Moscow-based General Confederation of Trade Unions in 1992. ...


Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Vladimir Voronin PCRM 7 April 2001
Prime Minister Vasile Tarlev PCRM 19 April 2001

The president is elected by the Parliament for a four-year term. According to the Moldovan constitution, the president, on consulting with the parliament, will designate a candidate for the office of prime minister; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate will request a vote of confidence from the parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet. The cabinet is selected by prime minister-designate, subject to approval of parliament. The President of Moldova is elected every four years, and has been since 1992. ... Vladimir Nicolae Voronin (born May 25, 1941) is the current President of the Republic of Moldova. ... The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... This is a list of the Prime Ministers of Moldova. ... Vasile Petru Tarlev (born October 6, 1963) is the Prime Minister of Republic of Moldova. ... The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Legislative branch

The Parliament (Parlamentul) has 101 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. The president is elected for a four year term by parliament. Parliament building The Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (Parlamentul Republicii Moldova) is a unicameral assembly with 101 seats. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Moldova. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Moldova.
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 6 March 2005 Parliament of Moldova election results
Parties and coalitions Abbr. % Seats
Communist Party of Moldova (Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) 45.98 56
Party Alliance Our Moldova (Alianţa Moldova Noastră) 28.53 22
Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Democrat din Moldova) 8
Social Liberal Party (Partidul Social Liberal) 4
Christian Democratic People's Party (Partidul Popular Creştin Democrat) 9.07 11
Electoral Bloc Motherland (Blocul Electoral Patria - Rodina) 4.97 0
Social Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Social-Democrat din Moldova) 2.92 0
Republican Socio-Political Movement Equality (Miscarea Social-Politică Republicană Ravnopravie) 2.83 0
Party of the Socio-Economic Justice of Moldova (Partidul Dreptăţii Social-Economice din Moldova) 1.66 0
Peasants' Christian Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Ţărănesc Creştin-Democrat din Moldova) 1.37 0
Total (turnout %)   101

AMN, PDM and PSL formed the Electoral Bloc Democratic Moldova (Blocul Electoral Moldova Democrată). An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Moldova lists political parties in Moldova. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Elections in Moldova gives information on election and election results in Moldova. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Parliament building // Structure Chairman of the Parliament - LUPU Marian Deputy Chairmen of the Parliament Standing Bureau The working body of the Parliament - the Standing Bureau - is formed taking into consideration the proportional representation of the factions in the Legislative body. ... The Communist Party of Moldova (Moldovan: Partidul Comuniştilor din Republica Moldova) is the ruling political party in Moldova. ... The Party Alliance Our Moldova (Partidul Alianţă Moldova Noastră) is a liberal political party in Moldova. ... The Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Democrat din Moldova) is a social democratic political party in Moldova. ... The Social Liberal Party (Partidul Social Liberal) is a liberal political party in Moldova, led by Oleg Serebrian. ... The Christian Democratic Peoples Party (Partidul Popular CreÅŸtin Democrat) is a Christian democratic political party in Moldova. ... The Electoral Bloc Motherland (Blocul Electoral Patria - Rodina) is an electoral alliance in Moldova, formed by the Socialist Party of Moldova (Partidul Socialist din Moldova) and the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul SocialiÅŸtilor din Republica Moldova) At the last legislative elections, 6 march 2005, the... The Socialist Party of Moldova (Partidul Socialist din Moldova) is a political party in Moldova. ... The Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova (Partidul Socialiştilor din Republica Moldova) is a political party in Moldova. ... The Social Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Social-Democrat din Moldova) is a political party in Moldova, led by Ion Musuc. ... The Republican Socio-Political Movement Equality (Mişcare Social-Politică Republicană Ravnopravie) is a political party in Moldova. ... The Party of the Socio-Economic Justice of Moldova (Partidul Dreptăţii Social-Economice din Moldova) is a political party in Moldova, led by Nicolae Alexei. ... The Peasants Christian Democratic Party of Moldova (Partidul Ţărănesc Creştin Democrat din Moldova) is a political party in Moldova, chaired by Vladimir Reus. ... The Electoral Bloc Democratic Moldova (Blocul Electoral Moldova Democrată) was an electoral alliance in Moldova, led by Urechean Serafim. ...


Judicial branch

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court is the sole authority of constitutional judicature


Administrative divisions

Moldova is divided into 32 raions, or raioane, 5 municipalities (Chişinău, Bălţi and Tighina/Bender, Comrat, Tiraspol), one autonomous, non-contiguous region (Gagauzia), and the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of which is disputed. Administrative divisions of Moldova Former counties of Moldova Moldova is divided into 32 Raions, or raioane, 5 municipalities (ChiÅŸinău, BălÅ£i and Tighina/Bender, Comrat, Tiraspol), one autonomous, non-contiguous region (Gagauzia), and the breakaway region of Transnistria, the status of which is disputed. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Vasile Ursu, since 2005 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... now. ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: Бендеры) is a city in Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova. ... Comrat (Gagauz: Komrat; Russian: / Komrat) is a city in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia. ... County Transnistria Status Municipality/Capital Mayor Viktor Kostyrko, since 2003 Area 85 km² Population (2005) 159 163 Geographical coordinates 46°51′ N 29°38′ E Web site http://www. ... Gagauzia (or Gagauz-Yeri) is an autonomous region within Moldova, located along the southern border with Ukraine, inhabited by the Gagauz, a Turkic people who are ethnically and culturally distinct from other Moldovans. ... Motto: For the right to live on this land[citation needed] Anthem: Anthem of Transnistria Capital (and largest city) Tiraspol Russian, Ukrainian, Moldovan Government Semi-presidential  - President Igor Smirnov Independence from Moldova   - Declared September 2, 1990   - Recognition unrecognized  Area  - Total 4,163 km² 1,607 sq mi   - Water (%) 2. ...


International organization participation

ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant) Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) In the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI), Romania has had an opportunity to demonstrate its leadership in the region. ...


Notes

  1. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, Senate report 2004
  2. ^ Statement of Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)
  3. ^ Press freedom report (CPJ)
  4. ^ Joint Statement by President George W. Bush and President Vladimir Voronin on U.S.-Moldovan Relations U.S. State Department December 17, 2002. Retrieved 11-20, 2006.
  5. ^ Moldova: An Insider Looks At The Pasat Case Radio Free Europe. July 4, 2005. Retrieved 11-15, 2006

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