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Encyclopedia > Politics of Madagascar
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Politics of Madagascar

Politics of Madagascar
Political parties in Madagascar
Elections in Madagascar Large flag of Madagascar Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... Look up Politics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political... Political parties in Madagascar lists political parties in Madagascar. ... Politics of Madagascar Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Madagascar ...

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In March 1998, Malagasy voters approved a revised constitution. The principal institutions of the Republic of Madagascar are a presidency, a parliament (National Assembly and Senate), a prime ministry and cabinet, and an independent judiciary. The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a 5-year term, renewable twice. Jump to: navigation, search 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... An aerial view of Parliament of India at New Delhi. ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Jump to: navigation, search A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The National Assembly consists of 150 representatives elected by direct vote every 5 years. The Senate consists of 90 senators, two-thirds elected by local legislators and one-third appointed by the president, all for 6-year terms. A Prime Minister and council of ministers carries out day-to-day management of government. The President appoints the Prime Minister.


The Prime Minister and members of Parliament initiate legislation and the government executes it. The President can dissolve the National Assembly. For its part, the National Assembly can pass a motion of censure and require the Prime Minister and council of ministers to step down. The Constitutional Court approves the constitutionality of new laws.


Territorial administration is to be determined by legislation. In an effort to decentralize administration, the constitution calls for the six provinces (faritany) to become autonomous.


Madagascar's first President, Philibert Tsiranana, was elected when his Social Democratic Party gained power at independence in 1960 and was reelected without opposition in March 1972. However, he resigned only 2 months later in response to massive antigovernment demonstrations. The unrest continued, and Tsiranana's successor, Gen. Gabriel Ramanantsoa, resigned on February 5, 1975, handing over executive power to Lt. Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who was assassinated 6 days later. A provisional military directorate then ruled until a new government was formed in June 1975, under Admiral Didier Ratsiraka. Jump to: navigation, search 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Richard Ratsimandrava (March 21, 1931 – February 11, 1975) was President of Madagascar for six days in February 1975. ... Didier Ratsiraka (born November 4, 1936) was the President of Madagascar from 1975 until 1993 and from 1997 until 2002. ...


During the 16 subsequent years of President Ratsiraka's rule, Madagascar continued under a government committed to revolutionary socialism based on the 1975 constitution establishing a highly centralized state. National elections in 1982 and 1989 returned Ratsiraka for a second and third 7-year presidential term. For much of this period, only limited and restrained political opposition was tolerated, with no direct criticism of the president permitted in the press. Jump to: navigation, search 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


With an easing of restrictions on political expression, beginning in the late 1980s, the Ratsiraka regime came under increasing pressure for fundamental change. In response to a deteriorating economy, Ratsiraka had begun relaxing socialist dogma to institute some liberal, private-sector reforms. But these and other political reforms--like the elimination of press censorship in 1989 and the formation of more political parties in 1990--were insufficient to placate a growing opposition force known as Hery Velona or "Active Forces," centered in the capital city and the surrounding high plateau.


In response to largely peaceful mass demonstrations and crippling general strikes, Ratsiraka replaced his prime minister in August 1991 but suffered an irreparable setback soon thereafter when his troops fired on peaceful demonstrators marching on his suburban palace, killing more than 30.


In an increasingly weakened position, Ratsiraka acceded to negotiations on the formation of a transitional government. The resulting "Panorama Convention" of October 31, 1991, stripped Ratsiraka of nearly all of his powers, created interim institutions, and set an 18-month timetable for completing a transition to a new form of constitutional government. The High Constitutional Court was retained as the ultimate judicial arbiter of the process. Jump to: navigation, search October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In March 1992, a new constitution was drafted by a widely representative National Forum organized by the Malagasy Christian Council of Churches (FFKM). Troops guarding the proceedings clashed with pro-Ratsiraka "federalists" who tried to disrupt the forum in protest of draft constitutional provisions preventing the incumbent president from running again. The text of the new constitution was put to a nationwide referendum in August 1992 and approved by a wide margin, despite efforts by federalists to disrupt balloting in several coastal areas. Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Presidential elections were held on November 25, 1992, after the High Constitutional Court had ruled, over Active Forces objections, that Ratsiraka could become a candidate. A runoff election was held in February 1993, and active forces leader Albert Zafy defeated Ratsiraka. He was sworn in as President on March 27, 1993. Albert Zafy (born 1927) is a Malagasy political figure. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


A nationwide legislative election was held in June 1993 to elect a new National Assembly, which, under the new constitution, exercises legislative initiative along with the Prime Minister, whom it elects.


The proportional representation system for the election of legislators contributed to a significant increase in the number of political parties and special interest groups. These and a free press promote open and lively discussion of political issues in Madagascar.


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar (French); Repoblikan'i Madagasikara (Malagasy)
local short form: Madagascar; Madagasikara
former: Malagasy Republic


Data code: MA


Government type: republic In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ...


Capital: Antananarivo Antanànarìvo (pronounced IPA [æntəˌnænəˈɹiːvoʊ] or [ɑːntəˌnɑːnəˈɹiːvoʊ]), population 802,000 (1997), is the capital of Madagascar, in Antananarivo province. ...


Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara Antanànarìvo (pronounced IPA [æntəˌnænəˈɹiːvoÊŠ] or [ɑːntəˌnɑːnəˈɹiːvoÊŠ]), population 802,000 (1997), is the capital of Madagascar, in Antananarivo province. ... Antsiranana, named Diégo-Suarez prior to 1975, is a city at the northern tip of Madagascar, in French colony in the late 19th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fianarantsoa is a city in the Fianarantsoa Province of southeastern Madagascar. ... Mahajanga is a city and seaport on the north-west coast of Madagascar. ... Toamasina (Masc. ... Toliara (also known as Toliary and formerly Tuléar) is a town in Madagascar. ...


Independence: June 26, 1960 (from France)


National holiday: Independence Day, June 26 (1960) Jump to: navigation, search June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ...


Constitution: August 19, 1992 by national referendum Jump to: navigation, search August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Civil law has at least three meanings. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state: President Marc Ravalomanana (since May 6, 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques Sylla (May 27, 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held December 16, 2001 (next to be held November 2006); prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly
election results: percent of vote - Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA) 40.89%, Marc Ravalomanana 46.21%; note - on April 29, 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced Ravalomanana the winner by 51.5% after a recount; Ratsiraka's prime minister was put under house arrest on May 27, 2002, and Sylla was appointed the new prime minister by President Ravalomanana Marc Ravalomanana (born December 12, 1949) is a Malagasy politician. ... May 6 is the 125126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (160 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate; two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote; the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president; the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly; all members will serve four-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held December 15, 2002 (next to be held in 2006)
election results: National Assembly - seats by party - TIM 103, FP 22, AREMA 3, LEADER/Fanilo 2, RPSD 5, others 3, independents 22


Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle


Political parties and leaders: Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA (leader vacant); Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo (Herizo Razafimahaleo); I Love Madagascar or TIM (leader NA); National Union or FP (leader NA); Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD (Evariste Marson)


Political pressure groups and leaders: Federalist Movement; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM


International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO The Agence de coopération culturelle et technique (ACCT, French for Agency of cultural and technical cooperation) is an organisation that is part of La Francophonie. ... The ACP States are the countries that are signatories of the Lomé Convention. ... The African Development Bank (AfDB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of promoting economic and social development in Africa. ... World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps member states communicate and cooperate on customs issues. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ... The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... Jump to: navigation, search The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement consists of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Federation), and the 181 national Red Cross or Red Crescent societies currently recognized by the ICRC and admitted... The International Development Association (IDA) was created on September 24, 1960, is a UN specialized agency. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) is an international humanitarian organisation, often better known as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent. ... Ilo may refer to: Ilo, a port in southern Peru Ilo, an artist on the Icelandic Bad Taste record label Ilo, the Estonian goddess of feasts This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... INOC: Iraqi National Oil Company ... Intelsat is the worlds largest commercial satellite communications services provider. ... Jump to: navigation, search Interpol logo Interpol, more correctly the International Criminal Police Organization – Interpol (ICPO-Interpol), was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... The International Olympic Committee is an organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organise this sports event every four years. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organisation. ... Jump to: navigation, search ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... NAM stands for: National Association of Manufacturers Non-Aligned Movement Network Analysis Module National Assembly Member, a member of the National Assembly of The Gambia. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... Jump to: navigation, search UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1945. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... WCL is an initialism for World Confederation of Labour. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... Jump to: navigation, search The WHO flag: similar to the flag of the United Nations, augmented with the symbolic staff and serpent of Asklepios, Greek god of medicine and healing. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is a UN agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side


See also: Madagascar


  Results from FactBites:
 
Madagascar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3637 words)
The Republic of Madagascar, or Madagascar, is a borderless island nation in the Indian Ocean, off the eastern coast of Africa.
The principal institutions of the Republic of Madagascar are a presidency, a parliament (National Assembly and Senate), a prime ministry and cabinet, and an independent judiciary.
Madagascar's population is predominantly of mixed Asian and African origin, though those who are visibly Asian in appearance and culture are the minority, found in the highland regions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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