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Encyclopedia > Politics of Israel
Israel

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Israel
Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Israel. ...



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State of Israel
Geography

Land of Israel · Districts · Cities
Transportation · Mediterranean
Dead Sea · Red Sea · Sea of Galilee
Jerusalem · Tel Aviv · Haifa The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nasi Hamedina) is the head of state of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... Moshe Katsav (Hebrew מֹשֶׁה קַצָּב, Persian موشه کاتساو), (born December 5, 1945) is the eighth and current President of Israel (since 2000). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... The Cabinet of Israel is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen and led by a Prime Minister. ... Israel The power of the Knesset to supervise and review government policies and operations is exercised mainly through the state controller, also known as the ombudsman or ombudswoman (Hebrew: מבקר המדינה Mevaker HaMedina. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... List of Speakers of the Knesset, the Israeli parliament: Joseph Shprinzak (Mapai) 1949-59 Nahum Nir (Ahdut Haavodah) 1959 Kadish Luz (Mapai, Alignment)1959-69 Reuven Barkat (Alignment) 1969-72 Yisrael Yeshayahu-Sharabi (Alignment) 1972-77 Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) 1977-80 Yitzhak Berman (Likud) 1980-81 Menachem... Dalia Itzik (b. ... Members of the 17th Knesset (elected 2006), upon inauguration 1Reichman has announced he intends to step down as Member of Knesset, following the agreement between Kadima and Labour, granting the latter the Ministry of Education as part of the new government. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... Elections for the 16th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 January 2003. ... The Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006, following an agreement between the Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon, and the new Leader of the Israel Labour Party, Amir Peretz. ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... Knesset Elections Law is crucial legal document governing the process of elections in the Israeli federal parliament or the Knesset. ... Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government which includes secular and religious courts. ... Frontal view The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... The Israeli Ministry of Interior recognizes three types of local government in Israel: cities, regional councils, and local councils. ... In Israel, a local council is a locality similar to a city in structure and way of life, that has not yet achieved a status of a city, which requires a minimum number of residents, among other things. ... Foreign relations of Israel deals with some of the following issues: In addition to seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought five wars since 1948, Israel has given high priority to gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... Israel and the United Nations have had very mixed relations, since the states founding on May 14, 1948. ... Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Israel. ... Anthem(s): Hatikvah (The Hope) Capital Jerusalem [1] Largest city Jerusalem Official language(s) Hebrew, Arabic Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Moshe Katsav  - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert Independence From the United Kingdom   - Declaration 14 May 1948 (05 Iyar 5708)  Area  - Total 22,1451 km² (151th) 8,5501 sq mi   - Water (%) ~2... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003, including portions of the State of Israel, Jordan, Egypt, and Lebanon. ... Map of the districts of Israel There are six main districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... Cities in Israel, by district: // Northern District See also North District, Israel. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ; Arabic: ‎) is both the lowest point on Earth at 418 metres (1,371 ft) below sea level and falling[2], and the deepest hypersaline lake in the world at 330 m (1,083 ft) deep and 799 m (2,621 ft) below sea level. ... Location of the Red Sea Image:Red Seaimage. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea Kineret redirects here; for the Amgen drug having this tradename, see Anakinra The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

History

Zionism · Timeline ·Aliyah · Herzl · Flag
Balfour · Mandate · 1947 UN Plan
Independence · Austerity · Refugees
This article describes the history of the modern State of Israel, from its Independence Proclamation in 1948 to the present. ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), the small caption (bottom) reads First Palestinian film with sound Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where... Timeline of Zionism in the modern era: 1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany. ... STOP THE WAR NOW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! HIJOS DE PUTAAAAAAA ISRAEL=TERRORISTAS. WHAT IS THE WORLD AND THE AMERICANS DOING NOW? SEND THEM BACK TO AUSWITS ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... Flag ratio: 8:11 Another common colorization of the flag, using lighter blue. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917, from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ... Main article: History of Israel Austerity in Israel: From 1949 to 1959, the state of Israel was, to a varying extent, under a regime of austerity (צנע tsena), during which rationing and similar measures were enforced. ...

Arab-Israeli conflict · Proposals

1948 War · 1949 Armistice · Suez War
Six-Day War · Attrition War
Yom Kippur War · Lebanon War
Israel-Lebanon Conflict
Peace treaties with: Egypt, Jordan
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt  Syria Transjordan  Lebanon  Iraq Holy War Army Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni Hasan Salama. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Combatants Israel Great Britain France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 300,000 Casualties 177 Israeli KIA 16 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 33 French WIA 1,650 KIA 4,900 WIA... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft 280,000 troops (Egypt 150,000; Syria... The War of Attrition was a limited war fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan David Elazar Ariel Sharon Shmuel Gonen Benjamin Peled Israel Tal Rehavam Zeevi Aharon Yariv Yitzhak Hofi Rafael Eitan Abraham Adan Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly Ahmad Ismail Ali Hosni Mubarak Mohammed Aly Fahmy Anwar Sadat Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy Abdul... Combatants Israel Amal Hezbollah PLO Commanders Menachem Begin Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah Imad Mughniyah Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 15,000 Casualties 675 9,800 The Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon), also known as the Operation Peace of the Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל, Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when... Combatants Hezbollah Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General) Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[5] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 1,000-10,000[2] militants 30,000 ground troops [6] (plus IAF & ISC) Casualties Hezbollah militia:  Dead:    Hezbollah: 74[3]    IDF: 540[4]  Captured: 21 Allied militia:   Amal: 17[3]   LCP...

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Timeline · Peace process · Peace camp
1st Intifada · Oslo · 2nd Intifada
Barrier · Disengagement Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This is an incomplete timeline of events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Intifada A poster from 1990 The First Intifada refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1993, when the Oslo accords were signed and the Palestinian National Authority was established. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... The wreckage of a commuter bus in Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to...

Economy

Science & technology · Companies
Tourism · Winemaking · Military industry
This article does not cite its references or sources. ... . The top 10 Israeli companies by sales are: Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd. ... Tourism in Israel includes a rich variety of historical and religious sites in the Holy Land, as well as modern beach resorts, archaeological tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism. ... The Israeli wine industry is known for its vibrancy, with wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest producing over ten million bottles per year. ... The Military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, tanks, planes, cannons, armored vehicles. ...

Demographics · Culture

Religion · Israeli Arabs · Kibbutz
Music · Archaeology · Universities
Hebrew · Literature · Sport · Israelis To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The culture of Israel, also called Israeli culture, is inseparable from long history of Judaism and Jewish history which preceded it (i. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The archaeology of Israel is a national passion that also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... There are eight official universities in Israel. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Israeli literature is the literature of the people or State of Israel. ...

Laws · Politics

Law of Return · Jerusalem Law
Parties · Elections · PM · President
Knesset · Supreme Court · Courts The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Jerusalem Law is a common name of Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel passed by the Israeli Knesset on July 30, 1980 (17th Av, 5740). ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nasi Hamedina) is the head of state of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Frontal view The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government which includes secular and religious courts. ...

Foreign affairs

Intl. Law · UN · US · Arab League Foreign relations of Israel deals with some of the following issues: In addition to seeking an end to hostilities with Arab forces, against which it has fought five wars since 1948, Israel has given high priority to gaining wide acceptance as a sovereign state with an important international role. ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Israel and the United Nations have had very mixed relations, since the states founding on May 14, 1948. ... Israel-United States relations have evolved from an initial United States policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948 to an unusual partnership that links a small but militarily powerful Israel, dependent on the United States for its economic and military strength, with the... From the time it was established in March 1945, the Arab League took an active role in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

Security Forces

Israel Defense Forces
Intelligence Community · Security Council
Police · Border Police · Prison Service The Israeli Security Forces (ISF) are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ×”×”×’× ×” לישראל , [Army] Force for the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated with the Hebrew acronym צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces, comprising the Israeli Army, the Israeli Air Force and the Israeli Navy. ... The Israeli Intelligence Community (Hebrew: קהילת המודיעין הישראלית) is the designation given to the complex of organizations responsible for intelligence collection, dissemination, and research for the State of Israel. ... The Israeli National Security Council (Hebrew: המועצה לביטחון לאומי) is a council established by the Prime Ministers Office in 1999 during the prime ministership of Binyamin Netanyahu in the framework of drawing lessons from the Yom Kipur War. ... The Israel Border Police (Hebrew: משמר הגבול, Mishmar HaGvul) is the combat branch of the Israeli Police. ... The Israel Prison Service (Hebrew: שירות בתי הסוהר, Sherut Batei HaSohar), commonly known as SHABAS, is the Israeli prison service. ...

Portal:Israel

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Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Knesset. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The political system of the State of Israel and its main principles are set out in 11 Basic Laws. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Basic Laws of Israel are a key component of Israels uncodified constitution. The State of Israel has no formal constitution. ...

Contents

Legislative branch

Knesset

Main article: Knesset

The Knesset (lit. assembly) is Israel's unicameral parliament, whose 120 members are elected to 4-year terms through party-list proportional representation (see electoral system, below), as mandated by the 1958 Basic Law: The Knesset. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government, the Knesset enacts laws, supervises government activities, and is empowered to elect or remove the President of the State or State Comptroller from office. The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... President of the State of Israel (Hebrew: נשיא המדינה, Nasi Hamedina) is the head of state of Israel, but has a largely ceremonial, figurehead role with real power lying in the hands of the Prime Minister of Israel. ... Israel The power of the Knesset to supervise and review government policies and operations is exercised mainly through the state comptroller, also known as the ombudsman or ombudswoman. ...


The March 2006 elections demonstrated that Israel currently has five prominent political parties: Kadima, Labor, Shas, Likud and Yisrael Beytenu, each with more than ten seats in the Knesset. However, no single party has ever achieved the 61 seats needed for a majority government. Since 1948, therefore, Israeli governments have always comprised coalitions. As of 2006, there are 12 political parties represented in the Knesset, spanning both the political and religious spectra. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Qādīmāh, forward) is a centrist [note] Israeli political party. ... Shas logo Shas (Hebrew: שס) is an Israeli political party representing mostly Haredi Sephardi Jews. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a hawkish centre-right political party in Israel. ... Yisrael Beytenu (Hebrew: ישראל ביתנו, Israel Our Home) is a right-of-center political party in Israel with support from immigrants to Israel who came from the lands of the former Soviet Union. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Electoral system

Israel's electoral law is based on a Basic Law (The Knesset) and the 1969 Knesset Elections Law. Knesset Elections Law is crucial legal document governing the process of elections in the Israeli federal parliament or the Knesset. ...


The Knesset's 120 members are elected by secret ballot to 4-year terms, although the Knesset may decide to call for new elections before the end of its 4-year term. In addition a motion of confidence may be called. Voting is carried out using the highest averages method of party-list proportional representation, using the d'Hondt formula. General elections are closed list; that is, voters vote only for party lists and cannot affect the order of candidates within the lists and since the 1992 Parties Law, only registered parties may stand. There are no separate electoral districts; all voters vote on the same party lists. Suffrage is universal among Israeli citizens aged 18 years or older, but voting is optional. Polling locations are open throughout Israel; absentee ballots are limited to diplomatic staff and the merchant marine. While each party attains one seat for 1 in 120 votes, there is a minimum threshold (currently 2%[1]) for parties to attain their first seat in an election. The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace Wikisource has original text related to this article: A History of the Australian Ballot System in the United States The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... The highest averages method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... The DHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... Closed list describes the variant of party_list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the (party-supplied) order in which party candidates are elected. ...


This electoral system, inherited from the Yishuv (Jewish settlement organization during the British Mandate), makes it very difficult for any party to gain a working majority in the Knesset and thus the government is generally formed on the basis of a coalition. The prime minister is selected by the president as the party leader most able to form a government, based on the number of parliament seats his coalition has won. After the president's selection, the prime minister has forty-five days to form a government. The members of the cabinet must be collectively approved by the Knesset. Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


In an attempt at electoral reform, in the May 1996 elections, Israelis voted for the prime minister directly, but direct election has since been repealed and the former system re-enacted.


Judicial system

The Judicial branch is an independent branch of the government, including secular and religious courts for the various religions present in Israel. Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ...


Judicial courts

Israeli judicial courts consist of a three-tier system:

  • Magistrate Courts serves as the court of first instance
  • District Courts serves as the appellate courts and also serve as the court of first instance for some cases;
  • Supreme Court is located in Jerusalem and acts as an appellate court, and as the High Court of Justice as a court of first instance often in matters concerning the legality of decisions of state authorities.

In December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction. Frontal view The Supreme Court (Hebrew: בית המשפט העליון, Beit Hamishpat Haelyon ) is at the head of the court system in the State of Israel. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds (the Holy); official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names) is the capital and largest city[1] of the State of Israel with a population of 724,000 (as of May 24, 2006[2... The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ... Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: Cour internationale de justice) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Religious courts

See also: Religion in Israel

The Jewish religious authorities are under control of the Prime Minister's Office and the Chief Rabbinate of Israel. These courts, whose dayanim (judges) are elected by the knesset, have jurisdiction in only five areas: Kashrut, Sabbath, Jewish burial, marital issues (especially divorce), and Jewish status of immigrants. However, except for determining a person's marital status, all other marital issues may also be taken to secular Family Courts. Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... The circled U indicates that this product is certified as kosher by the Orthodox Union (OU). ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Ger tzedek (Hebrew: righteous proselyte or proselyte [of] righteousness) or Ger (stranger or proselyte) is a gentile (i. ...


The other major religions in Israel, such as Islam and Christianity, are supervised by their own establishments of religious law [the qadis (Or Islamic judges), Sunni and Druze, are also elected by the Knesset]. These courts have similar jurisdiction over their followers, although Muslim religious courts have more control over family affairs. Though now legitimized by the constitution of a Jewish state, the courts' present powers are the same as those agreed to by the government of the British Mandate (1920-1948). For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Druze star Druze The Druze (also known as Druse; Arabic: darazÄ« درزي, pl. ...


Political conditions

Golda Meir, a former Israeli Prime Minister, joked that "in Israel, there are 3 million prime ministers". Because of the proportional representation system, there is a large number of political parties, many of whom run on very specialized platforms, often advocating the tenets of particular interest groups. The prevalent balance between the largest parties means that the smaller parties can have disproportionately strong influence to their size. Due to their ability to act as tie breakers, they often use this status to block legislation or promote their own agenda, even contrary to the manifesto of the larger party in office. Golda Meir (Hebrew:  ) (born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898; died December 8, 1978) was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that the political parties obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive in legislative assemblies. ...


Israeli politics is dominated by Zionist parties which traditionally fall into three camps, the first two being the largest: Labor Zionism (which has social democrat colors), Revisionist Zionism (which shares some traits with tories or conservatives in other countries) and Religious Zionism (although there are several non Zionist Orthodox religious parties, as well as anti-Zionist Israeli Arab parties). A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Revisionist Zionism is a right wing tendency within the Zionist movement. ... The term Tory derives from the Tory Party, the ancestor of the modern UK Conservative Party. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The Religious Zionist Movement, or Religious Zionism is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmudic texts (The Oral Law). Various Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim expounded upon these same Talmudic texts. ... Anti-Zionism is a term that has been used to describe several very different political and religious points of view, both historically and in current debates. ...


From the founding of Israel in 1948 until the election of May 1977, Israel was ruled by successive coalition governments led by the Labor Alignment (or Mapai prior to 1967). From 1967 to 1970, a national unity government included all of Israel's parties except for the two factions of the Communist Party of Israel. After the 1977 election, the Revisionist Zionist Likud bloc, then composed of Herut, the Liberals, and the smaller La'am Party, came to power forming a coalition with the National Religious Party, Agudat Israel, and others. 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... Labour (העבודה HaAvoda) is an Israeli political party. ... National Governments or National Unity Governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... The Communist Party of Israel (known as Maki, an acronym for Miflaga Komunistit Yisraelit) was formed in 1948 by the remnant of the Communist Party of Palestine within the borders of the new state of Israel. ... Herut (Hebrew: חרות Freedom) was the political party of the Revisionist Zionist movement in Israel. ... Laam was an Israeli political party made up of the Free Center (which was a splinter group which left Herut), the State List and the Movement for Greater Israel which supported Israeli settlement in the West Bank and Gaza. ... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ...


Recent Prime Ministers and governments

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Begin (1977-1983) and Shamir (1983-1984)

As head of Likud, Menachem Begin became Prime Minister in 1977. He remained Prime Minister through the succeeding election in June 1981, until his resignation in the summer of 1983, when he was succeeded by his Foreign Minister, Yitzhak Shamir. After losing a Knesset motion of confidence early in 1984, Shamir was forced to call for new elections, held in July of that year.   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The vote was split among numerous parties and provided no clear winner leaving both Labor and Likud considerably short of a Knesset majority. Neither Labor nor Likud was able to gain enough support from the small parties to form even a narrow coalition. After several weeks of difficult negotiations, they agreed on a broadly based government of national unity. The agreement provided for the rotation of the office of prime minister and the combined office of vice prime minister and foreign minister midway through the government's 50-month term.


Peres (1984-1986) and Shamir (1986-1990)

During the first 25 months of unity government rule, Labor's Shimon Peres served as prime minister, while Likud's Yitzhak Shamir held the posts of vice prime minister and foreign minister. Peres and Shamir switched positions in October 1986. The November 1988 elections resulted in a similar coalition government. Likud edged Labor out by one seat but was unable to form a coalition with the religious and right-wing parties. Likud and Labor formed another national unity government in January 1989 without providing for rotation. Yitzhak Shamir became Prime Minister, and Shimon Peres became Vice Prime Minister and Finance Minister. (Hebrew שִׁמְעוֹן פֶּרֶס without Niqqud: שמעון פרס) (born Shimon Perske on August 16, 1923 in Poland, and immigrated with his family to Israel in 1934), is an Israeli politician, who was a supporter of the Labor Party until December 2005, but still holding a status of member. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The formation of the Labor-Likud coalition in 1984 resulted in the Mapam party leaving the Labor Alignment to join other members of the Israeli peace camp in forming the left wing Meretz party. Mapam - United Workers Party (in Hebrew: מפם - מפלגת פועלים מאוחדת Mifleget Poalim Meuhedet) was initially a Marxist-Zionist party. ... The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Meretz (מרצ, Hebrew: vitality, energy) was an Israeli leftist secular political party. ...


The national unity government fell in March 1990, in a motion of no confidence precipitated by disagreement over the government's response to United States Secretary of State James Baker's initiative of the Madrid Conference of 1991. This article is about the year. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ...


Shamir (1990-1992)

Labor Party leader Peres was unable to attract sufficient support among the religious parties to form a government. Yitzhak Shamir then formed a Likud-led coalition government including members from religious and right-wing parties.


Shamir's government took office in June 1990, and held power for 2 years.


Rabin (1992-1995)

In the June 1992 national elections, the Labor Party improved its electoral fortunes by taking 44 seats. Labor Party leader Yitzhak Rabin formed a coalition with Meretz (a group of three centre-left parties) and Shas (an ultra-Orthodox religious party). The coalition included the support of Arab and communist parties. Rabin became Prime Minister in July 1992. Shas subsequently left the coalition, leaving Rabin with a minority government dependent on the votes of Arab and communist parties in the Knesset. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... (Hebrew: יִצְחָק רָבִּין), (March 1, 1922 – November 4, 1995) was an Israeli politician and general. ... Shas logo Shas (Hebrew: שס) is an Israeli political party representing mostly Haredi Sephardi Jews. ...


Rabin was assassinated by a right-wing Jewish radical on November 4, 1995, after the passage of the controversial Oslo Accords. Peres, then Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, once again became Prime Minister and immediately proceeded to carry forward the policies of Yitzhak Rabin, as well as the economic liberalization policies of the Rabin government, and to implement Israel's Oslo commitments (including military redeployment in the West Bank and the holding of historic Palestinian elections on January 20, 1996). November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Peres (1995-1996)

Enjoying broad public support and anxious to secure his own mandate, Peres called for early elections after just 3 months in office. (They would have otherwise been held by the end of October 1996.) In late February and early March, a series of suicide bombing attacks by Palestinian terrorists took some 60 Israeli lives, seriously eroding public support for Peres and raising concerns about the Oslo Accords. Increased fighting in southern Lebanon, which also brought Katyusha rocket attacks against northern Israel, raised tensions and weakened the government politically just a month before the 29 May elections. This was further exacerbated, despite the sharp increase in economic growth rates. A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ...


Netanyahu (1996-1999)

In those elections - the first direct election of a prime minister in Israeli history - Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu won by a narrow margin, having sharply criticized the government's peace policies for failing to protect Israeli security. Netanyahu subsequently formed a predominantly right-wing coalition government publicly committed to pursuing the Oslo Accords, but with an emphasis on security first and reciprocity. His coalition included the Likud party, allied with the Tsomet and Gesher parties in a single list; three religious parties (Shas, the National Religious Party (Mafdal), and the United Torah Judaism bloc); and two centrist parties, The Third Way and Israel Ba-Aliya. The latter is the first significant party formed expressly to represent the interests of Israel's new Russian immigrants. The Gesher party withdrew from the coalition in January 1998 upon the resignation of its leader, David Levy, from the position of Foreign Minister. (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel. ... Tzomet or Tsomet (Hebrew: צומת, meaning crossroads) is a secular, right-wing Israeli political party. ... Gesher (Bridge), is an Israeli political party set up by David Levi. ... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... United Torah Judaism (In Hebrew: יהדות התורה which translates as Judaism [of the] Torah) (UTJ) is a small Haredi political party in the Israeli Knesset. ... Israel Ba-Aliya is an Israeli political party, focused on Zionism and representing the interests of Israels Russian immigrants. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... David Levy (also: David Levi) (born December 21, 1937) is an Israeli politician. ...


Barak (1999-2001)

On 27 May 1999, Ehud Barak from the Labor party was elected Prime minister, and formed a coalition with the Center Party (a new party with centrist views, led by former generals Itzhak Mordechai and Amnon Lipkin-Shahak), the left-wing Meretz, Israel Ba-Aliya, the religious Shas and the National Religious Party. The coalition was committed to continuing negotiations; however, during the two years of the government's existence, most parties left the coalition, leaving Barak with a minority government of the Labor and the center party alone. Barak was forced to call for early elections. May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz, then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... The Center Party (Mifleget Hamerkaz; מפלגת המרכז) was a splinter group formed as Israel in the Center in 1999 by former Defense Minister Itzhak Mordechai composed at that time of himself, David Magen/Monsonego, and Dan Meridor of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu... Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (Hebrew: אמנון ליפקין-שחק, born March 18th, 1944) was the chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces, and later Israeli Minister of Tourism and Transport. ...


Sharon (2001-2006)

On February 17, 2001, elections resulted in a new "national unity" coalition government, led by Ariel Sharon of the Likud, and including the Labor Party. This government fell when Labor pulled out, and new elections were held January 28, 2003. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... (Hebrew: אֲרִיאֵל שָׁרוֹן, also known by his diminutive Arik) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Based on the election results, Sharon was able to form a right-wing government consisting of the Likud, Shinui, the National Religious Party and the National Union. The coalition focused on improving Israeli security through fighting against terror, along with combating economic depression. However, when Sharon decided on his 2004 disengagement plan, which included evacuation of Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories (particularly the Gaza Strip), the National Union and National Religious Party withdrew from the coalition. Sharon's attempt to add the Haredi United Torah Judaism to the coalition drove Shinui out, and forced Sharon to bring the Labor Party back into his coalition. Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to... The West Bank map The Gaza Strip map Palestinian territories is one of a number of terms used to describe, from Arab point of view, areas captured by Israel in the Six-day War of 1967, whose political status has been the subject of negotiations between Israel and the Palestine...


Since not all Likud Knesset members supported Sharon's disengagement plan, he still lacked a clear majority in the Knesset. Apparently calculating that his personal popularity was greater than that of the party, Sharon pulled out of the Likud on November 21, 2005 and formed his own new Kadima party. He was joined only days later by Shimon Peres, who pulled out of the Labor party to join Sharon in a bid for a new government. This represents a cataclysmic realignment in Israeli politics, with the former right and left joining in a new centrist party with strong support (unlike previous centrist parties in Israel, which lacked the popularity Kadima now seems to enjoy). November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Qādīmāh, forward) is a centrist [note] Israeli political party. ...


Olmert (2006-present)

On January 4 2006 Prime Minister Sharon suffered a massive stroke and went into a coma, in which he still remains. Deputy Prime Minister, Ehud Olmert, became Acting Prime Minister and Acting Kadima leader. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Comatose redirects here. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew: אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Qādīmāh, forward) is a centrist [note] Israeli political party. ...


Following the Israeli general elections of March 28, 2006, which left Kadima as the biggest block in the Knesset, Olmert became prime minister. The Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006, following an agreement between the Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon, and the new Leader of the Israel Labour Party, Amir Peretz. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, Qādīmāh, forward) is a centrist [note] Israeli political party. ...


Political parties and elections

The following election results include names of political parties. See for additional information about parties the List of political parties in Israel. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Israel.
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 28 March 2006 Knesset of Israel election results
Parties Votes % Seats +/-
Kadima (Forward) 690,901 22.02% 29 new 1
Ha-Avoda (Labour) 472,366 15.06% 19 -2 2
Shas (Mifleget Ha-Sfaradim Shomrei Torah, Sephardi Religious Party) 299,054 9.53% 12 +1
Likud (Consolidation) 281,996 8.989% 12 -15 3
Yisrael Beytenu (Our Home Israel) 281,880 8.985% 11 +8 4
National Union - National Religious Party 224,083 7.14% 9 -1 5
Gil - Gimla'ey Israel LaKnesset (Age - Pensioners of Israel to the Knesset) 185,759 5.92% 7 new
United Torah Judaism (Yahadut Ha-Torah also Achdut HaTorah HaMeuchedet) 147,091 4.69% 6 +1
Meretz-Yachad (Vigor-Together) 118,302 3.77% 5 -1
Ra'am-Ta'al (Reshima Aravit Me'uchedet, United Arab List - Arab Movement for Renewal) 94,786 3.02% 4 +2
Hadash (Ha-Chazit Ha-Demokratit le-Shalom ule-shivyon, Democratic Front for Peace and Equality) 86,092 2.74% 3 0
Balad (Brit Leumit Demokratit or National Democratic Assembly) 72,066 2.30% 3 0
HaYeruqim (The Greens, environmentalist party) 47,595 1.52% 0 0
Ale Yarok (Green Leaf, cannabis legalization party) 40,353 1.29% 0 0
Hazit Yehudit Le'umit (National Jewish Front) 24,824 0.79% 0 0
Tafnit (Turnaround) 18,753 0.60% 0 0
Hetz (Arrow) 10,113 0.33% 0 new 6
Shinui (Change) 4,675 0.16% 0 -157
Other parties 36,375 1.16% 0 0
Total 3,137,064 100% 120  

Eligible voters: 5,014,622
Total votes cast: 3,186,739 (Turnout 63.6%)
Spoiled ballots: 49,675 (1.56% of votes cast)
Valid ballots: 3,137,064
Threshold (2%): 62,741
Votes per seat: 24,620
An election is a decision making process where people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Israel: Israels political system is based on proportional representation which allows for a multi-party system with numerous parties, in which a single party usually has no chance of gaining power by itself, forcing the parties to cooperate and form coalition governments. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Elections in Israel gives information on election and election results in Israel. ... The Elections for the 17th Knesset were held in Israel on 28 March 2006, following an agreement between the Prime Minister, Ariel Sharon, and the new Leader of the Israel Labour Party, Amir Peretz. ... The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ... Kadima (Hebrew: קדימה, QādÄ«māh, forward) is a centrist [note] Israeli political party. ... Labour or Labor, (Hebrew: העבודה, ha-`Avōdāh) is a political party in Israel. ... Shas logo Shas (Hebrew: שס) is an Israeli political party representing mostly Haredi Sephardi Jews. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a hawkish centre-right political party in Israel. ... Yisrael Beytenu (Hebrew: ישראל ביתנו, Israel Our Home) is a right-of-center political party in Israel with support from immigrants to Israel who came from the lands of the former Soviet Union. ... National Union (Hebrew: Haihud HaLeumi האיחוד הלאומי) is an Israeli right-wing party list (סיעה) formed from the merger of three parties: Moledet (homeland), Tkuma (revival) and Renewed National Religious Zionist party. The three parties still operate somewhat independently, but run as one party list in Israeli elections. ... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... National Union (Hebrew: Haihud HaLeumi האיחוד הלאומי) is an Israeli right-wing party list (סיעה) formed from the merger of three parties: Moledet (homeland), Tkuma (revival) and Renewed National Religious Zionist party. The three parties still operate somewhat independently, but run as one party list in Israeli elections. ... Moledet (Hebrew מולדת, literally homeland) is a small right-wing political party in Israel. ... Tkuma was a temporary Israeli right wing party during 1998. ... The Renewed Religious National Zionist party (Hebrew: מפלגת ציונות דתית לאומית מתחדשת) is a right-national, Religious Zionist political party in Israel which has split from the National Religious Party (Mafdal) in the 16th Knesset, and ended up merging into the National Union (which ran on a joint list with Mafdal) in the 2006 legislative... Mafdal party logo The National Religious Party (Hebrew: Mafdal, מפדל) is an Israeli political party representing the religious Zionist movement. ... Gil - Gimlaey Yisrael LaKneset (Hebrew: גיל - גימלאי ישראל לכנסת Gil - pensioners of Israel to the Knesset) is an Israeli pensioners party that ran in the 2006 Elections for the 17th Knesset. ... United Torah Judaism (In Hebrew: יהדות התורה which translates as Judaism [of the] Torah) (UTJ) is a small Haredi political party in the Israeli Knesset. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ... Degel HaTorah (or Degel haTorah) (דגל התורה Hebrew for Flag/Banner [of] the Torah) is an Israeli mostly Ashkenazi Haredi Judaism political party with a small number of seats (2-3) in the Knesset, Israels national parliament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Meretz. ... United Arab List (RAAM, Hebrew. ... Taal, or the Arab Movement for Renewal, is a single-member Israeli parliamentary group that was founded by MK Ahmad Tibi after he left Balad during the 14th Knesset. ... Hadash (חדש) is a far left wing, largely Arab [1], popular front group in Israel made up of the Communist Party of Israel and other left-leaning political groups. ... Balad (Hebrew acronym for Brit Leumit Demokrati (National Democratic Assembly), (in Arabic Al-Tajamu Al-Watani Al-DÄ«mÅ«qrati; balad (بلد) is also Arabic for country) is a political party in Israel representing the Israeli Arab minority. ... HaYerukim (הירוקים; literally The Greens) is the Green Party of Israel. ... Ale Yarok (Green Leaf) is a political party in Israel. ... The Chayil Party is the Right Wing Israeli political party founded by Baruch Marzel. ... Tafnit (Hebrew: תפנית Turnaround) is a political party and a social movement which was established by the Aluf in reserve Uzi Dayan. ... Hetz (Arrow) is an Israeli political party, founded by former Shinui member Avraham Poraz, after he lost the inner Shinui elections to Ron Levintal. ... Shinui (שינוי) (original full name: Tenua le-Shinui ve Yozma and then to Shinui-Mifleget ha-Merkaz) is a Zionist, secular and anti-clerical, free market liberal party in Israel. ...

1 14 Knesset members joined Kadima in November 2005, 13 of them from Likud.
2 Am Ehad (3 Knesset members) merged with Ha-Avoda (19 Knesset members) in 2004.
3 Israel Ba-Aliya (2 Knesset members) merged with Likud (38 Knesset members) in 2003, 13 MKs split and joined Kadima in 2005.
4 Yisrael Beytenu (3 Knesset members) split from National Union (7 Knesset members) in 2003.
5 National Religious Party (6 Knesset members) joined with National Union (4 Knesset members after the split 4) prior to the election.
6 9 Knesset members split from Shinui and joined Hetz prior to the elections.
7 Only 2 Knesset members were left from the original faction after the split6 prior to the elections.

Other political groups

Israeli politics are subject to unique circumstances and often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum. Groups are sometimes associated with the political left or right, especially in international circles, according to their stance on issues important to the Arab-Israeli conflict. A political spectrum is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Political right

On the political right: In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...

Gush Emunim גוש אמונים (Hebrew: Block [of the] faithful) was an Israeli political movement. ... The Yesha Council is the local government of Israeli settlers in Yesha, a Hebrew acronym for Judea, Samaria, Gaza, which are otherwise referred to as the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Israeli settlement. ... Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ... Professors for a Strong Israel is a far-right organization of academics united by a shared concern for the security and the Jewish character of the State of Israel, and support the principle of Greater Israel. ...

Political left

On the political left: In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...

  • the self identified Israeli "Peace Camp" is a coalition of parties and non-parliamentary groups which desire to promote their vision of peace between Israel and its Arab neighbours to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict through a "land for peace" program.
  • Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and was critical of government's policy in the Lebanon Civil War and military control of South Lebanon.
  • Geneva Initiative and The People's Voice (HaMifkad HaLeumi), two peace initiatives led by prominent Israeli and Palestinian public figures that surfaced in 2004. These initiatives were based on unofficial bilateral understandings between the two sides, and offer models for a permanent agreement. These initiatives have little validity with the Israeli public.
  • HaHistadrut ("The Union"; short for "the General Union of the Workers in Israel"), an umbrella organization for many labor unions in Israel. In the past, was identified with the different forms of the Israel Labor party; nowadays, the chairman of the Histadrut is Offer Eyni. The former chairman is Amir Peretz became head of the socialist Am Ehad party, which eventually merged into the Labor in 2004, which Peretz is heading since November 2005.
  • Several radical left-wing organizations calling soldiers to refuse service in the West Bank and Gaza; the best known are HaOmetz LeSarev ("Courage to Refuse") and Yesh Gvul (There's a limit/border). Their effect is little since they are shuned by the majority of the public, and only anti-Israeli parties agree to have contacts with them.
  • Maavak Sozialisti (Socialist Struggle) campaigns against privatisation and the worsening conditions faced by workers and young people in Israel.

The Israeli peace camp is a collection of political and non-political movements which desire to promote peace, mainly with the Arab neighbours of Israel (the Palestinians, Syria and Lebanon) and encourage co-existence with the Arab citizens of Israel. ... Land for peace is a general principle proposed for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict by which Israel would relinquish control of all or part of the territories it conquered in 1967 in return for peace with and recognition by the Arab world. ... Peace Now (Hebrew: שלום עכשיו - Shalom Achshav) is an extra-parliamental political movement in Israel, with the agenda of swaying popular opinion and convincing the Israeli government of the need and possibility for achieving a just peace and an historic conciliation with the Palestinian people and neighboring Arab countries; this in exchange... This article needs cleanup. ... South Lebanon may refer to South Lebanon, Ohio South Lebanon, Oregon South Lebanon Township, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the proposal for peace between Israel and Palestine. ... The Peoples Voice (called in Hebrew המפקד הלאומי, literally The National Census) is an Israeli-Palestinian civil initiative dedicated to advancing the process of achieving peace between Israel and the Palestinians. ... The Histadrut (Federation [of labor]) or HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim BEretz Yisrael (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל) (Hebrew: General Federation of Laborers in the Land of Israel) is the Israeli trade union congress. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Amir Peretz, MK, Chairman of the Israel Labour Party Amir Peretz (Hebrew: עמיר פרץ; Arabic: عمير بيريتس; born March 9, 1952) is an Israeli politician and Defense Minister of Israel. ... Am Ehad (One Nation) is a political party in Israel. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Refusal to serve in the Israeli military includes both refusal to obey specific orders and refusal to serve in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) in any capacity due to pacifistic or antimilitaristic views or disagreement with the policies of the Israeli government as implemented by the army. ... Ometz Lesarev (Hebrew: Courage to Refuse) is an organization of Zionist reserve officers and soldiers of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) who refuse to serve beyond the 1967 borders, but shall continue serving in the Israel Defense Forces in any mission that serves Israels defense. ... Note: The original term Refusenik was used to describe Russian Jews who had applied to leave the former Soviet Union and who either refused to leave without their family members, or more commonly, were refused exit-visas to leave for Israel. ... Maavak Sozialisti (מאבק סוציאליסטי in Hebrew) is an Israeli left-wing socialist organization affiliated with the Committee for a Workers International. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...

Interest groups

  • The kibbutzim lobby, which seek to receive financial aid from the government.
  • The agriculture lobby, which seek to receive subsidies and tax relief on water.
  • The lobby for promoting the status of women, a feminist group which co-operates with the Knesset.
  • The lobby for the release of Jonathan Pollard, a Jewish spy jailed in the USA
  • Or Yarok ("Green Light"): an organization devoted to reducing road accidents in Israel through education, enforcement, improvement of infrastructure and the establishment of a national task force to research the problem and formulate a long-term plan to reduce car accidents.

Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective intentional community. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954) is a former civilian intelligence analyst who pled guilty and was convicted on one count of spying for Israel, and in 1986 received a life sentence with a recommendation against parole. ... Spy and secret agent redirect here; for alternate use, see Spy (disambiguation) and Secret agent (disambiguation). ...

Others

  • Notable rabbinic figures have considerable influence on several Israeli parties and politicians, notably Shas and United Torah Judaism.
  • Neturei Karta, an anti-zionist fringe Haredi group that rejects Israel and refrains from taking part in elections. They have little to no effect on Israeli politics.
  • The Monitor Committee of Israeli Arabs: an Arab group, claiming to represent the interests of the Israeli Arab minority in Israel, tend to be separatists and hence perceived as hostile by the Jewish majority and have little influence in politics.

Rabbi (Classical Hebrew רִבִּי ribbī;; modern Ashkenazi and Israeli רַבִּי rabbī) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished, (in knowledge). In the ancient Judean schools (and among Sefaradim today) the sages... Members of the Neturei Karta protesting against Zionism. ... Haredi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Judaism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Political issues

Major issues in Israeli political life include:

Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article discusses the relationship between the various denominations of Judaism. ... The term Jewish state is sometimes used to describe the State of Israel and refers to its status as a nation-state for the Jewish people. ... Religion in Israel is unique in that Israel is the only country in which Judaism is the religion of the majority of citizens. ...

International organization participation

BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO. The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation is an organization created on June 25, 1992, to promote cooperation between its members, hoping to transform the BSEC into a regional economic organization. ... The Palace of Europe in Strasbourg European Flag: used by the Council of Europe and by the European Union The Council of Europe (French: Conseil de lEurope , German: Europarat /ˌɔɪ.ˈro. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire), commonly known as CERN, is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just west of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... The Inter-American Development Bank (preferred abbreviation: IDB; but frequently given as IADB), was established in 1959 to support Latin American and Caribbean economic/social development and regional integration by lending mainly to public institutions. ... The IAEA flag The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, internally often referred to as The Agency) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... The International Development Association (IDA) was created on September 24, 1960, is a UN specialized agency. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve peoples lives. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations to deal with labour issues. ... The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance when requested. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Inmarsat plc is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... Interpol logo INTERPOL (or International Criminal Police Organization) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organisation. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... Monument in Bern, Switzerland. ... The Organization of American States (OAS; OEA in the other three official languages) is an international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., USA. Its members are the 35 independent nations of the Americas. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartereded in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps member states communicate and co-operate on customs issues. ... Flag of World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Headquarters in Geneva The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... WTO Logo The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international, multilateral organization, which sets the rules for the global trading system and resolves disputes between its member states, all of whom are signatories to its approximately 30 agreements. ...


Districts

Main article: Districts of Israel

For governmental purposes, Israel is divided into six districts: Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv. Administration of the districts is coordinated by the Ministry of Interior. The Ministry of Defense is responsible for the administration of the disputed territories. Map of the districts of Israel There are six main districts of Israel, known in Hebrew as mehozot (מחוזות; singular: mahoz) and fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (נפות; singular: nafa). ... The Center District, or Central District, of Israel is one of six districts, and includes the following towns and cities: Hod Hasharon הוד השרון Kefar Sava כפר סבא Lod לוד (Al-Lydd in Arabic) Modiin מ&#1493... Haifa District surrounding the city of Haifa in Israel, is one of six districts and includes the following towns and cities: Baqa al-Gharbiyye באקה אל-גרביה Hadera חדרה Haifa חיפה Nesher נשר Or Aqiva אור עקיבא Qiryat Atta קריית אתא Qiryat Bialik קריית ביאליק Qiryat Motzkin קריית מוצקין Qiryat Yam קריית ים Tirat Karmel טירת הכרמל Umm al-Fahm אום אל-פאחם Zikhron Yaaqov זכרון יעקב See also Districts of Israel... The Jerusalem District, highlighted. ... North District, or Northern District, is one of six districts in Israel, it covers a large area of the Galilee, and includes the following cities: Afula עפולה Akko (Acre) עכו Bet Shean בית שאן Caesarea (Qesarriya) קיסריה Karmiel כרמיאל Maalot-Tarshiha Migdal HaEmeq מגדל העמק Nahariyya נהריה Nazareth נצרת Nazerat Illit נצרת עילית Sakhnin סחנין Shefa-Amr (Shfaram) שפרעם Tiberias טבריה Zefat... The Southern District, or South District, of Israel, is one of six districts, and is the largest in terms of land area. ... The Tel Aviv District of Israel includes the following towns and cities: Bat Yam בת ים Bene Beraq בני ברק Givatayim גבעתיים Herzliyya הרצליה Holon חולון Or Yehuda &#1488... The Ministry of the Interior of the Israeli government is responsible for internal matters within the Jewish State of Israel. ... The Ministry of Defense (or Ministry of Defence) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats. ... The Golan Heights plateau, formerly known as the Syrian Heights, overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ...


Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference, organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords in the White House Rose Garden: Menachem Begin (right), Jimmy Carter (center), Anwar Sadat (left) The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, or Israel-Jordan peace treaty is a peace treaty signed between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1994. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ... This page discusses the many projects that work to create a peaceful and productive co-existence between Israelis and Arabs including the Palestinians. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Arguments about the applicability of various elements of international law underlie the debate around the Arab-Israeli conflict. ...

References

  • Knesset web site

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics of Israel (1610 words)
Israel's governmental system is based on several basic laws enacted by its unicameral parliament, the Knesset.
From the founding of Israel in 1948 until the election of May 1977, Israel was ruled by successive coalition governments led by the Labor alignment or its constituent parties.
Major issues in Israeli political life include the approach to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict specifically and the Arab-Israeli conflict generally; the relationship between segments of Judaism and the secular or religious nature of the state of Israel; and the economy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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