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Encyclopedia > Politics of Iran
Iran

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Politics and government of
Iran
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The politics and government of Iran takes place in the framework of a republic with Islamist ideology. The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. It declares that Shi'a Islam of the Jaafari (Usuli) school of thought is Iran's official religion. The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Iranian constitution, as anyone appointed by the President to lead an organization related to the Presidential affairs. ... Parviz Davoodi (born 1952 in Tehran) is the current First Vice President of Iran (since September 11, 2005). ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian parliament. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati Massah (Persian: , born 1926 in Esfahan) is an Iranian ayatollah and political figure. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1] (Persian: ), is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader [2] and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988 [3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (آیت‌الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq) is an Iranian politician and Shia cleric. ... Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... Saeed Jalili (Persian: ,born 1965 in Mashhad [1]) is an Iranian politician. ... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... The new Defence Minister, Mostafa Mohammad Najjar, 49, is a veteran of the Revolutionary Guards since the establishment of the body in 1980, where he served as in charge of the Middle East Department, with Palestine, Lebanon and the Persian Gulf as places of particular attention. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (Persian: وزارت اطلاعات Ùˆ امنیت کشور) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Ejeie is the current head of the Ministry of Intelligence in Iran, also known as SVAMA and was appointed by the current president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, on August 24, 2005. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... Map of Irans major crops, circa 1978. ... Mohammad Reza Eskandari is the Minister of Agriculture of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Bank Markazi, Tehran, Iran Bank Markazi Iran or Bank Markazi Jomhouri Islami Iran (Persian: بانک مرکزی جمهوری اسلامی ايران) is the Central bank of Iran. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ... The Iranian Assembly of Experts election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... The Iranian City and Village Councils election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... The provinces of Iran are divided into counties or shahrestānhā (Persian: شهرستان, singular shahrestān), and each shahrestan is subdivided into districts or bakhshānhā (Persian: بخش, singular bakhsh). ... Political parties in Iran gives informations on the political parties in Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ...

Contents

Political conditions

Iran's post-revolution difficulties have included an eight year war with Iraq, internal political struggles and unrest[citation needed], and economic disorder. The early days of the regime were characterized by political turmoil[citation needed], including the seizure of the United States embassy compound and its occupants on November 4, 1979, by Iranian militants, a backlash against the US for it's illegal overthrow of the democratically elected Iranian government in 1954. As the United States no longer has formal diplomatic relations with Iran, Switzerland handles U.S. interests in Iran. Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


By mid-1982, a succession of power struggles eliminated first the center of the political spectrum and then the leftists[citation needed], leaving only the clergy and their supporters in power. There has been some moderation of excesses both internally and internationally, although there are well founded claims that Iran still remains a sponsor of terrorism, this has yet to be proven definitively[citation needed]. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Islamic Republic Party was Iran's dominant political party until its dissolution in 1987; Iran had no functioning political parties until the Executives of Construction Party formed in 1994 to run for the fifth parliamentary elections, mainly out of executive body of the government close to the then-president Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani. After the election of Mohammad Khatami in 1997, more parties started to work, mostly of the reformist movement and opposed by hard-liners. This led to incorporation and official activity of many other groups, including hard-liners. The Iranian Government is opposed by a few armed political groups, including the Mojahedin-e-Khalq, the People's Fedayeen, and the Kurdish Democratic Party. The Islamic Republic Party (حزب جمهوری اسلامی) was a political party in Iran, founded in 1979 by Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili, and included several supporters of the Islamic Republic government of Iran. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Executives of Construction Party (حزب کارگزاران سازندگی) is a political party in Iran, founded by several members of the cabinet of the then-President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most influential... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... MKO Logo The Mojahedin-e-Khalq is also known as the Mujahedin-e-Khalq (MEK), the Mujahideen al-Khalq, the Mujahideen al-Khalq Organization (MKO), or the The Peoples Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI). ... IFPG symbol The Iranian Peoples Fedai Guerrillas (in Persian: چريکهای فدايي خلق ايران, translit. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran is a Kurdish opposition group in Iranian Kurdistan which seeks the attainment of Kurdish national rights within a democratic federal republic of Iran. ...


For other political parties see List of political parties in Iran. Political parties in Iran lists political parties in Iran. ...


The Supreme Leader

The Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for the delineation and supervision of "the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran". The Supreme Leader is Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, controls the military intelligence and security operations; and has the only power to declare war. The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader. The Assembly of Experts elects and dismisses the Supreme Leader on the basis of qualifications and popular esteem--none have ever been dismissed.[1] The Assembly of Experts is responsible for supervising the Supreme Leader in the performance of legal duties. The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: رهبر انقلاب, Rahbare Enqelab,[1] lit. ... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...


Executive branch

Main article: President of Iran
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Iranian President Ahmadinejad speaks at Columbia University

The Constitution defines the President as the highest state authority after the Supreme Leader. The President is elected by universal suffrage, by those 15 years old and older[1], for a term of four years. Presidential candidates must be approved by the Council of Guardians prior to running. The President is responsible for the implementation of the Constitution and for the exercise of executive powers, except for matters directly related to the Supreme Leader. The President appoints and supervises the Council of Ministers, coordinates government decisions, and selects government policies to be placed before the legislature. Currently, 10 Vice-Presidents serve under the President, as well as a cabinet of 21 ministers, who must all be approved by the legislature. Unlike many other states, the executive branch in Iran does not control the armed forces. Although the President appoints the Ministers of Intelligence and Defense, it is customary for the President to obtain explicit approval from the Supreme Leader for these two ministers before presenting them to the legislature for a vote of confidence. The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The President of Iran is the head of government. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution... This is a list of Iranian officials with their titles, last checked and updated on September 28, 2005. ... Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Iranian constitution, as anyone appointed by the President to lead an organization related to the Presidential affairs. ...


Legislative branch

The current legislature of Iran is unicameral. Before the Islamic Revolution, the legislature was bicameral, but the upper house was removed in the new constitution. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Iranian Senate was a legislative chamber that was disbanded after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Iran. ...


Majles (Parliament)

Main article: Majlis of Iran

The Majles-e Shura-ye Eslami (Islamic Consultative Assembly), comprises 290 members elected for four-year terms. The Majlis drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget. All Majlis candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Council of Guardians. Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution...


Guardian Council

Main article: Guardian Council

The Guardian Council is comprised of 12 jurists, including six clerics appointed by the Supreme Leader, and six jurists elected by the Majlis from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial System. The Council interprets the constitution and may reject bills from parliament deemed incompatible with the constitution or Sharia (Islamic law). These are referred back to parliament for revision. In a controversial exercise of its authority, the Council has drawn upon a narrow interpretation of Iran's constitution to veto parliamentary candidates. The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


Expediency Council

The Expediency Council has the authority to mediate disputes between Majles and the Council of Guardians, and serves as an advisory body to the Supreme Leader, making it one of the most powerful governing bodies in the country. The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1] (Persian: ), is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader [2] and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988 [3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1] (Persian: ), is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader [2] and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988 [3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and...


Judicial branch

The Supreme Leader appoints the head of the Judiciary, who in turn appoints the head of the supreme court and the chief public prosecutor. There are several types of courts including public courts that deal with civil and criminal cases, and "revolutionary courts" which deal with certain categories of offenses, including crimes against national security. The decisions of the revolutionary courts are final and cannot be appealed. The Special Clerical Court handles crimes allegedly committed by clerics, although it has also taken on cases involving lay people. The Special Clerical Court functions independently of the regular judicial framework and is accountable only to the Supreme Leader. The Court’s rulings are final and cannot be appealed. The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


Assembly of Experts

Assembly of Experts
Main article: Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts, which meets for at least two days, twice annually,[2] comprises 86 "virtuous and learned" clerics elected by adult suffrage for eight-year terms. Based on the laws approved by the first Assembly, the Council of Guardians has to determine candidates' ijtihad eligibility using a written examination. The Assembly elects the Supreme Leader and has the constitutional authority to remove the Supreme Leader from power at any time. As all of their meetings and notes are strictly confidential, the Assembly has never been known to challenge any of the Supreme Leader's decisions. Image File history File links Experts. ... Image File history File links Experts. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Political parties and elections

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 17 and 24 June 2005 Iranian Presidential election results
Candidates Votes 1st round % Votes 2nd round %
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani 6,211,937 21.13 10,046,701 35.93
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 5,711,696 19.43 17,284,782 61.69
Mehdi Karroubi 5,070,114 17.24 - -
Mostafa Moeen 4,095,827 13.93 - -
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf 4,083,951 13.89 - -
Ali Larijani 1,713,810 5.83 - -
Mohsen Mehralizadeh 1,288,640 4.38 - -
Blank or invalid votes 1,224,882 4.17 663,770 2.37
Total (turnout 62.66% and 59.6%) 29,400,857 100 27,959,253 100
More info: Iranian presidential election, 2005

For the parliamentary elections of February 20, 2004, the Ministry of Interior Affairs announced a 50% turnout, the lowest in any general election since 1979. It was disputed by the Guardian Council, which claimed the result was closer to 60%. Conservative forces received 54% (156 seats), reformists received 14% of the vote (40 seats), and independents (34 seats); 60 seats were up for runoff election in May 2004. In the run-up to the election many reformist candidates, including about 80 members of the outgoing parliament, were disqualified by the Guardian Council; more than a 100 MPs protested by staging a sit-in in the parliament that lasted for about 3 weeks and ended to no avail. About 120 MPs then resigned and major reformist parties and groups stated they will not take part in the election but did not boycott it. The crisis resulted in a crack in the reformist front, when the Militant Clerics League, of which President Khatami is a member, announced they will participate in the election. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in Iran lists political parties in Iran. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ... Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian: اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar HāshemÄ« RafanjānÄ«), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on August 25, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and is currently serving as the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Hojjat ol-Eslam Mehdi Karroubi (مهدی کروبی ; born 1939? in Aligoudarz in Lorestan) is an Iranian politician and cleric, the resigned chairman and founding member of the Militant Clerics Society party. ... Dr Mostafa Moeen Mostafa Moeen, M.D. (مصطفی معین; born April 1, 1951), also spelled Moin, is an Iranian politician and professor, and an Advisor to the former President Mohammad Khatami. ... Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمد باقر قالیباف; born September 1961 in Mashhad) is an Iranian General and the former commander of Police Forces of Iran. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... Mohsen Mehralizadeh (in Persian: محسن مهرعلیزاده) is a Vice President of Iran and the head of the National Sports Organization of Iran under President Khatami. ... The Iranian presidential election of 2005, the ninth presidential election in Iranian history, took place in two rounds, first on June 17, 2005, and then as a run-off on June 24. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Mohammad Khatami (Persian : سید محمد خاتمی Seyyed Moḥammad KhātamÄ«), born on September 29, 1943, in Ardakan city of Yazd province, is an Iranian intellectual, philosopher and political figure. ...

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 20 February and 7 May 2004 Majlis of Iran election results
Orientiation of candidates Votes % Seats % of Seats
Conservatives 156 54%
Reformists 39 13%
Independents 31 11%
Elected in second round 59 20%
Armenians recognized minority religion 2
Chaldean and Assyrian Catholic recognized minority religion 1
Jewish recognized minority religion 1
Zoroastrian recognized minority religion 1
Total (Turnout around 50 %) 290
Source: IPU
More info: Iranian Majlis election, 2004

Image:DSC--Majlis5323. ... The Iranian reform movment (Persian:اصلاح طلبان), or the Reforms Front (Persian: جبههٔ اصلاحات) also known as 2nd of Khordad Front (Persian: جبهه دوم خرداد which refers to the date of Khatamis landslide election victory in the Iranian Calendar) is a political movement by a group of political parties and organizations in Iran who supported Mohammad... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... The once thriving Assyrian community in Iran was diminished from around 200,000 at the close of the 20th century to a mere 5,000 while the total population of Assyrians in all of Iran hovers at around 15,000 to 20,000 (total population of Iran is estimated at... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... A modern-day synagogue in Iran. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... Map showing ethnic and religious diversity among the population of Iran. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Stub | 2004 elections | Elections in Iran ...

Political pressure groups and leaders

Active student groups include the pro-reform "Office for Strengthening Unity" and "the Union of Islamic Student Societies'; groups that generally support the Islamic Republic include Ansar-e Hizballah, The Iranian Islamic Students Association, Muslim Students Following the Line of the Imam, Islam's Students, and the Islamic Coalition Association; opposition groups include the Liberation Movement of Iran and the Nation of Iran party; armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by the government include Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK), People's Fedayeen, Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; the Society for the Defense of Freedom. Following the 1979 Islamic revolution he became a member the ultra-conservative faction of the Office for Strengthening Unity [OSU] Between Universities and Theological Seminaries. ...


Iranian opposition groups have been severely repressed by the regime, an example being the Freedom party of Iran that is now "forbidden". Repression of opposition groups is becoming more harsh as of mid 2007.[3] Exile parties however, are not controlled by the regime and are becoming stronger and more well recognised.[citation needed]


Hooshang Amirahmadi, (president of the American Iranian Council ran for President in the Ninth Presidential Election in Iran in June 2005, but the conservative and religious Guardian Council disqualified him for his American citizenship and democratic platform. [2] Founded in 1997, the American Iranian Council (AIC) was formed as a civil society organization focused upon promoting better relations between the United States and Iran. ...


Military

Iranian-made Shafaq jet
Main article: Military of Iran

The military is charged with defending Iran's borders, while the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (a.k.a. Sepah) is charged mainly with maintaining internal security. Image File history File links Shafaq. ... Image File history File links Shafaq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: ) include the IRIA (Persian: ) , the IRGC (Persian: ) , and the Police Force[1] (Persian: ). These forces total about 545,000 active personnel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Administrative divisions

Main article: Provinces of Iran

Iran consists of 30 provinces (ostaan-haa, singular: ostan): Ardabil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Golestan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman, Kermanshahan, North Khorasan, Khorasan, South Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Qom, Qazvin, Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan. The provinces are each headed by a governor general. The provinces are further divided into counties, districts, and villages. Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ...


Local government

Local councils are elected by public vote to 4-year terms in all cities and villages of Iran. According to article 7 Iran's Constitution, these local councils together with the Parliament are "decision-making and administrative organs of the State". This section of the constitution was not implemented until 1999 when the first local council elections were held across the country. Councils have many different responsibilities including electing mayors, supervising the activities of municipalities; studying the social, cultural, educational, health, economic, and welfare requirements of their constituencies; planning and coordinating national participation in the implementation of social, economic, constructive, cultural, educational and other welfare affairs. City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ...


Criticism of the System

Image File history File links Schema_gvt_iran_en. ...


According to current election laws, the Guardian Council oversees and approves electoral candidates for most national elections in Iran. The Guardian Council has 12 members, six clerics, appointed by the Supreme Leader and six jurists, elected by the Majlis from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial System, who is appointed by the Supreme Leader. According to the current law, the Guardian Council approves the Assembly of Experts candidates, which in turn supervise and elect the Supreme Leader. The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...


The reformists say this system creates a closed circle of power.[4] Iranian reformists, such as Mohammad-Ali Abtahi have considered this to be the core legal obstacle for the reform movement in Iran.[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ... Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abtahi (Persian: محمدعلی ابطحی) (born January 28, 1960 in Mashhad) is an Iranian (Persian) politician, close to former President Mohammad Khatami. ... Second of Khordad Movement refers to a movement started by 6th presidental election in Iran. ...


However, conservatives reject the existence of a circle, stating the ever-changing members of the Guardian Council and the Assembly of Experts, as well as human free-will, makes this system of checks and balances in power that exist in any system.[10]


Neither of these two laws are mandated by the constitution and are ordinary laws passed by the Parliament or the Assembly of Experts [11], which therefore can theoretically be reversed. However, despite efforts of many political activists, it has been impossible to do so until now, as they have failed to win majority in the Assembly. [12]


International organization participation

CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO WFTU, WEF, WHO, WMO, WTO (observer) The Colombo Plan began in 1951, and is a regional organisation focused on social development. ... Map of the ECO member states The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) is an intergovernmental international organization involving ten Asian nations. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... G15 countries. ... G24 countries. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. ... Islamic Development Bank (also known as IDB), is a multilateral development financing institution. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) is an international humanitarian organisation, often better known as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organization. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... Not to be confused with APEC. OPEC Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international cartel[1][2] made up of Iraq, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Angola, Algeria, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Headquarters Secretariat RATS - Beijing, PRC - Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Chinese, Russian Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Formation 14 June 2001 Official website http://www. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The World Confederation of Labour (WCL) was founded in 1920 under the name of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions as a confederation of unions associated with the Christian Democratic parties of Europe. ... The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps Members (currently Customs administrations from 169 countries) communicate and co-operate on customs issues. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... “WTO” redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. "Iran - The Constitution". Retrieved on 2006-04-14.
  2. ^ http://www.khobregan.ir/persian/ashnaee/07.htm
  3. ^ Iran has recently intensified its harassment of critics and people it deems threatening to the government, July 17, 2007
  4. ^ http://www.mojahedin-enghelab.org/ShowItem.aspx?ID=54&p=1
  5. ^ http://www.webneveshteha.com/en/weblog/?id=2146308224
  6. ^ http://www.webneveshteha.com/en/weblog/?id=2146308301
  7. ^ http://www.webneveshteha.com/en/weblog/?id=2146307117
  8. ^ http://www.webneveshteha.com/en/media.asp?id=10588595
  9. ^ http://www.webneveshteha.com/en/weblog/?id=1779650752
  10. ^ http://www.kayhannews.ir/851006/12.htm#other1206
  11. ^ http://www.khobregan.ir/persian/ashnaee/09.htm
  12. ^ http://www.aftabnews.ir/vdciryat1yazw.html

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ...

Literature

  • Ray Takeyh: Hidden Iran - Paradox and Power in the Islamic Republic, New York 2006, ISBN 978-0-8050-7976-0

Ray Takeyh on PBS (February 20, 2004). ...

See also

The December 1979 constitution, and its 1989 amendment, define the political, economic, and social order of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Morgan Shuster and US officials at Atabak Palace, Tehran, 1911. ... Introduction Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli; The main gates to Irans Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran, Iran. ... Relations between Iran and Israel have alternated from close political alliances between the two states during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty to hostility following the rise to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... Combatants  Iran Kurdish Peshmerga Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters... As the result of an amendment to the Constitution of Iran in 1989, there is no longer a post titled Prime Minister of Iran, but Iran has had many prime ministers since the Qajar era, when the country was internationally known as Persia. ... Haghani Circle is a school of thought in Iran made by a group of clerics based in the holy city of Qom and headed by Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi, an influential cleric and theologician. ... Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگي، صنايع دستي Ùˆ گردشگري) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ... Human rights in Iran face the issues of governmental impunity, restricted freedom of speech, torture, and other excesses. ... In the summer on 1988, immediately after Iran accepted the cease-fire in the Iran-Iraq war, the Iranian government carried out a systematic slaughter of the political prisoners across the country especially those the government called hypocrites (Monafeghs). ... The censorship in the Islamic Republic of Iran has two dimensions: religious and political. ...

External links

Government Ministries of Iran

  • Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
  • Ministry of Health and Medical Education
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance
  • Ministry of Commerce
  • Ministry of Energy
  • Ministry of Petroleum
  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Development
  • Ministry of Industry and Mines
  • Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces
  • Ministry of Roads and Transportation
  • Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
  • Ministry of Interior
  • Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, (2)
  • Ministry of Cooperation
  • Ministry of Education
  • Ministry of Economic and Finance Affairs

Other government links

  • Secretariat of The High Council of Iran Free Trade Industrial Zones
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Central Bank
  • Secretariat of The High Council of The Cultural Revolution
  • Official Spokesman of the Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Atomic Energy Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Police Forces
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of The Arts
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Geological Survey Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Management and Planning Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Organization of Welfare
  • Islamic Republic of Iran National Youth Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Judiciary Public Relations Bureau
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Center for Affairs of Women's Participation
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Medical Sciences
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Cultural Heritage Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Headquarters for Combating Drugs
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Department of Environment
  • Islamic Republic of Iran International Center for Diologue Among Civilizations
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Red Crescent Society
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Physical Education Organization
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Academy of Sciences

---

  • Iran Center for Strategic Studies
  • Tehran International Studies and Research Institute
  • The Network of Iranian law in Persian, English and French
  • Constitutional law in French
  • Iranian law in English
  • Iranian law in French

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