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Encyclopedia > Politics of France

Life in France This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ...

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France

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
France
It has been suggested that Freedom of information in France be merged into this article or section. ... Masterpiece painting by Eugène Delacroix called Liberty Leading the People portrays the July Revolution using the stylistic views of Romanticism. ... This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Holidays in France: Note: Only labour day (May 1st) is a public holiday by statute. ... In France, the country is often called the patrie des droits de lHomme (human rights homeland), mostly ironically by persons who complain about a perceived violation of theses rights. ... A homeless man in Paris. ... elliot is the worst swimmer (note the sarcasm) ... The social situation in the French suburbs, called banlieues, is a complex topic. ... Image File history File links Logo_de_la_République_française. ...



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The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of France is head of state and the Prime Minister of France head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Senate and National Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... // Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 December 1848 - 2 December 1852) Louis Jules Trochu (September 4, 1870 - January 22, 1871) (Interim President) Adolphe Thiers (17 February 1871 - 24 May 1873) (Head of Executive Power to 31 August 1871) Marshal Patrice de Mac-Mahon (24 May 1873 - 30 January 1879) Jules Armand... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is a list of French prime ministers. ... The Parlement of France is bicameral, and consists of the National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and the Senate (Sénat). ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The French Congress (French: ) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament – the French National Assembly and the French Senate – reunite at the Château of Versailles to vote on revisions to the French constitution. ... A republican guard giving directions to visitors at the front entrance of the Constitutional Council The Constitutional Council (Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. ... The Court of Cassation (Cour de cassation in French) is the main court of last resort in France. ... Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... France is a representative democracy. ... The French presidential of 1958, the first of the French Fifth Republic, took place on December 21, 1958. ... The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in France | 1988 elections ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... French legislative election took place on March 4 and 11, 1973 to elect the 5th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on March 12 and 19, 1978 to elect the 6th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on June 14 and 21, 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... The French legislative election took place on March 16, 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on June 5 and 12, 1988 to elect the 9th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place on March 21 and 28, 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... These are the results of the French legislative election of 2002 Category: ... The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May. ... In France, the country is often called the patrie des droits de lHomme (human rights homeland), mostly ironically by persons who complain about a perceived violation of theses rights. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. ... The honour entrance to the Ministry building on the Quai dOrsay The Minister of Foreign Affairs, in the Government of France, is the cabinet member responsible for the Republics network of relationships with foreign nations. ... This is a list of major political scandals in France: 1816 shipwreck of and search for French frigate Medusa off the west coast of Africa Dreyfus Affair, 1894 treason conviction of Alfred Dreyfus - exposed by writer Emile Zola on January 13, 1898 The Ben Barka affair, 1965 disappearance of the... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Senate amphitheater in the Luxembourg Palace The Senate (in French :le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...

Contents

Left and Right in France and main political parties

Since the 1789 French Revolution, the political spectrum in France has obeyed the left-right distinction. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ...


The Lefts

Further information: History of the Left in France

At the beginning of the 20th century, the French Left divided itself into reformists and revolutionaries: beside the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers' International) of Léon Blum, the French Communist Party (PCF) remained an important force to take into account despite it remaining in the opposition since the May 1947 crisis. After World War I and the 1920 Tours Congress leading to the creation of the SFIC (future PCF), the Left was in power during the Cartel des gauches (Left-Wing Coalition), from 1924 to 1926 and from 1932 to the 6 February 1934 crisis, and then under the Popular Front in 1936. The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sfio, or Safe/Fast I/O, is an I/O library developed by AT&T Research, with several improvements over the ANSI C stdio library. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Tours Congress was the 18th national congress of the SFIO, the French Section of the Second International, which took place in december 1920 and during which the majority voted to spin-out and create the SFIC (French Section of the Communist International), which later took its actual name of... After the French governments embarrassing failure to collect German reparations even after invading the Ruhr, the Bloc National was replaced by the Cartel des Gauches, a moderate socialistic coalition elected on May 11, 1924. ... The February 6, 1934 crisis refers to an anti-parliamentarist demonstration organised in Paris by far-right leagues (antiparliamentarian militias), which finished by a riot on Place de la Concorde, which is located on the right bank of the Seine, in front of the Palais Bourbon, seat of the National... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ...


The PCF was however contested on its left by various parties and by the New Left or Seconde Gauche, including Cornelius Castoriadis's Socialisme ou Barbarie from 1948 to 1965, Arlette Laguiller's Workers' Struggle (LO), the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) or the various anarchist movements. Others components of the New Left included the environmentalists (who would eventually found the Greens in 1982) or advocates of new social movements (including Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, etc.). The Unified Socialist Party (PSU) was formed in 1960 by the merger of a the Parti social autonome (a spin-of of the social-democrat Socialist Party (PS), which replaced the SFIO in 1969), the Union de la gauche socialiste (UGS) and the Tribune communiste current in the PCF (led by Jean Poperen). Headed by Michel Rocard, the PSU, related to the CFDT trade-union, advocated at its origins auto-gestion. The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Cornelius Castoriadis (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ... Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism) was a French-based radical libertarian socialist group of the post-World War II period (the name comes from a phrase Rosa Luxembourg used in a 1916 essay, The Junius Pamphlet). It existed from 1948 until 1965. ... Arlette Laguiller (born March 18, 1940) is the spokeswoman and by far the best known leader of the Lutte Ouvrière French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... LCR protesters marching in a workforce demonstration in favour of public services and against privatisation The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Bold textHello ... Les Verts (the Greens) is a Green Party in France. ... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... The Unified Socialist Party (French: Parti Socialiste Unifié, PSU) was a socialist political party in France, founded on April 3, 1960. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... The Union de la gauche socialiste (UGS, Union of the Socialist Left) was a French movement of left-wing activists, founded at the end of 1957 by dissidents of the SFIO main socialist party and former Resistants, until then sympathisants of the Communist Party (PCF — compagnons de route, litt. ... Michel Rocard, French politician Michel Rocard (born August 23, 1930) is a French Socialist politician, former French Prime minister, and currently a member of the European Parliament. ... The Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT or French Democratic Confederation of Labour) is a national trade union center, one of the five major French confederations of trade unions, led since 2002 by François Chérèque. ... Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ...


Finally, the Radical Party, which inherited of the tradition of the French Left and of Radical Republicanism (sharing left-wing traits such as anti-clericalism), progressively slid more and more to the center, being one of the main governing parties of the Third Republic after World War I. Despite some ambiguities (support to Pierre Mendès-France's center-left Republican Front during the 1956 legislative elections), it finally embraced economic liberalism and slid to the center-right. In 1972, Radicals still anchored in the left spinned out to form the Left Radical Party (PRG), which has remained to this day an ally of the PS. Finally, in 1993, Jean-Pierre Chevènement left the PS to form the Citizen and Republican Movement (MRP), a left-wing euro-sceptic party attached to the tradition of Republicanism and universalism (secularism, equal opportunities, opposition to multiculturalism, etc.). The Radical Party (Parti Radical or Républicains Radicaux et Radicaux-Socialistes, Radical Republicans and Radical Socialists), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism. ... Radical Republicans were a group of American politicians during the Reconstruction era that believed freed slaves should have political equality with other citizens. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) (1870/75-10 July 1940) was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Vichy Regime. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... The Republican Front was a French center-left coalition which won the 1956 legislative election. ... French legislative election took place on 2 January 1956 to elect the 3rd National Assembly of the Fourth Republic by the party-list proportional representation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Left Radical Party (French: or PRG) is a minor French centre-left, social-liberal party with moderate views, formed in 1972 by a split from the Radical, Republican and Radical-Socialists Party, once the dominant party of the French left. ... Jean-Pierre Chevènement Jean-Pierre Chevènement (born March 9, 1939 in Belfort) is a French politician. ... The Citizen and Republican Movement (Mouvement républicain et citoyen) is a political party in France. ... Euroscepticism is scepticism about, or disagreement with, the purposes of the European Union, sometimes coupled with a desire to preserve national sovereignty. ... Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations. ... This article is about secularism. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to give equal access to an environment or benefits, such as education, employment, health care, or social welfare to members of various social groups, some of which might otherwise suffer from discrimination. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


The Right-wings

Further information: Liberalism and Radicalism in France and History of the far-right in France

On the other hand, the right-wing has been divided, according to historian René Rémond's famous classification, into three broad families, classified in the chronological order of their appearance: This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in France. ... The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... René Rémond (born in 1918) is a French historian and political economist. ...

The Gaullist UDR was then transformed by Jacques Chirac in the Rally for the Republic (RPR) in 1976, a neo-Gaullist party which embraced economic liberalism. In 2002 the RPR became the Union for the Presidential Majority and then the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) in an attempt to unify the French conservatives together. However, a small section of the former UDF, headed by François Bayrou, refused to align themselves on Nicolas Sarkozy's lines, and created the MoDem in an attempt to make space for a center-right party. Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... The term Ultra-Royalists or simply Ultras refers to a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. ... Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of Napoleon I of... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... The Révolution nationale (National Revolution) was the official ideological name under which the Vichy regime (the French state) established by Marshall Pétain in July 1940 presented its program. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... A 1950s Low Mass in Bohermeen, Ireland in the presence of a bishop and several priests and with the altar arranged for Eucharistic devotions to follow A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and... The Most Reverend Dr. Marcel-François Lefebvre (November 29, 1905–March 25, 1991), better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French Roman Catholic bishop. ... The Society of St. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Radical Party (Parti Radical or Républicains Radicaux et Radicaux-Socialistes, Radical Republicans and Radical Socialists), was a major French political party of the early to mid 20th century, originally considered radical due to its anti-clericalism. ... The Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (Union démocratique et socialiste de la Résistance or UDSR) was a French centerist political party. ... The Popular Republican Movement (Mouvement Républicain Populaire or MRP) was a French Christian democratic party of the Fourth Republic. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... The Independent Republicans were a French right-wing political group, which became a political party with the creation of the National Federation of the Independent Republicans in 1966. ... The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) is a French centrist political party. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... // In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Please post proper article, this page was tampered with, thank you. ... The Rally of the French People (French Rassemblement du Peuple Français or RPF) was a French political party, led by Charles de Gaulle. ... Union of Democrats for the Republic (French : Union des Démocrates pour la République), also known as the Gaullist Party was a political party of France. ... Portrait of General Georges Boulanger Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (April 29, 1837 - September 30, 1891) was a French general and reactionary politician. ... Pierre Poujade (December 1, 1920 – August 27, 2003), born in Saint-Céré, was a French populist politician after whom the Poujadist movement was named. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... UMP redirects here. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... François Bayrou François Bayrou (IPA: ) is a leading candidate for the French Presidental election of 2007. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ...


In conclusion, Jean-Marie Le Pen managed to unify most of the French far-right in the National Front (FN), created in 1972 in the aftermaths of the Algerian War (1954-62), and which succeeded in gaining some influence starting in the 1980s. Residual monarchists movements, inheritors of Charles Maurras' Action française (AF), also managed to survive, although many of them joined Le Pen's FN in the 1980s. Some neo-fascists who considered Le Pen to be too moderate broke away in 1974 to form the Parti des forces nouvelles (PFN), which maintained close links to the far-right students'union Groupe Union Défense (GUD). Another important theoretical influence in the far-right appeared in the 1980s with Alain de Benoist's Nouvelle Droite movement, organized into the GRECE. Despite Le Pen's success in remaining present at the second turn of the 21 April 2002 presidential election, his party has been weakened by Bruno Mégret's spin-out, leading to the creation of the National Republican Movement (MNR), as well as by the concurrence of Philippe de Villiers' Movement for France (MPF), and also by the internal struggles concerning Le Pen's forthcoming succession. Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... Parti des forces nouvelles (PFN) or Party of New Forces[1] was a French far right political party formed in November 1974 from the Comité faire front, a group of anti-Jean-Marie Le Pen dissidents who had split from the National Front (FN). ... Groupe Union Droit or Groupe Union Défense, better known as GUD, is the name of a succession of violent French far-right student political groups. ... Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, founder of the Nouvelle Droite (English: ) and head of the French think tank GRECE. Benoist is little known outside his native France but his writings have been highly influential on anti-globalist thought, primarily on the political right, with... Nouvelle Droite (English: New Right) is a school of political thought founded largely on the works of Alain de Benoist and GRECE. Although most popular and well known in France, Nouvelle Droite has been very influential in other European right-wing movements. ... The Groupement de recherche et détudes sur la culture européenne (Study and research group reagrding European Culture), also knowns as GRECE (French for Greece) is a far-right think-tank, founded in 1969 by the journalist and writer Alain de Benoist. ... The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... Bruno Mégret (born April 4, 1949) is a French politician. ... The National Republican Movement (Mouvement National Républicain or MNR) is a French far-right political party, created by Bruno Mégret as a split from Jean-Marie Le Pens National Front. ... Philippe de Villiers in Toulouse in April 2007 Philippe de Villiers (born Viscount Philippe Le Jolis de Villiers de Saintignon on March 25, 1949) was the Mouvement pour la France nominee for the French presidential election of 2007. ... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ...

Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... The National Republican Movement (Mouvement National Républicain or MNR) is a French far-right political party, created by Bruno Mégret as a split from Jean-Marie Le Pens National Front. ... The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), or MPF, is a French conservative, traditionalist and nationalist party, founded on November 20, 1994, with a marked regional implementation in Vendée. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... The Forum of Social Republicans (Forum des républicains sociaux, FRS) is a conservative christian-democratic party in France. ... The Rally for France and European Independence (Rassemblement pour la France et lIndépendance de lEurope) is a political party in France of the right. ... The National Center of Independents and Peasants (Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans) is a political party in France. ... For other uses, see Radical Party (France). ... The Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate, MoDem) is a centrist and pro-European French political party that was founded by centrist politician François Bayrou to succeed his Union for French Democracy and to contest the 2007 parliamentary election, after his strong showing in the 2007 presidential election. ... New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC), also known as the European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE) is a political party in France, formed by the members of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) – including a majority of former parliamentarians (18 of 29 members of the UDF... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ... The Citizenship, Action, Participation for the 21st Century (Citoyenneté Action Participation pour le 21ème siècle) is a minor green political party in France. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an ecologist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ... Génération Écologie is, together with the Greens (Les Verts), one of the two green parties in France. ... The Independent Ecological Movement (Mouvement Ecologiste Indépendant) is a political party in France founded by Antoine Waechter, former presidential candidate of The Greens. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... The Left Radical Party (French: or PRG) is a minor French centre-left, social-liberal party with moderate views, formed in 1972 by a split from the Radical, Republican and Radical-Socialists Party, once the dominant party of the French left. ... The Citizen and Republican Movement (Mouvement républicain et citoyen) is a political party in France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... LCR protesters marching in a workforce demonstration in favour of public services and against privatisation The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Party of the Workers (Parti des Travailleurs or PT), is a French Trotskyist party. ... CPNT symbol Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (French: Chasse, Pêche, Nature, Traditions) is a French political party of the right, which aims to defend the traditional values of rural France. ... The Liberal Alternative (French: Alternative Libérale) is a French political party created on March 1, 2006. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is an overview of political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to a list of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country . ...

The Fifth Republic (1958-1981)

Further information: France during the twentieth century and French Fifth Republic

During the Fifth Republic, founded in 1958 amid the troubles brought by the Algerian War (1954-62), France was ruled by successive right-wing administrations until 1981. The successive governments generally applied the Gaullist program of national independence, and modernization in a dirigiste fashion. The Gaullist government, however, was criticized for its heavy-handedness: while elections were free, the state had a monopoly on radio and TV broadcasting and sought to have its point of view on events imposed (this monopoly was not absolute, however, since there were radio stations transmitting from nearby countries specifically for the benefit of the French). Although Gaullism, which had gained legitimity during World War II, initially also attracted several left-wing individuals, Gaullism in government became decidedly conservative. In 1962, de Gaulle had the French citizens vote in a referendum concerning the election of the president at universal suffrage, something which had been discredited since Napoleon III's 1851 coup. 3/5th of the voters approved however the referendum, and thereafter the President of the French Republic was elected at universal suffrage, giving him increased authority on the Parliament. De Gaulle won the 1965 presidential election, opposed on his left by François Mitterrand who had taken the lead of the Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left (FGDS), a coalition of most left-wing parties (apart from the French Communist Party (PCF), then led by Waldeck Rochet who did call to vote for Mitterrand). For specific information on todays France, see France and Portal:France. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A referendum concerning the election of the President of France through universal suffrage was held in France on October 28, 1962 Categories: | ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The Coup dÉtat of 2 December 1851 was staged by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, President of the French Republic, who was successful by this means in dissolving the French National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so. ... This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left (Fédération de la gauche démocrate et socialiste or FGDS) was a conglomerate of French center-left non-Communist forces. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Waldeck Rochet (April 5, 1905, Sainte-Croix in Saône-et-Loire—March 15, 1983, Nanterre) was a French communist politician. ...


In May 1968, a series of worker strikes and student riots rocked France. These did not, however, result in an immediate change of government, with a right-wing administration being triumphantly reelected in the snap election of June 1968. However, in 1969 the French electorate turned down a referendum on the reform of the French Senate proposed by de Gaulle. Since the latter had always declared that in the eventuality of a "NO" to a referendum he would resign, the referendum was also a plebiscite. Thus, the rejection of the reform by more than 52% of the voters was widely considered to be mostly motivated by weariness with de Gaulle, and ultimately provoked his resignation that year. A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... French legislative election took place on June 23 and 30, 1968 to elect the 4th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic In 1967, the Presidential Majority won by a short head the legislative election. ... A referendum on decentralization and Senate reform was held in France on April 27, 1969. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


May '68 and its aftermaths saw the occupation of the LIP factory in Besançon, one of the major social conflict of the 1970s, during which the CFDT and the Unified Socialist Party (PSU), of which Pierre Mendès-France was a member, theorized workers' self-management. Apart of the PSU, the autonomist movement, inspired by Italian operaismo, made its first appearance on the political scene. LIP. Call for the march on Besançon. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... The Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT or French Democratic Confederation of Labour) is a national trade union center, one of the five major French confederations of trade unions, led since 2002 by François Chérèque. ... 1981 presidential election poster for PSU candidate Huguette Bouchardeau Unified Socialist Party (in French: Parti socialiste unifié) was a political party in France, founded on April 3, 1960. ... Pierre Mendès France Pierre Mendès France (Paris, 11 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ... Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ... Autonomism can refer to: Autonomism may refer to a bundle of left-wing movements historically bound-up with Italian Autonomist marxism. ... Workerism is a name given to different trends in left-wing political discourse, especially anarchism and Marxism. ...


Georges Pompidou, de Gaulle's Prime Minister, was elected in 1969, remaining President until his death in 1974. In 1972, 3/5 of the French approved by referendum the enlargement of the European Economic Community (CEE) to the United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway. After Pompidou's sudden death, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing managed to overhaul the remaining Gaullist barons — with the help of Jacques Chirac —, and won the subsequent election against François Mitterrand on the left. Giscard transformed the ORTF, the state organism in charge of medias, and created several different channels, including Radio France. However, it was not until François Mitterrand's accession to the Elysée Palace in 1981 that medias were liberalized. Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ... A referendum concerning the accession of the United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway to the ECC was held in France on April 23, 1972. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French centre-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Second Round First Round See also President of France France Politics of France Categories: | | ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France. ... Radio France is the French public service radio broadcaster. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The entrance to the Élysée Palace. ...


The Fifth Republic (1981-1995)

In 1981, François Mitterrand, a Socialist, was elected president, on a program of far-reaching reforms (110 Propositions for France). This was enabled by the 1972 Common Program between the French Socialist Party (PS), the Left Radical Party (PRG) andthe French Communist Party (PCF) — which had remained, just as in Italy, a strong party through-out the Cold War. After securing a majority in parliament through a snap election, his government ran a program of social and economic reforms:   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 110 Propositions for France (110 Propositions pour la France) was the name of the Socialist Partys program for the 1981 presidential election during which the Socialist Partys candidate, François Mitterrand, was elected by 51,76% of the people. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... The Left Radical Party (French: or PRG) is a minor French centre-left, social-liberal party with moderate views, formed in 1972 by a split from the Radical, Republican and Radical-Socialists Party, once the dominant party of the French left. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... French legislative election took place on June 14 and 21, 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ...

  • social policies:
  • economic policies:
    • the government embarked on a wave of nationalizations;
    • the duration of the legal workweek was set to 39 hours, instead of the previous 40 hours.
    • increase of the SMIC minimum wages
  • institutional reforms:
    • repealing of exceptional judicial procedures (court-martials in peace-time, etc.)

However, in 1983, high inflation and economic woes forced a dramatic turnaround with respect to economic policies, known as rigueur (rigor) – the Socialist-Communist government then embarked on policies of fiscal and spending restraint. Though the nationalizations were subsequently reversed by both subsequent left-wing and right-wing governments, the social reforms undertaken have remained standing. Furthermore, the end of the Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious) period of growth witnesses the beginning of a structural unemployment, which became an important political issue. Since the 1980s, unemployment has remained permanently high, at about 10% of the population, regardless of the policies applied to fight it. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The solidarity tax on wealth is a French annual direct tax on those having assets in excess of 720,000 euros (as of January 1, 2003). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Overview [this text is marketing material copied from SMICs homepage] SMIC is a pure-play IC foundry that offers 0. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious Years) were the years between 1945 (end of the Second World War) and 1974 (following the 1973 energy crisis) as seen from a French perspective. ... Structural unemployment involves a mismatch between workers looking for jobs and the vacancies available often despite the number of vacancies being similar to the number of unemployed people. ...


In 1986, Jacques Chirac's neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR) party won the legislative election. For the first time in the Fifth Republic, a left-wing President was forced to compose with a right-wing Prime minister, leading to the first cohabitation. Although many commentators were surprised at the time, and considered it to be an institutional crisis, some claiming the Fifth Republic could not accommodate itself of such rivalry at the head of the state, cohabitation repeated itself after the 1993 elections, when the RPR again won the elections, and then after the 1997 elections, when the Socialist Party won, leading to the constitution of Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government while Chirac was only at the beginning of his first presidential term. The tradition in periods of "cohabitation" (a President of one party, prime minister of another) is for the President to exercise the primary role in foreign and security policy, with the dominant role in domestic policy falling to the prime minister and his government. Jospin stated, however, that he would not a priori leave any domain exclusively to the President, as that was a tradition issued from de Gaulle. “Chirac” redirects here. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... The French legislative election took place on March 16, 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... French legislative election took place on March 21 and 28, 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... The Gauche Plurielle (French for Plural Left) was a left-wing coalition in France, composed of the Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS), the French Communist Party (Parti communiste français or PCF), the Greens, the Left Radical Party (Parti radical de gauche or PRG), and the Citizens Movement (Mouvement...


Since then, the government alternated between a left-wing coalition (composed of the French Socialist Party (PS), the French Communist Party (PCF) and more recently Les Verts, the Greens) and a right-wing coalition (composed of Jacques Chirac's Rally for the Republic (RPR), later replaced by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), and the Union for French Democracy, UDF). Those two coalitions are fairly stable; there have been none of the mid-term coalition reorganizations and governments frequently overthrown which were commonplace under the Fourth Republic. The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Les Verts (or The Greens) are an ecologist political party to the left of the political spectrum in France. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... The Union for French Democracy, also known by its French acronym UDF (Union pour la Démocratie Française), is a French centrist political party. ...


The 1980s and 1990s saw also the rise of Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front (FN), a far-right party which blames immigration, more particularly immigration from North African countries such as Algeria, for increased unemployment and crime. The social situation in the French suburbs (banlieues: literally, "suburbs", but in France a euphemism for large suburban housing projects for the poor, with a high proportion of the population of North African descent) still have to be successfully tackled. Jean-Marie Le Pen's relative success at the French Presidential election, 2002 has been attributed in part to concerns about juvenile criminality. Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... The National Front (FN, French: ) is a French Far right, nationalist [1] political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen. ... The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The social situation in the French suburbs, called banlieues, is a complex topic. ... (Redirected from 2002 French presidential election) This article needs cleanup. ...


Massive general strikes followed by all the trade-unions were triggered in November-December 1995, paralyzing France, in protest against the Juppé plan of libéral (in French, free market) reforms. These strikes were generally considered a turning point in the French social movement. It remains to be seen how much of these reforms will now be enacted by Sarkozy's first government, as Sarkozy was elected President on a similar platform in May 2007. 1995 saw a series of general strikes in France, mostly in the public sector. ... Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is Frances Minister of State, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development ; among other positions, he was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997. ...


The Fifth Republic (1995-2007)

Further information: Jacques Chirac's second term as President of France

During his first 2 years in office, President Jacques Chirac's prime minister was Alain Juppé, who served contemporaneously as leader of Chirac's neo-Gaullist (RPR) Party. Chirac and Juppé benefited from a very large, if rather unruly, majority in the National Assembly (470 out of 577 seats). However, the administration was increasingly embroiled in corruption scandals regarding the past of the RPR (see Corruption scandals in the Paris region); furthermore, some reforms were highly unpopular and caused a series of strikes. Mindful that the government might have to take politically costly decisions in advance of the legislative elections planned for spring 1998 in order to ensure that France met the Maastricht criteria for the single currency of the EU, Chirac decided in April of 1997 to call early elections.
President Chirac and United States President George W. Bush talk over issues during the 27th G8 summit, 21 July 2001. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ... Alain Marie Juppé (born 15 August 1945) is Frances Minister of State, Minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development ; among other positions, he was Prime Minister of France from 1995 to 1997. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la République), was a French political party. ... In the 1980s and 1990s there were in the Paris region (ÃŽle-de-France) multiple instances of alleged and proved political corruption cases, as well as cases of abuse of public money and resources. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1, 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. ...


The Left, led by Socialist Party leader Lionel Jospin, whom Chirac had defeated in the 1995 presidential race, unexpectedly won a solid National Assembly majority (319 seats, with 289 required for an absolute majority). President Chirac named Jospin prime minister on June 2, and Jospin went on to form a Plural Left government composed primarily of Socialist ministers, along with some ministers from allied parties of the Left, such as the Communist Party and the Greens. Jospin stated his support for continued European integration and his intention to keep France on the path towards Economic and Monetary Union, albeit with greater attention to social concerns.
The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste, PS) is one of the largest political parties in France. ... Lionel Robert Jospin (born July 12, 1937 in Meudon, a suburb of Paris) is a French statesman who served as Prime Minister of France from 1997-2002. ... Second Round First Round See also: President of France, France, Politics of France Categories: Elections in France | 1995 elections ... The Gauche Plurielle (French for Plural Left) was a left-wing coalition in France, composed of the Socialist Party (Parti socialiste or PS), the French Communist Party (Parti communiste français or PCF), the Greens, the Left Radical Party (Parti radical de gauche or PRG), and the Citizens Movement (Mouvement... The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français or PCF) was founded in 1920. ... Les verts (the Greens) is one Green Party of France. ...


Chirac and Jospin worked together, for the most part, in the foreign affairs field with representatives of the presidency and the government pursuing a single, agreed French policy. Their "cohabitation" arrangement was the longest-lasting in the history of the Fifth Republic. However, it ended subsequent to the National Assembly elections that followed Chirac's decisive defeat of Jospin (who failed even to make it through to the second round of voting) in the 2002 presidential election. This led to President Chirac's appointment of Jean-Pierre Raffarin (UMP) as the new prime minister. On May 29, 2005, French voters in the referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe turned down the proposed charter by a wide margin. This was generally regarded as a rebuke to Chirac and his government as well as the Socialist Party leadership, all of whom — apart of Laurent Fabius — had supported the proposed constitution. Two days later, Raffarin resigned and Chirac appointed Dominique de Villepin, formerly Foreign Minister as Prime Minister of France.
The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002, and a runoff election between the top two candidates (Jacques Chirac and Jean-Marie Le Pen) on 5 May 2002. ... Jean-Pierre Raffarin Jean-Pierre Raffarin   listen? (born August 3, 1948) is a French conservative politician. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... On 29 May 2005 a referendum was held in France to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed Constitution of the European Union. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe The constitutional treaty as signed in Rome on 29 October 2004 by representatives of the EU member states The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), commonly referred to as the European Constitution, was an unimplemented... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In 1589, the four French Secretaries of State became specialized, with one of the secretaries responsible for foreign affairs. ...


An enduring force is Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front party, whose anti-immigration, isolationist policies have been described by critics as inspired by xenophobia. Le Pen's survival into the second round of 2002's "Présidentielle" had many observers worried this time, but in the 2007 first round Le Pen finished a distant fourth.
Jean-Marie Le Pen (born June 20, 1928, La Trinité-sur-Mer, France) is a French far-right nationalist politician, founder and president of the Front National (National Front) party. ... Front National can mean: Front National, a right-wing French political party. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ...


The issue of libéralisme

One of the great questions of current French politics is that of libéralisme — that is, economic liberalism, as opposed to government intervention in the economy. Broadly speaking, supporters of libéralisme want to let the forces of the free market operate with little or no regulation. As an example, they want little regulation of the workforce, e.g. French laws setting a 35-hour work week rather than leaving this to contract negotiations. Critics of libéralisme (realists/mercantilists) , with respect to this example, argue that individual employees are weak compared to market forces and employers, and thus that governmental intervention is necessary for their welfare; they point out that great gains in workers' rights were historically achieved by government intervention (as during the Popular Front in 1936-38). Similarly, proponents of libéralisme favour free markets and the free movement of goods, which critics contend benefit the wealthy business classes at the expense of the ordinary worker. Of course, liberalists argue that the wealth gained by free trade causes a lowering of prices for all classes, not just the wealthy. French conservative parties such as, today, the UMP, or before the RPR, the UDF or the Independent Republicans of Giscard support economic liberalism. According to historian René Rémond's famous classification of the right-wings in France, this tradition belongs to the Orleanists inheritance, while Gaullists inherited from Bonapartism and a tradition of state intervention issued from the National Council of Resistance (CNR)'s welfare state program after the war. However, neo-Gaullists have since rallied economic liberalism thesis, and even the right-wing of the Socialist Party has became social-liberal (Dominique Strauss-Kahn, etc.). Libertarianism as such is very minoritary in France, being considered as a form of "ultra-liberalism" or neo-liberalism and upheld only by right-wingers such as Alain Madelin.
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The 35-hour working week is a measure adopted first in France, in February 2000, under Prime Minister Lionel Jospins Plural Left government; it was pushed by then Minister of Labour Martine Aubry. ... Realism is commonly defined as a concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary. ... The Popular Front was an alliance of left-wing political parties (the Communists, the Socialists and the Radicals), which was in government in France from 1936 to 1938. ... The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire, UMP), is the main French centre-right political party. ... The Rally for the Republic, also known by its French acronym RPR (Rassemblement pour la R̩publique), was a French political party. ... The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la D̩mocratie Fran̤aise, UDF) is a French centrist political party. ... The Independent Republicans were a French right-wing political group, which became a political party with the creation of the National Federation of the Independent Republicans in 1966. ... Ren̩ R̩mond (born in 1918) is a French historian and political economist. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... Gaullism is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... The Conseil National de la R̩sistance (CNR) or the National Council of the Resistance is the body that directed and coordinated the different movements of the French Resistance - the press, trade unions, and members of political parties hostile to the Vichy regime, starting from mid-1943. ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... Dominique Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949 in Neuilly-sur-Seine; often referred to as DSK) is a French economist, lawyer, and politician, member of the social-democrat Socialist Party (PS). ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ... Ultra-liberalism is a phrase used to describe political thought on the left of the United States Democratic Party. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s Рand increasingly prominent since 1980 Рthat de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... Alain Madelin in 2005 Alain Madelin (born March 26, 1946) is a French politician and a former minister of that country. ...


Some, such as Nicolas Sarkozy on the right, favour radical change in the relationship between the government and the economy. They argue that for the last 30 years, under both left-wing and right-wing governments, the French have been misled into believing that things could go on without real reforms. One may say that they favour a Thatcherite approach to change. Others on the right (Dominique de Villepin) as well as some on the left argue for gradual reforms. In comparison, the refusal of the French electorate to vote for the proposed European Constitution was interpreted by some — in particular the French Communist Party and far-left parties such as Workers' Struggle (LO) or the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) as a popular refusal of libéralisme, which the European Union is perceived to embody. Some such as Laurent Fabius have argued that the Socialist Party should thus have a more "left-wing" line.
Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Revolutionary Communist League can refer to one of several different parties: Ligue Communiste Revolutionnaire (France) Revolutionary Communist League (Belgium) Revolutionary Communist League (Austria) Revolutionäre Kommunistische Liga Revolutionary Communist League (Iceland) Revolutionary Communist League (India) Revolutionary Communist League (Israeli state) Ha-Liga Ha-Komunistit Ha-Mahapchanit Revolutionary Communist League... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ...


2005-2006

The February 23, 2005 law on the alleged "positive values" of colonialism was met by a public uproar in the left-wing. Voted by the UMP majority, it was charged of advocating historical revisionism, and after long debates and international opposition (from Abdelaziz Bouteflika, president of Algeria, or Aimé Césaire, founder of the Négritude anti-colonialist literary movement), was repealed by president Jacques Chirac himself, against his own majority, start of 2006.
is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The February 23, 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed to high-school teachers to teach the positive values of colonialism to their students (article 4). ... Historical revisionism is the attempt to change commonly held ideas about the past. ... Abdelaziz Bouteflika (IPA: ) (Arabic: عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2, 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President of Algeria since 1999. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ...


In Autumn 2005, civil unrest erupted in a number of lower classes suburbs. As a result, the government invoked a state of emergency which lasted until January 2006. Interior Minister Sarkozy's political discourse veered in favour of increased repression of young delinquents and illegal immigration.
A torched car in Strasbourg, 5 November. ... The social situation in the French suburbs, called banlieues, is a complex topic. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... The entrance to the Ministry in Place Beauvau is guarded by one gendarme (to the left) and one policewoman (to the right). ... Delinquent means one who fails to do that which is required by law or by duty and such failure is minor in nature. ... Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


In 2006, Prime minister Dominique de Villepin enacted amendments that established a "first employment contract", known as CPE, a special kind of employment contract under which workers under the age of 26 can be hired and fired liberally. Proponents of the measure argued that French workforce laws, which put the burden of proof on the employer for dismissing employees, dissuaded employers from hiring new employees; according to them, this is one reason while the unemployment rate of those under 26 is 23% and that of youngsters from some lower classes neighbourhoods as high as 40%. However, the plan backfired, with criticism both on the way the law was passed (using an exceptional legislative procedure) and on the law itself, which was criticized both for weakening workers' rights in general, and for singling out the young disfavourably instead of attempting to cure more general issues. Following from mass street protests, the government had to retract the legislation. Following from these events, Villepin lost all hopes of winning the presidency, and his government no longer tried to enact socially controversial reforms. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Demonstration against CPE, March 28, 2006, Paris Jussieu en lutte (Jussieu is fighting), Villepin va précariser. ... In the common law, burden of proof is the obligation to prove allegations which are presented in a legal action. ... Banlieue is the French word for outskirts. ... The protest The 2006 Labour Protests in France occurred throughout France during February, March, and April 2006 as a result of opposition to a measure set to deregulate labour. ...


2007 presidential campaign

In 2006-2007, an intense electoral campaign took place for the presidential election. While, inside the UMP which he led, Nicolas Sarkozy was largely uncontested (other possible candidates such as Michèle Alliot-Marie having no real hopes), a bitter campaign opposed three left-wing hopefuls: Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Ségolène Royal and Laurent Fabius, each defending a different version of social-democracy. Strauss-Kahn defended social-liberal, "fiscally responsible" policies; Fabius ran on a platform opposed to economic liberalism, in line with his opposition to the European Constitution; Royal ran on a platform of reform, taking ideas from consultations with citizens through her web site. Finally, Royal was selected by the members of the Socialist Party. Royal's credibility was strongly attacked, both from the inside of her party and by the Right. The surprise came from conservative François Bayrou, inheritant of the Social Catholic tradition of the MRP and president of the Union for a French Democracy (UDF) since 1998, who harshly opposed Sarkozy's approach to politics and economics, criticizing for instance concentration of media ownership. Coming third at the first turn of the election, Baryou then formed the Democratic Movement (MoDem) to attempt a reorganization of the political center, while UDF deputies opposed to his attacks on Sarkozy formed the Nouveau Centre and allied themselves with the UMP. Although the UMP itself had been an attempt by Chirac to unite the conservatives in one, single party, it has not managed to integrate all members of the UDF and is generally considered as the direct successor of the RPR. The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... Nicolas Sarkozy at Paris, May 2005. ... Michèle Alliot-Marie Michèle Jeanne Honorine Alliot-Marie (born 10 September 1946) is the French minister of interior, and the first woman to lead a major French political party. ... Dominique Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949 in Neuilly-sur-Seine; often referred to as DSK) is a French economist, lawyer, and politician, member of the social-democrat Socialist Party (PS). ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... Laurent Fabius (born 20 August 1946) is a former Socialist Prime Minister of France. ... Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th century out of the socialist movement. ... The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, commonly referred to as the European Constitution, is an international treaty intended to create a constitution for the European Union. ... François Bayrou François Bayrou (IPA: ) is a leading candidate for the French Presidental election of 2007. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian socialism... The initialism MRP or M.R.P. can stand for many things: Material requirements planning or Material resource planning and Manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) Maximum retail price Manufacturers recommended price Machine-readable passport Magnum rifle powder Lewis Machine & Tool Monolithic Rail Platform Major Research Paper Malware Removal and... The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) is a French centrist political party. ... Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of mass media industries. ... The Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate, MoDem) is a centrist and pro-European French political party that was founded by centrist politician François Bayrou to succeed his Union for French Democracy and to contest the 2007 parliamentary election, after his strong showing in the 2007 presidential election. ... New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC), also known as European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE) is a political party in France, formed by those members of the Union for French Democracy — including the majority of parliamentarians (18 on 29 members of the National Assembly) — who did...


Today

Further information: Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential term

Nicolas Sarkozy was elected president. However, the following legislative elections did not yield the expected "blue wave" of conservatives; Sarkozy's UMP actually obtained fewer seats than in the previous Assembly. Nicolas Sarkozy, candidate of the conservative Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), was elected President in May 2007, and became the sixth President of the French Fifth Republic on May 16, 2007. ... The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, a few weeks after the French presidential election run-off on 6 May. ...


Unions and leaders

Workers' unions.

Employers' unions. The Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT or General Confederation of Work) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Confédération Générale du Travail - Force Ouvrière (CGT-FO or General Confederation of Work - Workers Force), generally known as Force Ouvrière (FO), is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... The Confédération Française de lEncadrement - Confédération Générale des Cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives CFE-CGC) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... White-collar workers perform tasks which are less laborious yet often more highly paid than blue-collar workers, who do manual work. ... The Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT or French Democratic Confederation of Work) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ... The Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC or French Confederation of Christian Workers) is one of the five major French confederations of trade unions. ... SUD banner in a 2005 demonstration in Paris The Group of 10 or G10 - Solidaires is a French group of trade unions, most of which have a name based on Solidaires Unitaires Démocratiques (SUD, Solidary Unitary Democratic). They tend to favor progressive or even radical views and work with...

Students' unions. The Mouvement des Entreprises de France or MEDEF (in English: Movement of the French Enterprises) is the largest union of employers in France. ...

  • Union nationale des étudiants de france (UNEF, left-wing)
  • Union Nationale Inter-universitaire (UNI, right-wing)
  • Groupe Union Défense (GUD, far-right)

Farmers' and peasants' unions. The National Union of Students of France (Union Nationale des Etudiants de France or UNEF) is the main national students union in France. ... Union Nationale Interuniversitaire (UNI) or Inter-University Union is a French right-wing union of university students, created in 1969 under the initiative of the Service dAction Civique, a secret service used by the gaullist movement, in particular by Robert Pandraud, Charles Pasqua and Jacques Foccart, which was dissolved... Groupe Union Droit or Groupe Union Défense, better known as GUD, is the name of a succession of violent French far-right student political groups. ...

  • Fédération Nationale des Syndicats d'Exploitants Agricoles (FNSEA)
  • Centre National des Jeunes Agriculteurs (CNJA)
  • Confédération Paysanne

See also

A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Political parties in France lists political parties in France. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... France is a representative democracy. ... The Balladur jurisprudence, named after former French Prime Minister Edouard Balladur, is an unwritten rule according to which a member of the French government who has been indicted in a judicial affair should resign from his functions. ... Sinistrisme is a neologism invented by Albert Thibaudet in Les idées politiques de la France (1932). ... The far-right tradition in France founds its origins, as the distinction of left and right in politics itself, to the 1789 French Revolution. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... Anarchism in France dates from the 18th century. ... This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in France. ...

External links

  • Politique.com, portal on French politics (French)
  • France Politique portal on French politics (French)
  • France Politique Expression and debates about French politics (French)


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Politics of France - France.com (1446 words)
Where the President's political party or supporters control parliament, the President is in effect the dominant player in executive action, chosing whomever he wishes for government, and having it follow his political agenda.
However where the President's political opponents control parliament, the President's dominance can be severely limited, as he must choose a prime minister and cabinet reflecting the majority in parliament.
The tradition in periods of "cohabitation" (president of one party, prime minister of another) is for the president to exercise the primary role in foreign and security policy, with the dominant role in domestic policy falling to the prime minister and his government.
Politics of France: Information from Answers.com (2484 words)
Politics of France takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of France is head of state and the Prime Minister of France head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Mindful that the government might have to take politically costly decisions in advance of the legislative elections planned for spring 1998 in order to ensure that France met the Maastricht criteria for the single currency of the EU, Chirac decided in April to call early elections.
The profile of Interior Minister Sarkozy was heightened and his political discourse veered in favour of increased repression of young delinquents and illegal immigration.
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