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Encyclopedia > Politics of China

Life in the
People's Republic of China In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ...

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This article is part of the series
Politics of the PRC
Constitution
President
National People's Congress
   Standing Committee
Premier
State Council
People's Liberation Army
Central Military Commission
Law of the PRC
Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
Political Parties
CPPCC
Communist Party of China
   Constitution
   General Secretary
   National Congress
   Central Committee
   Secretariat
   Politburo
      Standing Committee
Elections
See also
   Politics of Hong Kong
   Politics of Macau

State power within the People's Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Party, the State, and the Army. The PRC is an oligarchy in which political power and advancement depends on gaining and retaining the support of an informal body of people numbering one to two thousand who constitute the leadership of these organs. The PRC's population, geographical vastness, and social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Central government leaders must increasingly build consensus for new policies among party members, local and regional leaders, influential non-party members, and the population at large. However, control is often maintained over the larger group through control of information, propaganda and censorship (see Propaganda in the People's Republic of China). This article is on the politics of mainland China. ... The situation of human rights in the Peoples Republic of China has been criticized by various sources, including other nations - particularly Western democracies - as well as international organizations, as being poor in many respects. ... The National Emblem of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) of the Central Peoples Government is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Law of the Peoples Republic of China is the legal regime of the Peoples Republic of China, incorporating the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao. ... The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Supreme Peoples Procuratorate is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ShÅ«jìchù) is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the Peoples Republic... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Elections in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... On July 1, 1997, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial control. ... Politics of Macau - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... Beijing   listen? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Censorship is the use of governmental power to control speech and other forms of human expression. ... Chinese poster saying: Chariman Mao is the Red sun of our hearts. ...

Contents


Communist Party of China

The more than 63 million-member Communist Party of China (CPC) continues to dominate government. In periods of relative liberalization, the influence of people and organizations outside the formal party structure has tended to increase, particularly in the economic realm. Under the command economy system, every state owned enterprise was required to have a party committee. The introduction of the market economy means that economic institutions now exist in which the party has limited or no power. Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is an enterprise, often a corporation, owned by a government. ... The term market economy describes an economy where prices are established by trading goods and labor in markets. ...


Nevertheless, in all governmental institutions in the PRC, the party committees maintain an important role. Party control is tightest in government offices and in urban economic, industrial, and cultural settings; it is considerably looser in the rural areas, where the majority of the people live. Their most important role comes in the selection and promotion of personnel. They also see that party and state policy guidance is followed and that non-party members do not create autonomous organizations that could challenge party rule. Particularly important are the leading small groups which coordinate activities of different agencies. Although there is a convention that government committees contain at least one non-party member, a party membership is a definite aid in promotion and in being in crucial policy setting meetings. A leading small group (lingdao xiaozu) is a committee of the Communist Party of China which coordinates party activities within an agency of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Theoretically, the party's highest body is the Party Congress, which is supposed to meet at least once every 5 years. Meetings became irregular during the Cultural Revolution but have been periodic since then. The party elects the Central Committee and the primary organs of power are formally parts of the central committee. The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China... The 16th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China meets in 2002 The Central Committee is a leading body of an organization, most often a political party, especially Communist parties. ...


The primary organs of power in the Communist Party include:

  • The Politburo Standing Committee, which currently consists of nine members;
  • The Politburo, consisting of 22 full members (including the members of the Politburo Standing Committee);
  • The Secretariat, the principal administrative mechanism of the CPC, headed by the General Secretary;
  • The Central Military Commission;
  • The Discipline Inspection Commission, which is charged with rooting out corruption and malfeasance among party cadres.

The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ...

State Structure

The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of vice premiers (now four), five state councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), and 29 ministers and heads of State Council commissions. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separating party and state functions with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying out those policy. That effort at separating party and state functions at the central government level was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party, thereby creating a single centralized locus of power. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 60s and 70s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ...


At the same time, there has been a convention that party and state offices be separated at levels other than the central government, and it is unheard of for a sub-national executive to also be party secretary. This frequently causes conflict between the chief executive and the party secretary, and this conflict is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau where the Communist Party does not function at all, and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and usually Han Chinese. A Special Administrative Region (SAR) (Simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; Traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū; Cantonese IPA: /tɐk6piːt6 hɐŋ4tsɪŋ3kʰɵy1/; Jyutping: dak6bit6 hang4zing3keoi1; Yale: dahkbiht hàhngjingkeūi) is a political subdivision of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ...


Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about 2 weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its standing committee has increasingly assertive of its role as the national legislature and has been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of freeways. The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... A typical rural freeway (Interstate 5 in the Central Valley of California, USA). ...


The People's Liberation Army

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is controlled not by the State Council but rather by the Central Military Commission, a body which consists mostly of military officers but is chaired by a civilian, since 2004 Hu Jintao. Unlike most national armies, the Ministry of National Defense which is in the State Council has very little power and exists mostly to coordinate liaison activities with other militaries. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ...


In practice, the Central Military Commission follows the decisions of the Central Military Committee of the Communist Party. The Communist Party takes some elaborate procedures to ensure the loyalty of the military including the zampolit system by which each army unit has a political officer who is answerable not to the military but rather to the party. In addition, there has been a strong desire by the political elite to professionalize the PLA and decrease its political role. Nevertheless, the PLA has in the past been an important political force when the civilian leadership has been deadlock, and retains the potential to play such a role in the future. A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ...


Principal Government and Party Officials

The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... Zeng Qinghong (曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (July 1939) became a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee during the 2002 16th Party Congress. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Vice Premiers of the State Council

The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) of the Central Peoples Government is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, py: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is a Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Vice-premier Wu Yi Wú Yí (吴仪) (born 1938 in Wuhan, China) is one of four vice-premiers of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hui Liangyu (born 1938) is the Vice Premier of China in charge of agriculture. ...

Politburo Standing Committee

The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù WÄ›iyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: Jiǎ Qìnglín) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Zeng Qinghong (曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (July 1939) became a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee during the 2002 16th Party Congress. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, py: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is a Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正) (b. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... Luo Gan (罗干) (b. ...

Full Politburo Members

Wang Lequan - Wang Zhaoguo - Hui Liangyu - Liu Qi - Liu Yunshan - Li Changchun - Wu Yi - Wu Bangguo - Wu Guanzheng - Zhang Lichang - Zhang Dejiang - Chen Liangyu - Luo Gan - Zhou Yongkang - Hu Jintao - Yu Zhengsheng - He Guoqiang - Jia Qinglin - Guo Boxiong - Huang Ju - Cao Gangchuan - Zeng Qinghong - Zeng Peiyan - Wen Jiabao - Hui Liangyu (born 1938) is the Vice Premier of China in charge of agriculture. ... Liu Qi (刘淇) is the CPC Beijing Committee Secretary, first-in-charge of Beijing, and also a member of the CPC Politburo Central Committee. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... Vice-premier Wu Yi Wú Yí (吴仪) (born 1938 in Wuhan, China) is one of four vice-premiers of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正) (b. ... Luo Gan (罗干) (b. ... Zhou Yongkang is the Minister of Public Security of the Peoples Republic of China and thus chief of the Ministry of Public Security and the counterpart of the Director of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: Jiǎ Qìnglín) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, py: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is a Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zeng Qinghong (曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (July 1939) became a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee during the 2002 16th Party Congress. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Alternate Politburo Members

  • Wang Gang

See also

The political ranking of the Peoples Republic of China is the ranking of political leaders in China, by order of presumed political power. ... Because both the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to group Chinese leaders into generations. ...

Minor political parties

The eight registered minor parties have existed since before 1950. These parties all formally accept the leadership of the Communist Party of China and their activities are directed by the United Front bureau of the Chinese communist party. The major role of these parties is to organize niches such as academics. Although these parties are tightly organized and do not challenge the Communist Party, members of the parties often individually are found in policy making state organizations, and there is a convention that state institutions generally have at least one member from a minor political party. 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The minor parties include the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Guomindang, founded in 1948 by dissident members of the mainstream Kuomintang then under control of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek; China Democratic League, begun in 1941 by intellectuals in education and the arts; China Democratic National Construction Association, formed in 1945 by educators and national capitalists (industrialists and business people); China Association for Promoting Democracy, started in 1945 by intellectuals in cultural, education (primary and secondary schools), and publishing circles; Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, originated in 1930 by intellectuals in medicine, the arts, and education; China Party for Public Interest (China Zhi Gong Dang), founded in 1925 to attract the support of overseas Chinese; Jiusan Society, founded in 1945 by a group of college professors and scientists to commemorate the victory of the "international war against fascism" on September 3; and Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League, created in 1947 by "patriotic supporters of democracy who originated in Taiwan and now reside on the mainland." The Revolutionary Committee of the Guomindang (Chinese: 中国国民党革命委员会) is one of eight registered minor political parties (in addition to the Communist Party of China) in Mainland China (the Peoples Republic of China). ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887–April 5, 1975) was a Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The China Democratic League is one of eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The China Democratic National Construction Association (Zhongguo Minzhu Jianguo Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... The China Association for Promoting Democracy (Zhongguo Minzhu Cujin Hui) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nonggong Minzhu Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The China Party for Public Interest (Zhongguo Zhi Giong Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (Zhongguo Nonggong Minzhu Dang) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... The Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (Taiwan Minzhu Zizhi Tongmeng) is one of the eight legally-recognised political parties in the Peoples Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and are member of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ...


Coordination between the 8 registered minor parties and the Communist Party of China is done through the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Political conditions

Legal System

Main article: Law of the People's Republic of China Law of the Peoples Republic of China is the legal regime of the Peoples Republic of China, incorporating the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao. ...


The government's efforts to promote rule of law are significant and ongoing. After the Cultural Revolution, the PRC's leaders aimed to develop a legal system to restrain abuses of official authority and revolutionary excesses. In 1982, the National People's Congress adopted a new state constitution that emphasized the concept of rule of law by which party and state organizations are all subject to the law. (The importance of the rule of law was further elevated by a 1999 Constitutional amendment.) Many commentators have pointed out that the emphasis rule of law increases rather than decreases the power of the Communist Party of China because the party is in a better position to change the law. A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The rule of law implies that government authority may only be exercised in accordance with written laws, which were adopted through an established procedure. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Since 1979, when the drive to establish a functioning legal system began, more than 300 laws and regulations, most of them in the economic area, have been promulgated. (After China's entry into the WTO, many new economically-related laws have been put in place, while others have been amended.) The use of mediation committees--informed groups of citizens who resolve about 90% of the PRC's civil disputes and some minor criminal cases at no cost to the parties--is one innovative device. There are more than 800,000 such committees in both rural and urban areas. 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


Legal reform became a government priority in the 1990s. Legislation designed to modernize and professionalize the nation's lawyers, judges, and prisons was enacted. The 1994 Administrative Procedure Law allows citizens to sue officials for abuse of authority or malfeasance. In addition, the criminal law and the criminal procedures laws were amended to introduce significant reforms. The criminal law amendments abolished the crime of "counter-revolutionary" activity (and references to "counter-revolutionaries" disappeared with the passing of the 1999 Constitutional amendment), while criminal procedures reforms encouraged establishment of a more transparent, adversarial trial process. The PRC Constitution and laws provide for fundamental human rights, including due process, however those laws also provide for limitations of those rights. // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


Although the human rights situation in mainland China has improved markedly since the 1960s (the 2004 Constitutional amendments specifically stressed that the State protects human rights), the government remains authoritarian and determined to prevent any organized opposition to its rule such as Tibetan and Xinjiang separatists. Amnesty International estimates that the PRC holds several thousand political prisoners. Although illegal, there have been reports of torture by civil authorities. In this map of China, the light-coloured areas represent Mainland China, while yellow coloured area refers to Taiwan. ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: Xīzàng; older splling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of promoting all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was a famous torture device Torture is the infliction of severe physical or psychological pain as an expression of cruelty, a means of intimidation, deterrent or punishment, or as a tool for the extraction of information or confessions. ...


Opposition

See Chinese democracy movement. The Chinese democracy movement was and is a loosely organized movement in the Peoples Republic of China against the Communist Party of China. ...


Ethnic issues

The PRC officially describes itself as a multiethnic state providing ethnic autonomy in the form of autonomous administrative entities in accordance with Section 6 of Chapter 3 (Articles 111-122) of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, and with more detail under the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy of the People's Republic of China. PRC policy gives advantages to ethnic minorities in areas such as population control, school admissions, government employment, and military recruitment. It also officially condemns Han chauvinism, referring to all 56 official nationalities as equal members of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua Minzu). While some people inside and outside China view the policies as assuaging some of the grievances of the minorities and encouraging them to take a fuller role in the PRC, others are critical of them for various reasons. The Peoples Republic of China has created, following Soviet nationality policy, a number of administrative divisions designated as autonomous, although many disagree of their actual autonomy. ... The Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China (中华人民共和国宪法) is the highest law within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Han chauvinism is a highly pejorative term which is used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore to refer to policies and viewpoints which favor the Han Chinese majority ethnic group in China at the expense of the other minority ethnic groups. ... Zhōnghuá Mínzú (中華民族), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions. ...


The PRC faces independence movements in Tibet, Xinjiang, and to a lesser degree, Inner Mongolia. Many Tibetans and Uighurs consider their territories countries in their own rights, and resent Chinese rule as colonialism. As such, independence groups and many foreign observers are critical of the PRC's ethnic policies, considering reality to be markedly different from the image presented by the PRC. For example, Han Chinese have been moving into Xinjiang and Tibet for over 50 years. Before market reforms, many of these were workers, soldiers, and prisoners assigned compulsorily to settle in those regions, carried out by organizations like the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. Market reforms in recent years and the development of tourism have resulted in a large influx of economic migrants into Xinjiang and Tibet in search of private business opportunities; moreover the government carries out programs that move peasants from overcrowded regions in the interior of China into sparsely populated regions such as Xinjiang and Tibet. Finally, cadres and professionals have also been enticed with financial incentives, though demographically speaking this category is comparatively insignificant (numbering in the thousands, e.g. [1]), the cadres involved are posted for a few years before being replaced (e.g [2]), and such programs are focused upon the entire impoverished western half of China, not just Xinjiang and Tibet. Independence groups consider practices such these to be chauvinistic and colonial, aimed at demographically swamping non-Han Chinese areas and reducing the possibility that any independence movement could succeed. One prominent example is Xinjiang, where official statistics show that the Han Chinese population has increased drastically over the past five decades and has nearly caught up with the Uyghur population. Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older splling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older splling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (Simplified Chinese: 新疆生产建设兵团; Traditional Chinese: 新疆生產建設兵團; pinyin: ), also known as XPCC or Bingtuan for short, is a unique economic and semi-military governmental organization existing in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Peoples Republic of China. ... A professional works to receive payment for an activity (as a profession), which usually requires expertise and carries with it socially significant mores and folkways. ... Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... World map of colonialism circa 1945. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; pinyin: ) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the largest ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, Russia. ...


Some Han Chinese are also critical of the above policies. Han Chinese in Xinjiang or Inner Mongolia, faced with both a local population hostile to their presence and policies that discriminate against them in areas from education to employment, are generally resentful and believe they are treated as second-class citizens subject to double racism perpetrated by both the locals and their own government, a feeling shared to a lesser extent by Han Chinese in areas where ethnic tensions are not as severe, such as Guangxi. These Han Chinese people therefore tend to support reducing, or abolishing altogether, policies perceived as unfair. Some also consider these policies to have actually encouraged the formation of independence movements and threatened the territorial integrity of China, by acknowledging the emotional ties of peoples to their territories. While both opinions are criticized as Han chauvinist, supporters of these views would argue that all official minorities, including Han Chinese and others, should be abolished in favour of an overarching Zhonghua Minzu concept. Finally, many Han Chinese people consider criticisms by independence groups to be unfounded and politically motivated, as most recent migrants are simply taking advantage of the freedom of movement made possible by market reforms; moreover it is regarded as only natural that the government would attempt to entice talented professionals to move into impoverished areas that they would otherwise never go to. They may consider perceptions of being conquered and oppressed among Uyghurs and Tibetans to be a result of the nature of the current political system, to be solved by democratization and liberalization that give a greater voice to minority groups, rather than independence movements. Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A Black person drinks out of a water foutain designated for black people in 1939 at a streetcar terminal. ... Guangxi (Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi; Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigi or (old orthography) ) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Han chauvinism is a highly pejorative term which is used in the Peoples Republic of China and Singapore to refer to policies and viewpoints which favor the Han Chinese majority ethnic group in China at the expense of the other minority ethnic groups. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Zhōnghuá Mínzú (中華民族), is a Mandarin Chinese term that in modern China, describes a notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions. ...


Miscellaneous

Country name

  • conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  • conventional short form: China
  • local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
  • local short form: Zhong Guo
  • abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH


Government type: Communist state (some debate) A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which follows the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ...


Capital: Beijing Beijing   listen? (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital city of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Administrative divisions

Download high resolution version (857x699, 69 KB)Administrative divisions of China. ...


22 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural) under the control of the PRC; Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing Municipality**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: The PRC considers Taiwan, which is independentally controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), its 23rd province; the ROC also controls Kinmen and part of Lienchiang counties of Fujian province. Anhui (Chinese: 安徽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: An-hui; Postal System Pinyin: Ngan-hui, Anhwei or An-hwei) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade_Giles: Chung_ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four municipalities, which have provincial_level status. ... Fujian (Chinese: 福建; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal System Pinyin: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, or modified as Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangxi (Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi; Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigi or (old orthography) ) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guizhou (Simplified Chinese: 贵州; Traditional Chinese: 貴州; pinyin: Gùizhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuei-chou; also spelled Kweichow) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. ... Hainan (Chinese: 海南; pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located at the southern end of the country. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated province of Hubei Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: Hébĕi; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh), is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; pinyin: Hēilóngjiāng; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated province of Hebei Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; pinyin: Húběi; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei, also seen as Hupeh), abbreviated to 鄂 (pinyin: È, WG: O), a province of the Peoples Republic of China, lies to the north of the Dongting Lake, giving it the... Hunan (Chinese: 湖南; pinyin: ) is a province of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, meaning south of the lake). Hunan is sometimes called 湘 (pinyin: Xiāng) for short, after the Xiang River which runs through the province. ... Jiangsu (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsu) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; pinyin: Jiāngxī; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Jilin (Chinese: 吉林; pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ Öbür Mongghul-un Öbertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Ningxia (Simplified Chinese: 宁夏; Traditional Chinese: 寧夏; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-hsia) is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China, located on the northwest loess highland, the Yellow River flows through a vast area of its land. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a northwestern province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese IPA: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta, is Chinas largest city. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sichuan (Chinese: 四川; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; non-standard transliteration: Szechwan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) (Tibetan: བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་, Pö Rangyongjong; Chinese: 西藏自治区, Xīzàng Zìzhìqū), is a province-level administrative subdivision of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older splling Thibet) is a region and former independent country in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: ) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Zhejiang (Chinese: 浙江; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Che-chiang; Postal System Pinyin: Chehkiang or Chekiang) is a eastern coastal province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... Quemoy, Kinmen, or Chinmen (金門, pinyin: Jīnmén, POJ: Kim-mn̂g) (pop. ... The Matsu Islands (馬祖列島 or less frequently, 馬祖群島 Pinyin: MÇŽzÇ”) are a minor archipelago of 19 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江 Pinyin: Liánjiāng), Fukien Province of the Republic of China (ROC, now based on Taiwan). ...


See also: Political divisions of China Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have always consisted of several levels since ancient times. ...


Independence

October 1, 1949 establishment of the PRC following the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Chinese Civil War was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (The Nationalist Party; The Nationalists; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ...


National holiday

National Day, October 1,(1949) October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


Constitution

The PRC Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that, an interim Constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force. September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The 2nd and 3rd promulgations of the PRC Constitution took place against the backdrop of the Cultural Revolution. The 2nd promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, and contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution. It also, for the first time, mentioned the issue of Taiwan and declared that the PRC would "liberate" it. A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


The current Constitution is the PRC's 4th promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it was promulgated and has served as a stable Constitution for over 20 years. The role of the Presidency and the courts were normalized, and under the Constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments were made in 1988, 1993, 1999, and most recently, in 2004, which recognised private property, safeguarded human rights, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy. December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legal system

a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since January 1, 1987; new legal codes in effect since January 1, 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law. According to Amnesty International between 1500 and 2000 people are reported executed in mainland China each year. However, some human rights activists believe that not all executions are reported with some estimates of the number of actual executions as high as 15,000. Public sentiment, however, appears to be overwhelmingly in support of the death penalty in response to a perception that crime is a serious problem. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Suffrage

18 years of age; universal


Executive branch

  • Chief of state: President Hu Jintao (since March 15, 2003) and Vice President Zeng Qinghong
  • Head of government: Premier Wen Jiabao; Vice Premiers Huang Ju, Wu Yi, Zeng Peiyan, Hui Liangyu
  • Cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC)
  • Elections: President and vice president elected by the National People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held March 2003 (next to be held March 2008); premier nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
  • Election results: Hu Jintao elected president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of NA votes (NA delegates voted against him, NA abstained, and NA did not vote); Zeng Qinghong elected vice president by the Tenth National People's Congress with a total of NA votes (NA delegates voted against him, NA abstained, and NA did not vote)

Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Legislative branch

Unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)

  • Elections: Last held March 2003 (next to be held NA)
  • Election results: Percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch

Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the National People's Congress


Political parties and leaders

  • Chinese Communist Party or CPC (Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee)
  • Eight registered small parties controlled by CPC

A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ...

Political pressure groups and leaders

No substantial political opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the Falun Gong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals Falun emblem. ...


International organization participation

AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OPCW, PCA, United Nations, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee The African Development Bank (AfDB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of promoting economic and social development in Africa. ... APEC can also stand for Atlantic Provinces Economic Council Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a group of Pacific Rim countries who meet with the purpose of improving economic and political ties. ... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a non-profit finance institution with many Asian governments as shareholder members who are also the recipients of funding where appropriate. ... The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is a financial international organization established under the Hague agreements of 1930. ... World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps member states communicate and cooperate on customs issues. ... The Caribbean Development Bank is a financial institution which assists Caribbean nations in financing social and economic programs in its member countries. ... The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), located in Bangkok, Thailand, is the regional arm of the United Nations Secretariat for the Asian and Pacific region. ... Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ... The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. ... IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957, seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... Somebody please clean this up. ... The International Development Association (IDA) was created on September 24, 1960, is a UN specialized agency. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) is an international humanitarian organisation, often better known as the Red Cross or the Red Crescent. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... Ilo may refer to: Ilo, a port in southern Peru Ilo, an artist on the Icelandic Bad Taste record label Ilo, the Estonian goddess of feasts This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing global financial system‘s current trade account balances of member states. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... INMARSAT, is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organisation. ... Intelsat is the worlds largest commercial satellite communications services provider. ... This article is about the International Criminal Police Organization - Interpol. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... The Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración (the Latin American Integration Association; known as ALADI or, occasionally, by the English acronym LAIA) is a Latin American trade integration association, based in Montevideo. ... MINURSO is a UN peacekeeping mission, established in 1991 to monitor the ceasefire and to organize and conduct a referendum which would enable the people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. ... NAM stands for: National Association of Manufacturers Non-Aligned Movement Network Analysis Module Colloquialism for the Vietnam War. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an agency of the United Nations. ... The phrase Hague Tribunal can also be used to refer to ICTY. The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) is a United Nations peacekeeping operation in Sierra Leone. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... UNIKOM, the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission, was established on April 9, 1991 following the Gulf War by Security Council resolution 689 (1991) and fully deployed by early May. ... The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. ... UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded in 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU) is a international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The WHO flag: similar to the flag of the United Nations, augmented with the symbolic staff and serpent of Asklepios, Greek god of medicine and healing. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is a UN agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ...


National flag description

red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner


See: Flag of the People's Republic of China Ratio 2:3 The Flag of the Peoples Republic of China, the Five-Starred Red Flag (五星红旗 in pinyin: wǔ xīng hóng qí), was designed by Zeng Liansong (曾联松 zēng lián sòng), an economist by trade and a talented artist who took residence in Ruian (瑞安 ruì ān), Zhejiang. ...


Nationality

In general, naturalisation or the obtainance of PRC nationality is difficult or very difficult. The Nationality Law prescribes only three conditions for the obtainance of PRC nationality (marriage to a PRC national is one, permanent residence is another).


Citizens of the People's Republic of China, according to law, are not permitted to hold dual nationalities, as the nation is a unitary state. If foreign nationality is granted to the PRC citizen, he or she loses Chinese nationality automatically. If the citizen then wishes to resume PRC nationality, the foreign nationality is no longer recognised. Multiple citizenship is simultaneous citizenship in two or more countries, whether it is recognised by all countries or not. ...


External links and references

  • Inside China's Ruling Party (BBC)
  • Is China really a Communist state? (CNN)
  • New York Times article of September 5, 2002 on Succession of Rule in China
  • Chinese Officials Lighten Up Under Pressure (China Today)
  • China's New Rulers: The Secret Files, Andrew J. Nathan and Bruce Gilley, New York Review of Books Press, 2002, hardcover, 150 pages, ISBN 1590170466

  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics of the People's Republic of China - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2835 words)
The PRC is an oligarchy in which political power and advancement depends on gaining and retaining the support of an informal body of people numbering one to two thousand who constitute the leadership of these organs.
That effort at separating party and state functions at the central government level was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party, thereby creating a single centralized locus of power.
Citizens of the People's Republic of China, according to law, are not permitted to hold dual nationalities, as the nation is a unitary state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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