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Encyclopedia > Politics of Canada
Canada

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Canada
Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Federal
Executive (The Crown)
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)
Governor General (Michaëlle Jean)

Queen's Privy Council for Canada
This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the...

Prime Minister (Stephen Harper)
Cabinet (Twenty-Eighth Ministry)

Government of Canada
Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Governor General Michaëlle Jean with Twenty-Eighth Ministry after the swearing-in ceremony (February 6, 2006) The Twenty-Eighth Canadian Ministry is the federal Cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, which has governed Canada since the begining of the 39th Parliament of Canada. ... The Government of Canada is federal government of Canada. ...

Ministries
Legislative (Parliament)
Current Parliament (39th)

Senate
The following list outlines the Structure of the Canadian federal government. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The initial seat distribution of the 39th Canadian Parliament The 39th Canadian Parliament is the current Parliament of Canada, and has been in session since April 3, 2006. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Speaker of the Senate
Government Leader in the Senate
Opposition Leader in the Senate
Canadian Senate divisions

House of Commons
The Speaker of the Canadian Senate (French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the Canadian Senate. ... The Leader of the Government in the Senate is a Canadian cabinet minister who leads the government side in the Canadian Senate and is chiefly responsible for promoting and defending the governments program in the Upper House. ... In Canada, the Leader of the Official Opposition in the Senate is the leader of the largest party in the Senate that is not in government. ... Representation in the Canadian Senate is divided into seats on a provincial basis. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...

Speaker of the House
Government House Leader
Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
Leader of the Opposition
Opposition House Leader
Shadow Cabinet
Elections
Parliamentary constituencies

Electoral system
Last election
Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... The Leader of the Government in the House of Commons (French: Leader du gouvernement à la Chambre des communes), more commonly known as the Government House Leader, is the Cabinet minister responsible for planning and managing the governments legislative program in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... In Canada each political party with representation in the House of Commons has a House Leader who is a front bench MP and an expert in parliamentary procedure. ... The outgoing Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet is listed below. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ... This is a list of Canadas 308 electoral districts (also known as ridings in Canadian English) as defined by the 2003 Representation Order, which came into effect on May 23, 2004. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...

Judicial
Supreme Court
Chief Justice (Beverley McLachlin)

Lower Courts of Appeal
Constitution
British North America Acts
Peace, Order and Good Government
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Right Hon. ... The Rt. ... List of final courts of appeal in Canada. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom dealing with the government of Canada, which was known as British North America until 1867. ... In Canada, the phrase peace, order and good government (in French, paix, ordre et bon gouvernement), called POGG for short, is often used to describe the principles upon which that countrys Confederation took place. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ...

Provincial and territorial
Politics of the Canadian provinces
General
Regions

Political culture
Foreign relations Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... Canadian political culture is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      // The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had little control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late 1840s. ...


Other countries · Atlas
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The politics of Canada function within a framework of constitutional monarchy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... A map displaying todays federations. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ...


Many of the country's legislative practices derive from the unwritten conventions of and precedents set by the United Kingdom's Westminster parliament; however, Canada has evolved variations. For example, party discipline in Canada is stronger than in the United Kingdom, and more parliamentary votes are considered motions of confidence, which tends to diminish the role of non-Cabinet Members of Parliament (MPs). Such members, in the government caucus, and junior or lower-profile members of opposition caucuses, are known as backbenchers. Backbenchers can, however, exert their influence by sitting in parliamentary committees, like the Public Accounts Committee or the National Defence Committee. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... A backbencher is a Member of Parliament or a legislator who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. ...

Contents

Context

Canada's governmental structure was originally established by the British parliament through the British North America Act (now known as the Constitution Act, 1867), but the federal model and division of powers were devised by Canadian politicians. Particularly after World War I, citizens of the self-governing Dominions, such as Canada, began to develop a strong sense of identity, and, in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, the British government expressed its intent to grant full autonomy to these regions. Thus in 1931, the British Parliament passed the Statute of Westminster, giving legal recognition to the autonomy of Canada and other Dominions. Following this, Canadian politicians were unable to obtain consensus on a process for amending the constitution until 1982, meaning amendments to Canada's constitution continued to require the approval of the British parliament until that date. Similarly, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain continued to make the final decision on legal issues until 1949. As well, because of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and rulings of courts on legislation, Canada is becoming more like a constitutional democracy, as opposed to the parliamentary democracy of its design. Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ... The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


Summary of governmental organization

Main article: Government of Canada
Name
Canada (for conventional and legal use; "Dominion of Canada" remains legal but rarely used)
Further information: Canada's name
Type of government 
federal parliamentary democracy within a constitutional monarchy.
Capital 
Ottawa, Ontario.
Administrative divisions 
Ten provinces and three territories*: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*.
National holiday 
Canada Day, July 1.
Constitution 
Westminster system, based on unwritten conventions and written legislation.
Legal system 
English common law for all matters within federal jurisdiction and in all provinces and territories except Quebec, which is based on the civil law, based on the Custom of Paris in pre-revolutionary France as set out in the Civil Code of Quebec; accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction, with reservations.
Further information: Law of Canada
Suffrage 
Citizens aged 18 years or older; only two adult citizens in Canada cannot vote; the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Deputy Chief Electoral Officer; the Governor General is eligible to vote, but abstains due to constitutional convention.
Participation in international organizations 
ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), Council of Europe (observer), Commonwealth of Nations, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, La Francophonie, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICJ, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, Kyoto Protocol, MINURCA, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command, NORTHCOM, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (prior/temporary), UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Zangger Committee.
Description of national flag 
A red maple leaf centred on a Canadian pale: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double width, square), and red, with a length twice that of its height.
Further information: Flag of Canada

The Government of Canada is federal government of Canada. ... Detail from the current Canadian $20 bank note, issued in 2004. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735 km... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... The Civil Code of Québec (Code civil du Québec) is the civil code in force in the province of Quebec, Canada. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system, inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... The Chief Electoral Officer was created in 1920 by the Dominion Elections Act (Canada). ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... APEC redirects here. ... The Caribbean Development Bank is a financial institution which assists Caribbean nations in financing social and economic programs in its member countries. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... ESA redirects here. ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... G10 countries. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. ... For other meanings of the ILO abbreviation, see ILO (disambiguation). ... IMF redirects here. ... Inmarsat is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... NORAD Headquarters Building. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... WHO redirects here. ... “WTO” redirects here. ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... In vexillology and heraldry, a Canadian pale is the centre of a flag that is a square or rectangle covering half the width of a flag rather than a rectangle covering a third as in a tricolour. ... The National Flag of Canada, popularly known as the Maple Leaf and lUnifolié (French for the one-leafed), is a base red flag with a white square in its centre featuring a stylized, 11-pointed, red maple leaf. ...

Executive power

Head of state 
Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada (since February 6, 1952).
Viceroy 
Michaëlle Jean, Governor General of Canada (since September 27, 2005).
Head of government 
Prime Minister Stephen Harper (since February 6, 2006).
Cabinet 
Ministers (usually around thirty) chosen by the Prime Minister and appointed by the Governor General to lead various ministries and agencies, generally with regional representation. Traditionally most, if not all, cabinet ministers will be members of the leader's own party in the House of Commons (see Cabinet of Canada); however this is not legally or constitutionally mandated, and occasionally the Prime Minister will appoint a cabinet minister from another party.
Elections 
The monarchy is hereditary. The Governor General is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister for a non-specific term, though it is traditionally approximately five years. Following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons is usually designated by the Governor General to become Prime Minister.
Further information: Canadian monarchyMonarchy in the Canadian provincesLieutenant-Governor (Canada)Premier (Canada), and Elections in Canada

For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada or (masculine) Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share the... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The ministry refers to all government ministers (whether or not they are in cabinet) headed by a prime minister. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Cabinet of Canada (French: Cabinet du Canada or Conseil des ministres) plays an important role in the Government of Canada in accordance with the Westminster System. ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... Each of the provinces within Canada uses a Westminster System of constitutional monarchy for its government, under Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning Queen of Canada since February 6, 1952. ... In Canada, the lieutenant-governor (often without a hyphen[1], pronounced ), in French lieutenant-gouverneur/lieutenant-gouverneure (always with a hyphen), is the Canadian Monarchs, or Crowns, representative in a province, much as the Governor General is her representative at the national level. ... In Canada, a Premier is the head of government of a province. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) has two chambers. ...

Legislative power

The bicameral parliament consists of three parts: the monarch, the Senate, and the House of Commons. In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... This article is about the monarchy of Canada, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ...


Currently, the Senate, which is frequently described as providing "regional" representation, has 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister to serve until age 75. It was created with equal representation from each of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime region. However, it is currently the product of various specific exceptions, additions and compromises, meaning that regional equality is not observed, nor is representation-by-population. The normal number of senators can be exceeded by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, as long as the additional senators are distributed equally with regard to region (up to a total of 8 additional Senators). This power of additional appointment has only been used once, when Prime Minister Brian Mulroney petitioned Queen Elizabeth II to add eight seats to the Senate so as to ensure the passage of the Goods and Services Tax legislation. Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ...


The House of Commons currently has 308 members elected by a plurality of popular votes in separate constituencies (ridings) for mandates that cannot exceed five years. This fixed mandate has been exceeded only once, when Prime Minister Robert Borden perceived the need to do so during World War I. The size of the House and apportionment of seats to each province is revised after every census, conducted every five years, and is based on population changes and approximately on representation-by-population. An electoral district is a geographically-based constituency upon which Canadas representative democracy is based. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC, DCL, LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Majority and minority governments

Canadians vote for their local Member of Parliament (MP) only. The party leaders are elected prior to the general elections by party memberships. Parties elect their leaders in run-off elections to ensure that the winner receives more than 50% of the votes. Normally the party leader stands as a candidate to be an MP during an election. Runoff voting is a voting system used in single-seat elections. ...


The election of a local MP gives a seat to one of the several political parties. The party that gets the most seats normally forms the government, with that party's leader becoming prime minister. The Prime Minister is not directly elected by the general population, although the Prime Minister is directly elected as a MP within his or her constituency.


Canada's parliamentary system empowers political parties and their party leaders. Where one party gets a majority of the seats in the House of Commons, that party is said to have a "majority government." Through party discipline, the party leader, who is only elected in one riding, exercises a great deal of control over the cabinet and the parliament.


A minority government situation occurs when the party that holds the most seats in the House of Commons still holds less than the opposition parties combined. In this scenario a party leader is selected by the Governor General to lead the government, however, to attempt to create stability, the person chosen must command the support of at least one other party. For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ...


Federal-provincial relations

In Canada, the provinces are considered co-sovereign; sovereignty of the provinces is passed on not by the Governor General or the Canadian parliament, but through the Crown itself. This means that the Crown is "divided" into eleven legal jurisdictions; into eleven "crowns" - one federal and ten provincial. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ...


Federal-provincial (or intergovernmental, formerly Dominion-provincial) relations is a regular issue in Canadian politics: Quebec wishes to preserve and strengthen its distinctive nature, western provinces desire more control over their abundant natural resources, especially energy reserves; industrialized Central Canada is concerned with its manufacturing base, and the Atlantic provinces strive to escape from being less affluent than the rest of the country. Central Canada, defined politically. ...


In order to ensure that social programs such as health care and education are funded consistently throughout Canada, the "have-not" (poorer) provinces receive a proportionately greater share of federal "transfer (equalization) payments" than the richer, or "have," provinces do; this has been somewhat controversial. The richer provinces often favour freezing transfer payments, or rebalancing the system in their favour, based on the claim that they already pay more in taxes than they receive in federal government services, and the poorer provinces often favour an increase on the basis that the amount of money they receive is not sufficient for their existing needs. Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to state or provincial governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. ...


Particularly in the past decade, some scholars have argued that the federal government's exercise of its unlimited constitutional spending power has contributed to strained federal-provincial relations. This power, which allows the federal government to spend the revenue it raises in any way that it pleases, allows it to overstep the constitutional division of powers by creating programs that encroach on areas of provincial jurisdiction. The federal spending power is found in s. 102 of the Constitution Act, 1867. A prime example of an exercise of the spending power is the Canada Health Act, which is a conditional grant of money to the provinces. Delivery of health services is, under the Constitution, a provincial responsibility. However, by making the funding available to the provinces under the Canada Health Act contingent upon delivery of services according to federal standards, the federal government has the ability to influence health care delivery. This spending power, coupled with Supreme Court rulings — such as Reference re Canada Assistance Plan (B.C.) — that have held that funding delivered under the spending power can be reduced unilaterally at any time, has contributed to strained federal-provincial relations. The Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867, and still known informally as the BNA Act), constitutes a major part of Canadas Constitution. ... The Canada Health Act is a piece of Canadian federal legislation, adopted in 1984, that lists the conditions and criteria to which the provinces and territories must conform in order to receive the full amount of negotiated transfer payments relating to health care. ... Reference re Canada Assistance Plan (B.C.), [1991] 2 S.C.R. 525 is a leading constitutional decision of the Supreme Court of Canada. ...


Quebec and Canadian politics

Except for three short-lived transitional or minority governments, prime ministers from Quebec have led Canada continuously since 1967. Quebecers have led both Liberal and Conservative governments in this period. This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


Monarchs, Governors General, and Prime Ministers are now expected to be at least functional, if not fluent, in both English and French. In selecting leaders, political parties give preference to candidates who are fluently bilingual. Canadian English (CaE) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. ...


Also, by law, judges from Quebec must hold three of the nine positions on the Supreme Court of Canada. This representation makes sure that at least three judges have sufficient experience with the civil law system to treat cases involving Quebec laws. The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ...


National unity

Canada has a long and storied history of secessionist movements (see Secessionist movements of Canada). National unity has been a major issue in Canada since the forced union of the Canadas in 1840. Throughout the history of Canada, there have been movements seeking secession from Canada. ...


The predominant and lingering issue concerning Canadian national unity has been the ongoing conflict between the French-speaking majority in Quebec and the English-speaking majority in the rest of Canada. Quebec's continued demands for recognition of its "distinct society" through special political status has led to attempts for constitutional reform, most notably with the failed attempts to amend the constitution through the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord (the latter of which was rejected though a national referendum). Distinct society (in French la société distincte) was a political neologism used during a constitutional debate in Canada, in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s. ... The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial premiers, including Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Since the Quiet Revolution, sovereigntist sentiments in Quebec have been variably stoked by the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982 (without Quebec's consent) and by the failed attempts at constitutional reform. Two provincial referendums, in 1980 and 1995, rejected proposals for sovereignty with majorities of 60% and 50.6% respectively. Given the narrow federalist victory in 1995, a reference was made by the Chrétien government to the Supreme Court of Canada in 1998 regarding the legality of unilateral provincial secession. The court decided that a unilateral declaration of secession would be unconstitutional. This resulted in the passage of the Clarity Act in 2000. The Quiet Revolution (French: Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. ... The 1980 Quebec referendum was the first referendum in Quebec on the role of Quebec within Canada and whether Quebec should pursue a path toward sovereignty. ... Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Holding Quebec cannot secede from Canada unilaterally; however, a clear vote to secede in a referendum should lead to negotiations between Quebec and Canada for secession. ... The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ...


The Bloc Québécois, a sovereigntist party which runs candidates exclusively in Quebec, was started by a group of MPs who left the Progressive Conservative (PC) party, and first put forward candidates in the 1993 federal election. With the collapse of the PCs in that election, the Bloc and Liberals were seen as the only two viable parties in Quebec. Thus, prior to the 2006 election, any gain by one party came at the expense of the other, regardless of whether national unity was really at issue. The Bloc, then, benefited (with a significant increase in seat total) from the impressions of corruption that surrounded the Liberal Party in the leadup to the 2004 election. However, the newly-unified Conservative party re-emerged as a viable party in Quebec by winning 10 seats in the 2006 election, meaning that Quebecers' electoral choices are now more complex. The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Western alienation is another national-unity-related concept that enters into Canadian politics. Residents of the four western provinces, particularly Alberta, have often been unhappy with a lack of influence and a perceived lack of understanding when residents of Central Canada consider "national" issues. While this is seen to play itself out through many avenues (media, commerce, etc.), in politics, it has given rise to a number of political parties whose base constituency is in western Canada. These include the United Farmers of Alberta, who first won federal seats in 1917, the Progressives (1921), the Social Credit Party (1935), the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (1935), the Reconstruction Party (1935), New Democracy (1940) and most recently the Reform Party (1989). The Reform Party's slogan "The West Wants In" was echoed by commentators when, after a successful merger with the PCs, the successor party to both parties, the Conservative Party won the 2006 election. Led by Stephen Harper, who is an MP from Alberta, the electoral victory was said to have made "The West IS In" a reality. However, regardless of specific electoral successes or failures, the concept of western alienation continues to be important in Canadian politics, particularly on a provincial level, where opposing the federal government is a common tactic for provincial politicians. For example, in 2001, a group of prominent Albertans (including Harper) produced the Alberta Agenda, urging Alberta to take steps to make full use of its constitutional powers, much as Quebec has done. Western Canada, defined politically Political map of Canada Western Alienation refers to the concept in Canadian politics of the Western provinces, namely British Columbia (B.C.), Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, being alienated, and in extreme cases excluded, from mainstream political affairs within the greater Canadian system, in favour of especially... Central Canada, defined politically. ... The United Farmers of Alberta was founded in 1909 as a lobby organization representing the interests of farmers. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The Reconstruction Party was a Canadian political party founded by Henry Herbert Stevens, a long-time Conservative MP who served as Minister of Trade in the Arthur Meighen governement of 1921, and as Minister of Trade and Commerce from 1930 to 1934 in the Depression-era government of R. B... New Democracy was a political party in Canada founded by William Duncan Herridge in 1939. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ... The Alberta Agenda was a letter penned by prominent Albertans, amongst them Stephen Harper and Ted Morton, urging Albertas Premier, Ralph Klein, to fully exercise Albertas constitutional powers. ...


Political conditions

The Liberal Party of Canada, under the leadership of Paul Martin, won a minority victory in the June 2004 general elections. In December 2003, Martin had succeeded fellow Liberal Jean Chrétien, who had, in 2000, become the first Prime Minister to lead three consecutive majority governments since 1945. However, in 2004 the Liberals lost seats in Parliament, going from 172 of 301 Parliamentary seats to 135 of 308, and from 40.9% to 36.7% in the popular vote. The Canadian Alliance, which did well in western Canada in the 2000 election, but was unable to make significant inroads in the East, merged with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the Conservative Party of Canada in late 2003. They proved to be moderately successful in the 2004 campaign, gaining seats from a combined Alliance-PC total of 78 in 2000 to 99 in 2004. However, the new Conservatives lost in popular vote, going from 37.7% in 2000 down to 29.6%. In 2006 the Conservatives, led by Stephen Harper, won a minority government with 124 seats. They improved their percentage from 2004, garnering 36.3% of the vote. During this election, the Conservatives also made major breakthroughs in Quebec. They gained 10 seats here, whereas in 2004 they had no seats. The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


This was the second minority government in Canada federally since 1979-1980. That government, led by Joe Clark, lasted only seven months. The situation, however, was different. The Clark government was elected in part because many voters did not want to support the Liberal party, but they did not expect that the Progressive Conservatives would win enough seats for a minority government. Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


Minority governments are not always short-lived. While they have not generally lasted four years, there have been minority governments in the time before 1979 that were fairly stable and able to pass legislation. Minority government situations in Canada may become somewhat difficult to manage though, as in the past there were only three parties that had a significant number of seats in parliament (fourth parties were at times represented in small numbers), although the third party has changed over time. This meant an alliance between the governing and third parties would have a solid majority. Since the 1930s, the third party was usually the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation or later the New Democratic Party, which was created when an alliance was formed between labour unions and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation. The Social Credit Party of Canada was the third party at times. Before this, there were other parties that had significant influence; such as the Progressive Party in the 1920s. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Social Credit Party of Canada (French: Parti Crédit social du Canada), was a conservative - populist political party in Canada that promoted social credit theories of monetary reform. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ...


No such governing coalition was able to form in the 38th Parliament.


Party funding reform

Funding changes were in a greater manner on personal contributions. It should be noted that personal donations to federal parties and campaigns benefit from tax credits, although the amount of tax relief depends on the amount given. Also only people paying income taxes receive any benefit from this.


A good part of the reasoning behind the change in funding was that union or business funding should not be allowed to have as much impact on federal election funding as these are not contributions from citizens and are not evenly spread out between parties. They are still allowed to contribute to the election but only in a minor fashion. The new rules stated that a party had to receive 2% of the vote nationwide in order to receive the general federal funding for parties. Each vote garnered a certain dollar amount for a party (approximately $1.75) in future funding. For the initial dispersement, approximations were made based on previous elections. The NDP received more votes than expected (its national share of the vote went up) while the new Conservative Party of Canada received fewer votes than had been estimated and has been asked to refund the difference. It should be noted that the province of Quebec was the first province to implement a similar system of funding many years before the changes to funding of federal parties. This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Federal funds are disbursed quarterly to parties, beginning at the start of 2005. For the moment, this disbursement delay leaves the NDP and the Green Party in a better position to fight an election, since they rely more on individual contributors than federal funds. The Green party now receives federal funds, since it for the first time received a sufficient share of the vote in the 2004 election.


first time the Green this strategy was probably used by all parties to try to increase their percentage of the vote. For supporters of the party holding the safe seat, one could argue that even if their vote was not needed to secure the seat for the party, it still made a difference to party funding.


Commonly, two national debates receive nationwide coverage during an election, one in each official language. Both debates are broadcast in translation, so it is possible to watch either debate without a working knowledge of the language of the debate, although part of the meaning can be lost. People who are bilingual enough to understand both the English- and French-language debates without need of translation will get a better idea of the substances of the two debates and the differences between them if they decide to watch both debates.


Currently only the parties represented in Parliament participate in the debates. The Green Party, however, has argued that it should also be allowed to participate. Its share of the vote has increased greatly, due in part to the new funding formula, in part because it ran in many more ridings than in previous elections (it nominated candidates in every riding in the 2004 and 2006 elections), and in part to increased popularity. Thus the argument goes that if there is sufficient national support to earn official recognition as a party (i.e., one that is granted funding based on getting 2% or more of the national vote) it should also be allowed to debate on the same level as the other officially recognized parties. The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


Also, having received 6% of the vote in British Columbia and based on past precedent, the Greens will have a stronger case for being included in the debates in future elections. The Bloc Québécois was allowed to participate in debates on the basis of its support in Quebec - even before it had elected any MPs in a general election (the only Bloc's MPs at the time had either switched parties or won in by-elections). Furthermore, on the basis of anticipated support, the Reform Party of Canada was included in debates despite only having a single MP. Therefore, past party performance or number of seats is not how participants are chosen. The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ...


In 2007, news emerged of a funding loophole that "could cumulatively exceed the legal limit by more than $60,000," through anonymous recurrent donations of 199 dollars to every riding of a party from corporations or unions.[1][2][3]


Elections

  • Elections
    • House of Commons - direct plurality representation (last election held January 23, 2006)
    • Senate - appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
  • Election results
[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 23 January 2006 Canadian House of Commons election results
Party Party leader Candi-
dates
Seats Popular vote
2004 Dissol. 2006 % Change # % Change
     Conservative Party of Canada Stephen Harper 308 99 98 124 +25.3% 5,374,071 36.27% +6.64%
     Liberal Party of Canada Paul Martin 308 135 133 103 -23.7% 4,479,415 30.23% -6.50%
     Bloc Québécois Gilles Duceppe 75 54 53 51 -5.6% 1,553,201 10.48% -1.90%
     New Democratic Party Jack Layton 308 19 18 29 +52.6% 2,589,597 17.48% +1.79%
     Green Party of Canada Jim Harris 308 - - -   664,068 4.48% +0.19%
     Christian Heritage Party of Canada Ron Gray 45 - - -   28,152 0.19% -0.11%
     Progressive Canadian Party Tracy Parsons 25 - - -   14,151 0.10% +0.02%
     Marijuana Party of Canada Blair Longley 23 - - -   9,171 0.06% -0.18%
     Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) Sandra L. Smith 69 - - -   8,980 0.06% +0.00%
     Canadian Action Party Connie Fogal 34 - - -   6,102 0.04% -0.02%
     Communist Party of Canada Miguel Figueroa 21 - - -   3,022 0.02% -0.01%
     Libertarian Party of Canada Jean-Serge Brisson 10 - - -   3,002 0.02% +0.01%
     First Peoples National Party of Canada Barbara Wardlaw 5 * - - * 1,201 0.01% *
     Western Block Party Doug Christie 4 * - - * 1,094 0.01% *
     Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party Liz White 1 * - - * 72 0.0005% *
     Independents and no affiliation 90 1 4 11 - 81,860 0.55% -0.07%
     Vacant 2  
Total 1634 308 308 308 - 14,845,680 100%  
Source: Elections Canada

Notes: For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, PC, MP, BA, LLB, LLD (h. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... Gilles Duceppe, MP (born July 22, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Quebec nationalist and social democratic politician in Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... John Gilbert Jack Layton, PC, MP, PhD (born July 18, 1950) is a social democratic Canadian politician and current leader of Canadas New Democratic Party (since 2003). ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... Jim Harris 2006 election campaign photo. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Ronald O. Gray is the current leader of the minor federal level Christian Heritage Party of Canada. ... The Progressive Canadian Party (PC Party) is a minor federal political party in Canada. ... Tracy Parsons is the current leader of the Progressive Canadian Party. ... The Marijuana Party is a Canadian federal political party that aims to end prohibition of cannabis. ... Blair T. Longley - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) (CPC-ML) is a Canadian federal Marxist-Leninist political party. ... Sandra L. Smith is the leader of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) (aka the Marxist-Leninist Party of Canada) and the widow of the partys founder and long-time leader, Hardial Bains. ... The Canadian Action Party (CAP) is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1997. ... Connie Fogal Constance (Connie) Fogal (born 1940) is the leader of the Canadian Action Party. ... The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada. ... Miguel Figueroa Miguel Figueroa (born 1953) has been the leader of the Communist Party of Canada since 1992. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ... Jean-Serge Brisson (born in 1954 in Embrun, Ontario) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The First Peoples National Party of Canada (FPNPC) is a political party that is eligible for registration as a federal political party in Canada. ... Barbara Wardlaw is the interim leader of the First Peoples National Party of Canada. ... The Western Block Party is a political party in Canada founded in 2005 by Doug Christie. ... Douglas (Doug) Hewson Christie, Jr. ... The Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada is a minor registered political party in Canada. ... Liz White is the current leader of the Animal Alliance Environment Voters Party of Canada, a federal political party in Canada. ... Not to be confused with Independent Party or Independence Party. ...

Official candidate nominations closed January 2, 2006. Candidate totals cited above are based on official filings. Nominations were official on January 5, 2006.
"% change" refers to change from previous election
* indicates the party did not contest in the previous election.
1 André Arthur was elected as an independent candidate in the Quebec City-area riding of Portneuf—Jacques-Cartier. He personally won 20,158 votes.
See also: Canadian Senate

is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... André Arthur M.P., is a radio host and politician from Quebec City. ... Portneuf—Jacques-Cartier (formerly known as Portneuf) is a federal electoral district in Quebec, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1867. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ...

Political parties, leaders, and status

(By number of elected representatives in House of Commons)

The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (French: LOpposition Loyale de Sa Majesté) in Canada is usually the largest parliamentary opposition party in the Canadian House of Commons that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... Gilles Duceppe, MP (born July 22, 1947 in Montreal, Quebec) is a Quebec nationalist and social democratic politician in Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... John Gilbert Jack Layton, PC, MP, PhD (born July 18, 1950) is a social democratic Canadian politician and current leader of Canadas New Democratic Party (since 2003). ... William D. Casey (born February 19, 1945 in Amherst, Nova Scotia) is a Canadian politician. ... André Arthur M.P., is a radio host and politician from Quebec City. ... Louise Thibault (born 1947, in Montreal) is a Canadian politician. ...

Judiciary

The highest court in Canada is the Supreme Court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. The court is composed of nine judges: eight Puisne Justices and the Chief Justice of Canada. Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada are appointed by the Governor-in-Council. The Supreme Court Act limits eligibility for appointment to persons who have been judges of a superior court, or members of the bar for ten or more years. Members of the bar or superior judiciary of Quebec, by law, must hold three of the nine positions on the Supreme Court of Canada.[4] The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the British common law system which it inherited from being a part of the Commonwealth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Puisne Justice or Puisne Judge (pronounced puny) is the title for a regular member of a Court. ... The Right Hon. ... The Supreme Court Act is an Act passed by the Parliament of Canada establishes the Supreme Court of Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Government departments and structure

Further information: Structure of the Canadian federal government

The Department of Finance in Canada operates under the finance minister. ... Example of a cheque from the Canada Revenue Agency The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) administers: tax laws for the Government of Canada and for most provinces and territories; international trade legislation; and various social and economic benefit and incentive programs delivered through the tax system. ... The Department of Human Resources and Social Development, also referred to as Human Resources and Social Development Canada, is the department of the government of Canada responsible for providing Canadians with the resources and skills needed for the workplace and community. ... The Department of National Defence, frequently referred to by its acronym DND, is the department within the government of Canada with responsibility for Canadas military, known as the Canadian Forces. ... Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, legally incorporated as the federal Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for protecting Canadians and helping to maintain a peaceful and safe society. ... The Department of Foreign Affairs, also referred to as Foreign Affairs Canada (FAC), is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for foreign policy and diplomacy. ... The Department of International Trade, also referred to as International Trade Canada, is the department in the government of Canada with responsibility for import/export and international trade policies. ... The following list outlines the Structure of the Canadian federal government. ...

Crown corporations and other government agencies

In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... VIA Rails trains travelling by Highway 401 near Brockville, Ontario. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ... The Canada Council for the Arts, commonly called the Canada Council, is an agency of the Government of Canada created to foster and promote the study and enjoyment of, and the production of works in, the arts. ... Canada Post Corporation (French: Société canadienne des postes) is a Canadian postal service operated as a crown corporation. ...

See also

Though whats up there are many similarities between the politics of Canada and the politics of the United States, there are also important differences. ... There are a great many similarities between Canada and Australia. ... Canadian political culture is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and... This article lists political parties in Canada. ... A Conservative election poster from 1891. ... This is a list of major political scandals in Canada: King-Byng Affair - 1926 Canadian constitutional crisis Munsinger Affair - Canadas first national political sex scandal (1960s) Airbus affair Alberta Alberta Sexual Sterilization Act - a 1928 law that resulted in close to 3,000 young people being classified as mentally... Liberalism has been a strong force in Canadian politics since the late 18th Century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Democratic Socialism and Social Democracy have been, along with liberalism and conservatism, a political force in Canada. ... The Flag of Canada Canadian nationalism is a loose term which has been applied to ideologies of several different types which highlight and promote specifically Canadian interests over those of other countries, notably the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ Conacher, Duff (2007-08-13). Our Democracy for Sale, Still. The Tyee. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  2. ^ Leblanc, Daniel; Jane Taber (2007-08-02). Ottawa refuses to close donation loophole. The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 2007-08-02. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  3. ^ Leblanc, Daniel (2007-08-01). Loophole tears lid off political donations. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  4. ^ Supreme Court Act, s. 6.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Canadian-Politics.com Comprehensive overview of politics in Canada
  • CBC Digital Archives - Scandals, Boondoggles and White Elephants
  • CBC Digital Archives - Campaigning for Canada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5257 words)
Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm that formally recognizes Elizabeth II as Queen of Canada,
Canada's two official languages are English and French, spoken by 56.3% and 28.7% of the population respectively.
Canada is known for its vast forests and mountain ranges, and the animals that reside within them, such as moose, caribou, beavers, polar bears, grizzly bears, Canada goose and the common loon.
Politics of Canada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5655 words)
Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm (see Monarchy in Canada) with a federal system of parliamentary government, and strong democratic traditions.
The political system under which Canada operates, known as the Westminster system, was enshrined by the British Parliament in the Constitution Act, 1867 (also known as the British North America Act), but the federal model and division of powers were devised by Canadian politicians.
Canada's Parliament consists of the monarch and a bicameral legislature: an elected House of Commons and an appointed Senate.
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