FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Politics of Argentina
Argentina by subject

Communications
Culture
Demographics
Economy
Education
Foreign relations
Geography
Government
History
Military
Politics
Religion
Tourism
Transport
This article is about the various communications systems of Argentina. ... The culture of Argentina is as varied as the countrys geography or its ethnic mix. ... This article is about the demographics features of the population of Argentina, including distribution, ethnicity, economic status and other. ... This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. ... This article is about the history of Argentina. ... Tourism in Argentina is favored by its ample and varied natural assets (made possible by its geographical extension), by its cultural offer, and (since the devaluation of the Argentine peso after the 2001 crash) by its high exchange rate to foreign currencies. ...

This article is about the political institutions and political parties of Argentina. Some necessary historical background is provided; for more details see the specific article on the history of Argentina.

Politics of Argentina takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Argentina is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. This article is about the history of Argentina. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...

Argentina

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Argentina
Image File history File links COA_of_Argentina. ...



Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit

Contents

Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... The National Congress ( Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. ... The Argentine Senate is the upper house of parliament in Argentina. ... The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the National Congress, Argentinas parliament. ... This article lists political parties in Argentina. ... The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement. ... The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ... This articles gives information on voting, elections and election results in Argentina. ... Argentina held national parliamentary elections on Sunday, 23 October 2005. ... Argentina will hold national presidential and legislative elections on 28 October 2007 to elect a president and for the Argentine Congress. ... The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ... Argentina is subdivided in 23 provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 federal district (capital federal). ... Departments (Spanish: departamentos) form the second level of administrative division in the provinces of Argentina. ... This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

History

Argentina is a representative democracy. This has not always been the case. Since the 1930s, the democratic rule of the country has been repeatedly brought down by coups d'état. After World War II and Juan Perón, the recurring economic and institutional crises fostered the rise of military regimes. // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ...


Law 8871 or Sáenz Peña Law of 1912 established universal, secret and obligatory male suffrage. This marked the moment when the middle classes entered government, displacing the landowning elite. Female suffrage was not introduced until 1947, under Perón. The Sáenz Peña Law (in Spanish, Ley Sáenz Peña) was Law 8871 of Argentina, sanctioned by the National Congress on February 10, 1912, which established the universal, secret and obligatory male suffrage though the creation of an electoral list (Padrón Electoral). ...


Jorge Rafael Videla's dictatorship, started in 1976, began its fall in 1982 after the defeat in the Falklands/Malvinas war, and ended in 1983 with the democratic election of President Raúl Alfonsín. Alfonsín faced important challenges, including a military uprising, and resigned in 1989, six months before the end of his term, but the country was not in clear danger of becoming subject to a dictatorship again. Carlos Menem was the president for six more years and made a pact with Alfonsín in order to achieve a constitutional reform that would allow him to be reelected. Following a neoliberal program, he ruled for four more years, until 1999, and then Fernando de la Rúa was elected. This was the first time in decades that an Argentine president properly finished his term and passed on his charge to another democratically elected president. Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ... Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carlos Saúl Menem (born July 2, 1930) was President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999 for the Justicialist Party (Peronist) very infamous and criticized due corruption and his dubious handling of the investigations of the 1992 Israeli Embassy bombing and the 1994 bombing of the... Olivos is the capital of Vicente López Partido in the province of Buenos Aires, in Argentina. ... The 1994 reform to the Argentine Constitution was approved on 22 August, as a result of the Olivos Pact between by that time president of Argentina Carlos Saúl Menem, and the former president and leader of the opposition Raúl Alfonsín. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism (international relations). ... Fernando de la Rúa Bruno (born September 15, 1937) is an Argentine politician. ...


De la Rúa, however, could not manage the economic crisis and finally resigned on December 21, 2001, amid violent riots. Several short-lived interim presidents came and went, until Congress finally chose Eduardo Duhalde to rule until some sort of social and economic peace could be restored. Duhalde took care of the most critical matters and called for democratic elections, where Néstor Kirchner was chosen (for the first time employing the ballotage system). Kirchner took office on 25 May 2003 and is the current president of Argentina, to serve until 2007. The Argentine economic crisis was part of the situation that affected Argentinas economy during the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The December 2001 riots were a period of civil unrest and rioting in Argentina, which took place during December 2001, with the most violent incidents taking place on December 19 and December 20 in the capital, Buenos Aires. ... Ad interim (ad int) is Latin for temporarily or in the meantime. It also refers to a diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador, as in the term chargé daffaires ad interim. Examples from classic literature: No; but she has become queen of Paris, ad interim, and... Eduardo Alberto Duhalde Maldonado (born October 5, 1941) is a former president of Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Runoff voting is a voting system used in single-seat elections. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...


Political parties and elections

A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... This article lists political parties in Argentina. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... This articles gives information on voting, elections and election results in Argentina. ...

Political parties

Julio A. Roca monument in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Argentina's two largest political parties are the Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista, or PJ), which evolved out of Juan Perón's efforts in the 1940s to expand the role of labor in the political process (see Peronism), and the Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical, or UCR), founded in 1890. Traditionally, the UCR had more urban middle-class support and the PJ more labor support, but both parties are now broadly based. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1636x2060, 886 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Argentina Politics of Argentina Julio Argentino Roca Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1636x2060, 886 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: History of Argentina Politics of Argentina Julio Argentino Roca Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine general and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ...


A grouping of mostly left-leaning parties and former Peronists — the Front for a Country in Solidarity (Frente por un País Solidario, or FrePaSo) — emerged in the 1990s as a serious political contender to the PJ, especially in the federal capital. In August 1997, the UCR and FrePaSo formed a coalition called the Alliance for Work, Justice and Education (informally la Alianza "the Alliance"). The Alliance succeeded in taking Fernando de la Rúa (UCR) to the presidency, with Carlos Álvarez (FrePaSo) as vice-president; but Álvarez resigned in 2000 after a scandal related to bribes in the Senate (the President's party refused to support or investigate the denunciations), and the Alliance was in practice broken from that moment on. Categories: Politics stubs | Argentine political parties ...


After this episode, followed by the resignation of Fernando de la Rúa (who had to the flee from the government house in a helicopter), on December 21, 2001, the UCR's reputation was severely damaged, and the party lost many of its supporters. To some people, de la Rúa's flight, coupled with the resignation of Raúl Alfonsín in 1989, confirmed the idea that the Radical party was not fit to rule, though it must be noted that in both cases Peronist activists are believed to have fueled popular discontent and even incited revolts to bring about this result. Fernando de la Rúa Bruno (born September 15, 1937) is an Argentine politician. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Smaller parties occupy various positions on the political spectrum and some are active only in certain provinces. In the years after Perón's first years in office, several provincial parties emerged, often as a vehicle for the continued activities of Peronists, whose party was now banned, or as coalitions of politicians from all sectors wishing to take forward provincial interests. Provincial parties grew in popularity and number after the return of democracy in 1983, and took several of the provincial governor positions. Both these parties and the provincial branches of the UCR and PJ have frequently been dominated by modern caudillos and family dynasties, such as the Sapags of Neuquén and the Rodríguez Saá's of San Luis. This has in turn been a factor in the ongoing factionalism within the two principal parties at national and local levels. Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ... Neuquén is a province of Argentina, located in the west of the country, at the northern end of Patagonia. ... San Luis is a province of Argentina located near the geographical center of the country (on the 32º South parallel). ...


Historically, organized labor (largely tied to the Peronist Party) and the armed forces also have played significant roles in national life. Labor's political power was significantly weakened by free market reforms during the 1990s, as well as the cooptation of labor leaders by the Menem administration. They now seem to be returning to their former position, since the current government focuses on a productive model with local industry as one of the top priorities.


The armed forces are firmly under civilian control. Repudiated by the public after a period of military rule marked by human rights violations, economic decline, and military defeat, the Argentine military today is a downsized, volunteer force focused largely on international peacekeeping. While Menem and de la Rúa simply reduced their funding, Kirchner has effected an "ideological cleansing", removing a large portion of the top ranks and replacing them with younger leaders with an explicit commitment to preserve human rights and submit to the decisions of the civilian government. U.S. President Abraham Lincolns active involvement in the conduct of the American Civil War, which frequently involved pressing his generals to undertake more aggressive actions, set a precedent for the power of the civilian Commander-in-Chief. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In recent times two newer parties have gained weight in the political scene. One of them, ARI, was formed on the initiative of Elisa Carrió, formerly a member of the UCR, and presented itself as a non-compromising front against corruption and for progressive ideas. ARI took the place of the defunct Alliance in the ideological spectrum. Elisa María Avelina Carrió (born 1956) is an Argentinian politician, founder of the center-left Alternative for a Republic of Equals party (ARI). ...


Carrió came close fourth in the last presidential election, after a very austere campaign. She is known as a devout, somewhat mystically oriented Catholic, and frequently criticizes what she sees as pettiness and short-term vision on the part of the current administration, employing an assortment of quotations from social philosophers and even the Bible; however, her influence has diminished lately, as the Kirchner administration harvests a measure of success and centre-left policies, and she becomes more extravagant. In the 2005 parliamentary elections, her party list (led by herself) came second after Mauricio Macri's Commitment to Change party for the Legislature of Buenos Aires. In June 2007, Fabiana Ríos, an ARI's deputy, was elected governor of the Province of Tierra del Fuego, becaming the first governor belonging to this party. Argentina held a presidential election on Sunday, April 27, 2003. ... Argentina held national parliamentary elections on Sunday, 23 October 2005. ... Mauricio Macri. ... Commitment to Change (Spanish: Compromiso para el Cambio) is a centre-right political party in Argentina, principally active in the city of Buenos Aires. ...


The other party, called Recrear, is also led by a former Radical party member, Ricardo López Murphy, who was briefly a minister of Economy of Fernando de la Rúa. Recrear captured the moderate right-wing spectrum of voters, especially urban voters of the middle and upper classes. López Murphy came third in the last presidential elections, with a platform that emphasized a fight against corruption and for transparency, attempting to appeal to voters who were content with the neo-liberal outlook of the 1990s but would not give their vote to a candidate they viewed as corrupt (Carlos Menem). López Murphy continued to criticize populism and state assistance. He was a candidate for the Senate in the province of Buenos Aires in the 2005 elections, with meagre results. Subsequently Recrear has joined forces with a group of provincial parties and Macri's Commitment to Change to form PRO - Propuesta Republicana, a new centre-right coalition ahead of the 2007 elections. In June 2007, Macri was elected major of the city of Buenos Aires. Ricardo Hipólito López Murphy (born 10 August 1951 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine economist and politician. ... Republican Proposal (Spanish: Propuesta Republicana) is a centre-right electoral front in Argentina. ... Argentina will hold national presidential and legislative elections on 27 October 2007 to elect a President of Argentina and for the Argentine Congress. ...


Latest legislative election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 23 October 2005 Argentine National Congress election results
Coalitions and parties Chamber of Deputies of the Nation:
127 out of 257 seats
Senate of the Nation:
24 out of 72 seats
Votes % Deputies Votes % Senators
Front for Victory (Frente para la Victoria) 5,071,094 29.9 50 3,572,361 45.1 14
Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical) 1,514,653 8.9 10 597,730 7.5 2
Alternative for a Republic of Equals (Alternativa por una República de Iguales) 1,227,726 7.2 8 549,208 6.9 -
Justicialist Party (Partido Justicialista) 1,142,522 6.7 9 58,485 0.7 1
Republican Proposal (Propuesta Republicana - PRO) 1,046,020 6.2 9 492,892 6.2 -
Justicialist Front (Frente Justicialista) 670,309 3.9 7 1,364,880 17.2 3
Progressive, Civic and Social Front (Frente Progresista Cívico y Social) 625,335 3.7 5
Alliance Union of Córdoba (Alianza Unión Córdoba) 530,115 3.1 4
Federalist Unity Party (Partido Unidad Federalista) 372,843 2.2 2
Alliance New Front (Alianza Frente Nuevo) 347,412 2.0 3
Front of Everyone (Frente de Todos) 316,294 1.9 6
Front for the Renewal of Concordia (Frente Renovador de la Concordia) 189,327 1.1 2 187,255 2.4 2
Civic Front for Santiago (Frente Cívico por Santiago) 185,733 1.1 3
Neuquino People's Movement (Movimiento Popular Neuquino) 85,700 0.5 2
Front of Jujuy (Frente Jujeño) 78,051 1.0 1
Alliance Front of Production and Labour (Alianza Frente Produccion y Trabajo) 71,984 0.9 1
Others 3,647,997 21.5 7 953,739 12.0 -
Total (turnout 70.9 % resp. 72.3 %) 16,973,080   127 7,926,585 24
Registered voters 26,098,546 12,081,098
Votes cast 18,513,717 8,730,094
Invalid votes 1,540,637 8.3 803,509 9.2
Source: Adam Carr's Website

Be aware that parties operate under various labels and alliances in the provinces. The National Congress ( Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. ... The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the National Congress, Argentinas parliament. ... The Argentine Senate is the upper house of parliament in Argentina. ... The Front for Victory (Spanish: Frente para la Victoria) is a peronist political front in Argentina. ... The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ... The Alternative for a Republic of Equals (Spanish: Alternativa por una República de Iguales) is an Argentine political party. ... The Justicialist Party (Spanish: Partido Justicialista, PJ) is a Peronist political party in Argentina, and the largest component of the Peronist movement. ... Republican Proposal (Spanish: Propuesta Republicana) is a centre-right electoral front in Argentina. ... The Justicialist Front (Spanish: Frente Justicialista) is a peronist political party in Argentina. ... The Progressive, Civic and Social Front (Spanish: Frente Progresista Civico y Social) is a provincial political party in Argentina. ... The Alliance Union of Cordoba (Spanish: Alianza Unión Córdoba) is a provincial political party in Córdoba Province, Argentina. ... The Federalist Union Party (Spanish: Partido Unidad Federalista - ) is a right-wing provincial political party in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. ... The Alliance New Front (Spanish: Alianza Frente Nuevo) is a political party in Argentina. ... The Front for Everyone (Spanish: Frente de Todos) is a provincial political party in Argentina. ... The Front for the Renewal of Concordia (Spanish: Frente Renovador de la Concordia) is a provincial political party in Argentina. ... The Civic Front for Santiago (Spanish: Frente Civico por Santiago) is a provincial political party in Argentina. ... The Neuquino Peoples Movement (Spanish: Movimiento Popular Neuquiño) is a provincial and liberal party in the province of Neuquén, Argentina. ... The Front of Jujuy (Spanish: Frente Jujeno) is a provincial political party in Argentina. ... The Alliance Front of Production and Labour (Spanish: Alianza Frente Produccion y Trabajo) is a political party in Argentina. ...

Latest presidential election

[discuss] – [edit]
Summary of the 27 April 2003 Argentine presidential election results
Candidates Nominating parties Votes %
Carlos Saúl Menem Front for Liberty 4,740,907 19.48
Union of the Democratic Centre (Unión del Centro Democrático) 4.97
Néstor Carlos Kirchner Front for Victory (Frente para la Victoria) 4,312,517 22.24
Ricardo López Murphy Recreate for Growth (Recrear para el Crecimiento) 3,173,475 16.37
Adolfo Rodríguez Saá Front of the Popular Movement (Frente Movimiento Popular) 2,735,829 12.07
Union and Liberty Party (Partido Unión y Libertad) 2.04
Elisa María Avelina Carrió Alternative for a Republic of Equals (Alternativa para una República de Iguales) 2,723,574 14.05
Leopoldo Raúl Guido Moreau Radical Civic Union (Unión Civica Radical) 453,360 2.34
Patricia Walsh United Left (Izquierda Unida) 332,863 1.72
Alfredo Bravo Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) 217,385 1.12
Total positive votes 19,387,895
Total votes 19,930,111
Source: Ministerio del Interior

Carlos Saúl Menem (born July 2, 1930) was President of Argentina from 8 July 1989 to 10 December 1999 for the Justicialist Party (Peronist). ... The Union of the Democratic Centre (Spanish: Unión del Centro Democrático) is a political party in Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... The Front for Victory (Spanish: Frente para la Victoria) is a peronist political front in Argentina. ... Ricardo Hipólito López Murphy (born 10 August 1951 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine economist and politician. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Argentine political parties ... Adolfo Rodríguez Saá Páez Montero (born July 25, 1947) is an Argentine politician of Peronist beliefs. ... The Front of the Popular Movement (Spanish: Frente Movimiento Popular) is a political party in Argentina. ... The Union and Liberty Party (Spanish: Partido Unión y Libertad) is a political party in Argentina. ... Elisa Carrió Elisa María Avelina Carrió (born 1956) is an Argentinian politician, founder of the center-left Alternative for a Republic of Equals party (ARI). ... The Alternative for a Republic of Equals (Spanish: Alternativa por una República de Iguales) is an Argentine political party. ... The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Argentine political parties ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Socialist Party of Argentina is a political party operating in Argentina. ...

Policy

Each administration had different priorities. President Alfonsín took office on the giving up of power by the last military junta, and his main task was to ensure a peaceful transition. In the end he was overcome by an economic crisis that led to a bout of hyperinflation. Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...


President Menem first had to control inflation and stabilize the economy, which he did by adopting a series of radical measures including fixed parity between the Argentine peso and the U.S. dollar. Carlos Saúl Menem (born July 2, 1930) was President of Argentina from July 8, 1989 to December 10, 1999 for the Justicialist Party (Peronist) very infamous and criticized due corruption and his dubious handling of the investigations of the 1992 Israeli Embassy bombing and the 1994 bombing of the... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... “USD” redirects here. ...


He then engaged in a program to move Argentina's economy towards a liberal model. This plan included the privatization of the previously state-owned telecommunications company, oil conglomerate (YPF), airline (Aerolíneas Argentinas), railroads and utilities. As a result, large foreign direct investment initially flowed into Argentina but only for a short time, improving in some isolated cases the infrastructure and quality of service of said companies. This kind of policy finally culminated in the highest unemployment rates of Argentine history and to the doubling of external debt. The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics begun in the Englightenment, and believed to be first fully forumulated by Adam Smith. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... YPFs logotype Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF -means Fiscal Petroleum Fields-) was an Argentine state-owned oil company. ... Aerolíneas Argentinas is Argentinas largest domestic and international airline. ...


In the social arena, during his tenure in government, he pardoned military officers serving sentences for human rights abuses of the Dirty War. As a way of balancing such an unpopular decision, he also pardoned some of the convicted insurgents participating in the guerrillas on the 70's. The public scandal after the assassination of the soldier Omar Carrasco forced Menem to end compulsory military conscription. For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ...


Menem's administration was also regarded by many as corrupt and frivolous. Many members of his administrations have been indicted for profiteering while in office. Despite of the large amount of evidence that Menem had personally profited illegally from his administration, he has never been legaly convicted. The executive had a visible influence on the decisions of the judiciary, especially the Supreme Court, and displayed a certain contempt for political minorities. Moreover, it did nothing to reduce political corruption and inefficiency, one of the most important and oldest problems in the Argentine government (Argentina's Corruption Perceptions Index for 1999 was 3 out of 10, ranking 71st in a survey of 99 countries). [1] The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as...


Fernando de la Rúa's term was notoriously ineffective on many accounts. Elected with a popular mandate to reinvigorate the economy and crack down on the corruption of the Menem administration, de la Rúa was unable or unwilling to perform these tasks. He continued on the same economic course of Menem, which ultimately led to the 2001 economic crash and de la Rúa's resignation. The FrePaSo ministers of the administration, elected on a wave of hope for social changes, also disappointed with a perceived lack of investment in social schemes. Fernando de la Rúa Bruno (born September 15, 1937) is an Argentine politician. ... The Argentine economic crisis was part of the situation that affected Argentinas economy during the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Argentine political parties ...


Eduardo Duhalde's interim term was strongly limited by a highly mobilized society. It was marked by the need to pacify the country and soften the impact of the crisis after the forced devaluation of the local currency, the peso, which had lost three quarters of its value in a matter of months. Duhalde employed a mixture of traditional Peronist politics (in the form of a monetary subsidy for heads of families) and neo-Keynesian economic principles to stabilize the economy and bring peace to the streets. Eduardo Alberto Duhalde Maldonado (born October 5, 1941) is a former president of Argentina. ... Devaluation is a reduction in the value of a currency with respect to other monetary units. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ...


Néstor Kirchner, who belongs to the moderate center-left wing of Peronism (rooted in the leftist Peronist factions of the 1970s), continued Duhalde's measures (even keeping his Minister of Economy, Roberto Lavagna) and added some heterodox economics. Heavy taxes on exports have served to keep local prices of valuable commodities on check, while collecting huge revenues (especially from oil products and agricultural exports like soybeans). The restrictive monetary policy of the 1990s has become aggressively expansive; the Central Bank has injected large amounts of cash into the economy and bought dollars from the free currency market in order to accumulate reserves. The fiscal policy is also expansive; the government has raised private and public salaries by decree on several occasions, and has encouraged negotiations between the private sector and the labor movements. Inflation has again become a concern. The government has struck price-freezing agreements with certain sectors of the economy (producers of milk, some foods, natural gas, etc.) and put heavy pressure on others. Failure to comply on the part of Argentine beef producers has been met with a punitive suspension of exports, starting March 2006, intended to increase domestic supply (this was then softened to a quota system).  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Roberto Lavagna. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Asado in preparation. ... Argentina is one of the worlds largest producers of beef. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ...


Current government

The current chief of state and head of government is President Néstor Kirchner. The Vice-President, Daniel Scioli, belongs to the Legislative Branch, since he is also the president of the Senate. The cabinet, appointed by the President, underwent major changes on 2005-11-28, after the elections, and is currently composed of a Chief of Cabinet and 10 Ministers. Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoić (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Daniel Scioli with presidente Néstor Kirchner Daniel Scioli (b. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Argentina held national parliamentary elections on Sunday, 23 October 2005. ...


The Legislative Branch is a bicameral Congress, which consists of the Senate (72 seats), presided by the Vice-President, and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats), currently presided by Alberto Balestrini of the Province of Buenos Aires). The General Auditing Office of the Nation and the Ombudsman are also part of this branch. The National Congress ( Spanish: Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina. ... The Argentine Senate is the upper house of parliament in Argentina. ... The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the National Congress, Argentinas parliament. ... The Buenos Aires province (IPA: , Spanish: Provincia de Buenos Aires) is the wealthiest and most populated province of Argentina. ...


The Judiciary Branch is composed of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions, and a Supreme Court with nine members, appointed by the President with approval of the Senate, who may be deposed by Congress. Two posts are currently vacant. The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ...


Other data

Some of the most important political pressure groups in Argentina are: the Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); the Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); the Armed Forces; the General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); the Roman Catholic Church; students. The armed forces of Argentina are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. ... The General Confederation of Labour (Confederación General del Trabajo de la República Argentina, CGT) is a national trade union center of Argentina founded on September 27, 1930 as the result of the merge of the USA (Unión Sindical Argentina) and the COA (Confederación Obrera Argentina) trade... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


Argentina participates in the following international organizations: AfDB, ALADI, Australia Group, BCIE, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MIPONUH, MNNA, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCCC, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, Zangger Committee. The African Development Bank (ADB) is a development bank established in 1964 with the intention of States dollar|$]]47. ... The Asociaci n Latinoamericana de Integraci n (the Latin American Integration Association; known as ALADI or, occasionally, by the English acronym LAIA) is a Latin American trade integration association, based in Montevideo. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ... Banco Centralamericano de Integración Economico or BCIE was established in 1960 to promote economic integration and development of nations in Central America. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America, or UNECLA) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ... The G6 or Group of Six was a coalition of the major industrial democracies, which met for the first time in 1975: the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States. ... G15 countries. ... The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ... The Inter-American Development Bank (preferred abbreviation: IDB; but frequently given as IADB), was established in 1959 to support Latin American and Caribbean economic/social development and regional integration by lending mainly to public institutions. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is one of the five institutions consisting the World Bank Group. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is an international organization that works to promote and support global trade and globalization. ... Claiming 157 million members in 225 affiliated organisations in 148 countries and territories, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) came into being on December 7, 1949 following a split within the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU). ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The International Development Association (IDA) created on September 24, 1960, is the part of the World Bank that helps the world’s poorest countries. ... The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... The International Finance Corporation (IFC) promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries as a way to reduce poverty and improve peoples lives. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... “IMF” redirects here. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Inmarsat plc is an international telecommunications company founded in 1979, originally as an intergovernmental organization. ... Intelsat, Ltd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organization. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... The Latin American Economic System, officially known as Sistema Económico Latinoamericano (SELA), is an organization founded in 1975 to promote economic cooperation and social development between Latin American countries. ... The Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración (the Latin American Integration Association; known as ALADI or, occasionally, by the English acronym LAIA) is a Latin American trade integration association, based in Montevideo. ... Motto (Spanish) (Portuguese) (Guaraní) Our North is the South  â€¢  â€¢ Pro Tempore Secretariat Montevideo, Uruguay Largest city São Paulo, Brazil Official languages 3 Portuguese Spanish Guaraní Membership 5 Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela Leaders  -  Carlos Álvarez Establishment  -  Declaration of Foz do Iguaçu 30 December 1985   -  Treaty of Asunción... MINURSO is a UN peacekeeping mission, established in 1991 to monitor the ceasefire and to organize and conduct a referendum which would enable the people of Western Sahara to choose between integration with Morocco and independence. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Map of countries designated by the United States as major non-NATO allies Major non-NATO ally (MNNA) is a designation given by the United States government to exceptionally close allies who have strong strategic working relationships with American forces but are not members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal and voluntary partnership between 34 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile technology. ... The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... OPANAL (which stands for Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes nuclear disarmament. ... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ... The Rio Group is an international organization of Latin American states. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... UNFCCC logo. ... The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) was established in 1964 to prevent a recurrence of fighting between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... UNIKOM, the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission, was established on April 9, 1991 following the Gulf War by Security Council resolution 689 (1991) and fully deployed by early May. ... The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) was established in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations with the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the Organization through appropriate training and research. ... The United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH) is an international organization formed under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1035, as extended by Security Council Resolution 1357. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) (January 15, 1996 - December 15, 2002) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission that monitored the demilitarization of the disputed Prevlaka peninsula by carrying out daily foot and vehicle patrols on both sides of the border between Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor. ... UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded in 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... The World Confederation of Labour (WCL) was founded in 1920 under the name of the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions as a confederation of unions associated with the Christian Democratic parties of Europe. ... The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps Members (currently Customs administrations from 169 countries) communicate and co-operate on customs issues. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... World Tourism Organization Building in Madrid The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. ... “WTO” redirects here. ... The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III.2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. ...


References

  • (English) U.S. Department of State
  • (Spanish) Text of the Constitution
  • (Spanish) Supreme Court of Justice of Argentina
  • (Spanish) Presidency of Argentina

The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Argentina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4280 words)
Argentina is a country in South America, situated between the Andes peaks in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east and south.
Politics of Argentina takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Argentina is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Argentina claims the sovereignty of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, the South Shetland Islands, the South Sandwich Islands and almost 1 million km² in Antarctica, between the 25ºW and the 74ºW meridians and the 60ºS parallel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m