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Encyclopedia > Politics

Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. Most commonly it is generalized as "who gets what, when, why, and how." Although the term is generally applied to behavior within civil governments, politics is observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Politics may refer to: A social phenomenon: see Politics A treatise by Aristotle: see Politics (Aristotle) A 2003 novel by Adam Thirlwell: see Politics (novel) A stand up show by Ricky Gervais This is a disambiguation page, which lists articles that may otherwise share the same title. ... This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Consent of the governed is a political theory stating that a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... This article is about the political process. ... Vote redirects here. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual...


Politics consists of "social relations involving authority or power"[1] and refers to the regulation of a political unit, [2] and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy.[3] Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Political science (also political studies) is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power. Related areas of study include political philosophy, which seeks a rationale for politics and an ethic of public behavior, and public administration, which examines the practices of governance. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ...

Contents

Key political concepts

Pragmatic view of power

Samuel Gompers' maxim, often paraphrased as,"Reward your friends and punish your enemies,"[4] hints at two of the five types of power recognized by social psychologists: incentive power (the power to reward) and coercive power (the power to punish). Arguably the other three grow out of these two: Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ... The scope of social psychological research. ...


Legitimate power, the power of the policeman or the referee, is the power given to an individual by a recognized authority to enforce standards of behavior. Legitimate power is similar to coercive power in that unacceptable behavior is punished by fine or penalty. A policeman has no power outside his own jurisdiction.


Referent power is bestowed upon individuals by virtue of accomplishment or attitude. Fulfillment of the desire to feel similar to a celebrity or a hero is the reward for obedience. This is an example of incentive power as one rewards oneself.


Expert power springs from education or experience. Following the lead of an experienced coach is often rewarded with success. Power is conditional to the circumstances. For example, a brain surgeon's advice does not carry as much weight when pipes are leaking.


Authority and legitimacy

Authority, in a political sense, is different from political power in that it implies legitimacy and acceptance; it implies that the person or state exercising power has a perceived right to do so.[5] Legitimacy is an attribute of government gained through the acquisition and application of power in accordance with recognized or accepted standards or principles. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ...


Max Weber identified three sources of legitimacy for authority, known as the tripartite classification of authority.[6] He proposed three reasons why people follow the orders of those who give them: For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... This article is about authority as a concept. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Traditional authority

Traditional authorities receive loyalty because they continue and support the preservation of existing values, the status quo. Weber called this "the authority of the eternal yesterday".[6]Patriarchal (and more rarely matriarchal) societies gave rise to hereditary monarchies where authority was given to descendants of previous leaders. Followers submit to this authority because "we've always done it that way." Examples of traditional authoritarians include absolute monarchs. Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to the tradition. ... For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Matriarchy is a gynocentric form of society, in which power is with the female and especially with the mothers of a community. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the...


Charismatic authority

Charismatic authority grows out of the personal charm or the strength of an individual personality (see cult of personality for the most extreme version). Charismatic regimes are often short-lived, seldom outliving the charismatic figure that leads them. For a charismatic regime to survive the rule of the individual personality, it must transform its legitimacy into a different form of authority. An example of this would be Augustus' efforts to create the position of the Roman principate and establish a ruling dynasty, which could be viewed as a shift to a traditional form of authority, in the form of the principate that would exist in Rome for more than 400 years after his death. This article needs cleanup. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ...


Legal-rational authority

Legal-rational authorities receive their ability to compel behavior by virtue of the office that they hold. It is the authority that demands obedience to the office rather than the office holder; Weber identified "rationally-created rules"[6] as the central feature of this form of authority. Modern democracies are examples of legal-rational regimes. People also abide by legal-rational authority because it makes sense to do so for their own good, as well as for the greater good of society.[citation needed] Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ...


Sovereignty

Main article: Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the ability of a government to exert control over its sphere of influence free from outside interference. “Sovereign” redirects here. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ...


Political philosophies

Main article: Political philosophy

The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what...

Confucius

The Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-471 BCE) was one of the first thinkers to adopt a distinct approach to political philosophy. His philosophy was "rooted in his belief that a ruler should learn self-discipline, should govern his subjects by his own example, and should treat them with love and concern."[7] His political beliefs were strongly linked to personal ethics and morality, believing that only a morally upright ruler who possessed "de", or virtue, should be able to exercise power, and that the behavior of an individual ought to be consistent with their rank in society. He stated that "Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son."[8] A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Events Jordanes publishes The Origin and Deeds of the Goths. ... Events Northern Wei Xiao Wen Di succeeds Northern Wei Xian Wen Di as ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty Acacius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ...


Plato

The Greek philosopher Plato(428-328 BC), in his book The Republic, argued that all conventional political systems (democracy, monarchy, oligarchy and timarchy) were inherently corrupt, and that the state ought to be governed by an elite class of educated philosopher-rulers, who would be trained from birth and selected on the basis of aptitude: "those who have the greatest skill in watching over the community."[9] This has been characterised as authoritarian and elitist by some later scholars, notably Karl Popper in his book The Open Society and its Enemies, who described Plato's schemes as essentially totalitarian and criticised his apparent advocacy of censorship.[10] The Republic has also been labeled as communist, due to its advocacy of abolishing private property and the family among the ruling classes; however, this view has been discounted by many scholars, as there are implications in the text that this will extend only to the ruling classes, and that ordinary citizens "will have enough private property to make the regulation of wealth and poverty a concern."[11] A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Plato. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in... For other uses, see Birth (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite — a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below) — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone... Sir Karl Raimund Popper CH FRS FBA (July 28, 1902 â€“ September 17, 1994) was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Aristotle

Aristotle

In his book Politics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle(384–322BC) asserted that man is, by nature, a political animal. He argued that ethics and politics are closely linked, and that a truly ethical life can only be lived by someone who participates in politics.[12] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (600x800, 231 KB) Suject : Portrait of Aristoteles ; Origin : Imperial Roman copy (1st or 2nd century) of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos ; Material : Marble of the Penteli, region of Athens ; Location : Louvre museum, Paris, France, #MA 80 bis ; Author : Eric... Aristotles Politics (Greek Πολιτικά) is a work of political philosophy. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ...


Like Plato, Aristotle identified a number of different forms of government, and argued that each "correct" form of government may devolve into a "deviant" form of government, in which its institutions were corrupted. According to Aristotle, kingship, with one ruler, devolves into tyranny; aristocracy, with a small group of rulers, devolves into oligarchy; and polity, with collective rule by many citizens, devolves into democracy.[13] In this sense, Aristotle does not use the word "democracy" in its modern sense, carrying positive connotations, but in its literal sense of rule by the demos, or common people.[13] A more accurate view of Aristotle denouncing democracy was that it was described as mob rule, or ochlocracy. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ...


Niccolò Machiavelli

In his work The Prince, the Renaissance Italian political theorist Machiavelli put forward a political worldview which described practical methods for an absolute ruler to attain and maintain political power. His work is sometimes viewed as rejecting traditional views of morality for a ruler: "for Machiavelli, there is no moral basis on which to judge the difference between legitimate and illegitimate uses of power."[14] It is from Machiavelli that the term Machiavellian is derived, referring to an amoral person who uses manipulative methods to attain power; his works have been studied and theories practiced by leaders including totalitarians such as Benito Mussolini, and Adolf Hitler, each of whom justified the use of brutality for purposes of state security.[15] However, many scholars have questioned this view of Machiavelli's theory, arguing that "Machiavelli did not invent 'Machiavellianism' and may not even have been a 'Machiavellian' in the sense often ascribed to him."[16] Instead, Machiavelli considered the stability of the state to be the most important goal, and argued that qualities traditionally considered morally desirable, such as generosity, were undesirable in a ruler and would lead to the loss of power. This article is about the book by Niccolò Machiavelli. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Machiavelli redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Amoral is an adjective used to describe someone or something that has no concept of right or wrong. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Machiavellianism is primarily the term some social and personality psychologists use to describe a persons tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Thomas Hobbes

In 1651, Thomas Hobbes published his most famous work, Leviathan, in which he proposed a model of early human development to justify the creation of polities, i.e. governed bodies. Hobbes described an ideal state of nature wherein every person had equal right to every resource in nature and was free to use any means to acquire those resources. He claimed that such an arrangement created a “war of all against all” (bellum omnium contra omnes). The book has been interpreted by scholars as posing two "stark alternatives"; total obedience to an absolute ruler, or "a state of nature, which closely resembles civil war...where all have reason to fear a violent death".[17] Hobbes' view can therefore be interpreted as a defense of absolutism, arguing that human beings enter into a social contract for their protection and agree to obey the dictates of the sovereign; in Hobbes' worldview, "the sovereign is nothing more than the personal embodiment of orderly government."[18] Hobbes himself argued "The final cause, end, or design of men (who naturally love liberty, and dominion over others) in the introduction of that restraint upon themselves, in which we see them live in Commonwealths, is the foresight of their own preservation, and of a more contented life thereby."[19] Hobbes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Leviathan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... State of nature is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the states foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force. ... Bellum omnium contra omnes, a Latin phrase meaning the war of all against all, is the description that Thomas Hobbes gives to human existence in the state of nature thought experiment that he conducts in Leviathan (1651). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


John Locke

Main article: John Locke

In the First Treatise of Government, Locke refutes the theory of the Divine Right of Kings as put forward by Robert Filmer; he "minutely examines key Biblical passages"[20] and concludes that absolute monarchy is not supported by Christian theology. "Locke singles out Filmer's contention that men are not 'naturally free' as the key issue, for that is the 'ground'...on which Filmer erects his argument for the claim that all 'legitimate' government is 'absolute monarchy'."[20] For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... Sir Robert Filmer (1588 - May 26, 1653), English political writer, was the son of Sir Edward Filmer of East Sutton in Kent. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the monarch has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


In the Second Treatise of Government, Locke examines the concept of the social contract put forward by other theorists such as Thomas Hobbes, but reaches a different conclusion. Although he agreed with Hobbes on the concept of a state of nature before existing forms of government arose, he challenged Hobbes' view that the state of nature was equivalent to a state of war, instead arguing that there were certain natural rights belonging to all human beings, which continued even after a political authority was established. "The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges everyone...being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, liberty, health or possessions".[21] According to one scholar, the basis of Locke's thought in the Second Treatise is that "contract or consent is the ground of government and fixes its limits...behind [this] doctrine lies the idea of the independence of the individual person."[22] In other words, Locke's view was different from Hobbes' in that he interpreted the idea of the "state of nature" differently, and he argued that people's natural rights were not necessarily eliminated by their consent to be governed by a political authority. John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Hobbes redirects here. ... State of nature is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the states foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ...


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

The 18th century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his book The Social Contract, put forward a system of political thought which was closely related to those of Hobbes and Locke, but different in important respects. In the opening sentence of the book, Rousseau argued that "...man was born free, but he is everywhere in chains"[23] He defined political authority and legitimacy as stemming from the "general will", or volonté generale; for Rousseau, "true Sovereignty is directed always at the public good".[24] This concept of the general will implicitly "allows for individual diversity and freedom...[but] also encourages the well-being of the whole, and therefore can conflict with the particular interests of individuals."[24] As such, Rousseau also argues that the people may need a "lawgiver" to draw up a constitution and system of laws, because the general will, "while always morally sound, is sometimes mistaken".[23] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Social contract is a phrase used in philosophy, political science, and sociology to denote a real or hypothetical agreement within a state regarding the rights and responsibilities of the state and its citizens, or more generally a similar concord between a group and its members. ...


Rousseau's thought has been seen by some scholars as contradictory and inconsistent, and as not addressing the fundamental contradiction between individual freedom and subordination to the needs of society, "the tension that seems to exist between liberalism and communitarianism".[24] As one Catholic scholar argues, "that it [The Social Contract] contains serious contradictions is undeniable...its fundamental principles--the origin of society, absolute freedom and absolute equality of all--are false and unnatural."[25] The Catholic Encyclopedia further argues that Rousseau's concept of the general will would inevitably lead to "the suppression of personality, the reign of force and caprice, the tyranny of the multitude, the despotism of the crowd", i.e. the subordination of the individual to society as a whole.[25] For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... John Stuart Mill, scan of Photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

John Stuart Mill

In the 19th century, John Stuart Mill pioneered the liberal conception of politics. He saw democracy as the major political development of his era[26] and, in his book On Liberty, advocated stronger protection for individual rights against government and the rule of the majority. He argued that liberty was the most important right of human beings, and that the only just cause for interfering with the liberty of another person was self-protection.[27] One commentator refers to On Liberty as "the strongest and most eloquent defense of liberalism that we have."[27] Mill also emphasised the importance of freedom of speech, claiming that "we can never be sure that the opinion we are attempting to stifle is a false opinion, and if we were sure, stifling it would be an evil still."[28] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... On Liberty is a philosophical work in the English language by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill, first published in 1859. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the general concept. ...


Karl Marx

Karl Marx was among the most influential political philosophers of history. His theories, collectively termed Marxism, were critical of capitalism and argued that in the due course of history, there would be an "inevitable breakdown of capitalism for economic reasons, to be replaced by communism."[29] He defined history in terms of the class struggle between the bourgeoisie, or property-owning classes, and the proletariat, or workers, a struggle intensified by industrialisation: "The development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products. What the bourgeoisie therefore produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.[30] Utopia for Marx was the classless society in which the state and the church would be very weak or nonexistent. The workers ultimately would own the means of production, state ownership would be a mere transition period, therefore the people would be free. Because the state as Marx knew it would practically disappear over time, there would be no need for borders so individuals would be free to move from nation to nation without prosecution. This latter idea of internationalism is the direct opposition to the Nazi utopia of the Master race and national socialism. Although Marxism is mostly associated with the Soviet Union for obvious reasons, one may also see in the European Union many but not all of Marx's ideas such as universal health care, open border and the free movement of people, and less economic inequality. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar status. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), are the combination of the means of labor and the subject of labor used by workers to make products. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... The term National socialism has been used in self-description by a number of unrelated political movements. ... Universal health care refers to government mandated programs intended to ensure that all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region have access to most types of health care. ...


Many subsequent political movements have based themselves on Marx's thought, offering widely differing interpretations of communism; these include Marxism-Leninism, Maoism, and libertarian Marxism. Possibly the most influential interpreter of Marxist theory was Lenin, founder of the Soviet Union, who created a revolutionary theory founded on Marxist thinking. However, libertarian Marxist thinkers have challenged Lenin's interpretation of Marx; Cornelius Castoriadis, for instance, described the Soviet Union's system as a form of "bureaucratic capitalism" rather than true communism.[31] This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... Cornelius Castoriadis (Greek: Κορνήλιος Καστοριάδης) (March 11, 1922-December 26, 1997) was a Greek-French philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. ...


The multiple notions of political power that are put forth range from conventional views that simply revolve around the actions of politicians to those who view political power as an insidious form of institutionalized social control - most notably "anarchists" and "radical capitalists". The main views of political power revolve around normative, post-modern, and pragmatic perspectives. Anarchist redirects here. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


Normative faces of power debate

The faces of power debate has coalesced into a viable conception of three dimensions of power including decision-making, agenda-setting, and preference-shaping. The decision-making dimension was first put forth by Robert Dahl, who advocated the notion that political power is based in the formal political arena and is measured through voting patterns and the decisions made by politicians.[32] This view has been criticised by many as simplistic, notably by the sociologist G. William Domhoff,[33] who argues that political and economic power is monopolised by the "elite classes". Robert A. Dahl (b. ... G. William (Bill) Domhoff is a Research Professor in psychology and sociology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. ...


A second dimension to the notion of political power was added by academics Peter Bachrach and Morton Baratz involving "agenda-setting". Bachrach and Baratz viewed power as involving both the formal political arena and behind the scenes agenda-setting by elite groups who could be either politicians and/or others (such as industrialists, campaign contributors, special interest groups and so on), often with a hidden agenda that most of the public may not be aware of. The third dimension of power was added by British academic Steven Lukes who felt that even with this second dimension, some other traits of political power needed to be addressed through the concept of 'preference-shaping'. Lukes developed the concept of the "Three faces of power" - decision-making power, non-decision-making power, and ideological power.[34] Professor Steven Michael Lukes, D.Phil. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


This third dimension is inspired by many Neo-Gramscian views such as cultural hegemony and deals with how civil society and the general public have their preferences shaped for them by those in power through the use of propaganda or the media. Ultimately, this third dimension holds that the general public may not be aware of what decisions are actually in their interest due to the invisible power of elites who work to distort their perceptions. Critics of this view claim that such notions are themselves elitist, which Lukes then clearly admits as one problem of this view and yet clarifies that as long as those who make claims that preferences are being shaped explain their own interests etc., there is room for more transparency. Neo-Gramscianism is a relatively new approach to the study of International Relations (IR) and the Global Political Economy (GPE) that explores the interface of ideas, institution and material capabilities as they shape the specific contours of the state formation. ... Cultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


Postmodern challenge of normative views of power

Some within the postmodern and post-structuralist field claim that power is something that is not in the hands of the few and is rather dispersed throughout society in various ways. As one academic writes, "...postmodernists have argued that due to a variety of inherent biases in the standards by which ”valid“ knowledge has been evaluated...modernist science has tended to reproduce ideological justifications for the perpetuation of long-standing forms of inequality. Thus, it is the strategy of postmodern science...to identify and, thereby, attack the ”deceiving“ power of universalizing scientific epistemologies."[35] Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ...


Political spectra

Left-Right politics

Main article: Left-Right politics

Most political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between the right and left. This classification is comparatively recent (it was not used by Aristotle or Hobbes, for instance), and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the National Assembly who opposed the monarchy sat on the left, while those who supported it sat on the right.[36] Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the philosopher Thomas Hobbes. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but broadly speaking, it can be said that the right wing is often linked to moral and social conservatism, law and order, and religion, while the left wing is often linked with redistribution of wealth and resources towards the poorer or less successful sections of society (which are generally perceived by the left as unfairly disadvantaged), and with secularism.[37] The right wing is more often linked to the idea of social equity, and the left wing to the idea of social equality. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... In politics, law and order refers to a political platform which supports a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent crime and property crimes, through harsher criminal penalties. ... Income redistribution or redistribution of wealth is a political policy promoted by members of the political left, especially socialists, and opposed by members of the political right. ... This article is about secularism. ...


According to Norberto Bobbio, one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality, while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.[38] Norberto Bobbio (October 18, 1909 – January 9, 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and an historian of political thought. ...


Some ideologies, notably Christian Democracy, claim to combine left and right wing politics; according to Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles."[39] Movements which claim or formerly claimed to be above the left-right divide include Gaullism in France, Peronism in Argentina, and National Action Politics in Mexico. Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Charles de Gaulle, in his generals uniform Gaullism (French: Gaullisme) is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ...


Authoritarian-Libertarian

While left and right refer to different methods of developing an economically stable and just society,[citation needed] authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state. One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities",[40] while a libertarian political system is one in which individual rights and civil liberties are paramount. More extreme than libertarians are anarchists, who argue for the total abolition of government, while the most extreme authoritarians are totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


Authoritarianism and libertarianism are separate concepts from the left-right political axis. For instance, classical liberalism and contemporary American libertarianism are socially liberal, but reject extensive governmental intervention in the economy and welfare. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.'"[41] Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Social welfare redirects here. ... The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS) is a libertarian organization that assists students at the undergraduate and graduate levels. ...


See also

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Lists

Basic topics in political science include: // Nature of political science Main article: Political science Branches of political science Bold textBold text== History of political science == Main article: History of political science Basic political science concepts Political science scholars Leaders in political science Political science lists Main article: List of... This is a list of politics articles available for every country. ... This page indexes the individual year in politics pages. ...

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Food politics are the political aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection and distribution of food. ... A government simulation or political simulation is a game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a nation. ... There is a long history of the connection between music and politics, particularly political expression in music. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... Political criticism (also referred to as political commentary or political discussion) is criticism that is specifically of or relevant to politics, including policies, politicians, political parties, and types of government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... This is a list of fictional stories in which politics features as an important plot element. ... A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... This is a list of political parties around the world. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to the relationship between psychology and political science, with a focus on the role of human thought, emotion, and behavior in politics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... A government simulation or political simulation is a type of game that attempts to simulate the government and politics of all or part of a nation. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... A political game is a government simulation game in which players simulate a government running a country. ... Strategic planning is an organizations process SCREW YOU, RILEY of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. ...

References

  1. ^ Definition of politics from die.net
  2. ^ Politics (definition)@Everything2.com
  3. ^ Definition of politics from "The Free Dictionary"
  4. ^ Gompers, Samuel, “Men of Labor! Be Up and Doing,” editorial, American Federationist, May 1906, p. 319
  5. ^ "Authority" at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  6. ^ a b c Weber, Max, Politics as a Vocation
  7. ^ Confucius on Politics at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  8. ^ Lunyu 12.11, The Analects of Confucius (available in English here)
  9. ^ p113, Plato, The Republic, translated by Desmond Lee, 1955, Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-140-44914-0
  10. ^ Totalitarianism in Plato's Republic at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  11. ^ Communism in The Republic at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  12. ^ Aristotle's Politics at The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  13. ^ a b Aristotle's views on politics at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  14. ^ Machiavelli's The Prince at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  15. ^ Machiavelli, Niccolò, The Prince, Editor's Introduction by Angelo Codevilla, page xvii. Yale University Press, 1997.
  16. ^ Niccolo Machiavelli at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  17. ^ Thomas Hobbes at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
  18. ^ Thomas Hobbes at Britannica's Philosophy Pages
  19. ^ Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan (available online here)
  20. ^ a b John Locke's Two Treatises of Government at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  21. ^ Locke, John, Second Treatise of Government
  22. ^ John Locke's Two Treatises of Government at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  23. ^ a b Jean-Jacques Rousseau at the Encyclopedia Britannica online
  24. ^ a b c The Social Contract at the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  25. ^ a b The Social Contract at the Catholic Encyclopedia
  26. ^ p11, Tansey, Stephen J., Politics: The Basics, 1995, London, ISBN 0-145-19199-8
  27. ^ a b Social and Political Philosophy of John Stuart Mill at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  28. ^ p229, Mill, John Stuart, On Liberty, ISBN 1-59986-973-X (also available online here
  29. ^ Karl Marx at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  30. ^ Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1848), The Communist Manifesto
  31. ^ The Strange Afterlife of Cornelius Castoriadis by Scott McLemee, Chronicle of Higher Education, March 26, 2004.
  32. ^ Dahl, Robert A., Who Governs? : Democracy and Power in the American City, (Yale University Press, 1961)
  33. ^ Domhoff, G. William, Who Really Ruled in Dahl's New Haven?
  34. ^ Lukes, Steven, Power: a Radical View, Macmillan, (1974)
  35. ^ McGettigan, Timothy,[http://www.sociology.org/content/vol003.004/mcgettigan.html Redefining Reality: Epiphany as a Standard of Postmodern Truth], Electronic Journal of Sociology
  36. ^ The Architecture of Parliaments: Legislative Houses and Political Culture Charles T. Goodsell British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Jul., 1988), pp. 287-302
  37. ^ p73 Tansey, Stephen J., Politics: The Basics, 2000, London, ISBN 0-415-19199-8
  38. ^ Bobbio, Norberto, "Left and Right: The Significance of a Political Distinction" (translated by Allan Cameron), 1997, University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226062465
  39. ^ Roberts and Hogwood, European Politics Today, Manchester University Press, 1997
  40. ^ Markus Kemmelmeier et al. (2003). "Individualism, Collectivism, and Authoritarianism in Seven Societies". Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 34 (3): 304-322. doi:10.1177/0022022103034003005.
  41. ^ What Is Libertarian?, Institute for Humane Studies
Image File history File links Portal. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ...

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