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Encyclopedia > Political aspects of Islam

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Islamic Jurisprudence

– a discipline of Islamic studies Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...

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Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the doctrine, see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine) For the book by Khomeini, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Khomeini) For the book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi, see Waliyat al-faqih (book by Saleh Najaf-Abadi) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In the terminology of some scholars working in sociology, a political religion is a political ideology with cultural and political power equivalent to those of a religion, and often having many sociological and ideological similarities with religion. ...


A common theme in the 20th century was resistance to racism, colonialism, and imperialism, in the form of the Ottoman Empire and British Empire (though the Ottoman Empire itself was an Islamic political movement). The end of socialism as a viable alternative with the end of the Soviet Union and the Cold War has increased the appeal of Islamic revolutionary movements, especially in the context of undemocratic and corrupt regimes all across the Muslim world. Islamism grew as a reaction to these trends, and as a desire to create a government based on the tenets of Islam. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ...


In fact, the scope of Islamic politics is so broad that it encompasses any kind of revolutionary movement or party in any Islamic country. Invariably, this means that it lumps together such a variety of nationalist, Marxist and ethnic movements that it has no longer has any real ideological content. The only defining characteristic it has is that it is nationalism in a Muslim context; but this ultimately explains very little. However, in the Quran, nothing is said that Politics is necessary for establishing Islam. So, it might be a dangerous thing from the perspective of Islam that someone is applying Islam in order gain political advantage. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Liberal movements within Islam generally define themselves in opposition to Islamic political movements, but often embrace many of its anti-imperialist elements. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Modern Islamic philosophy, Islamism, Militant Islam and Islamic terrorism deal with related topics. There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ...

Contents

The term 'Islamist'

Islamist or Islamic parties exist in almost every democracy with a Muslim majority. This term has many different meanings which this article will explore, along with links to other political trends. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... An Islamic party are those political parties that promote Islam as a political movement by running for elections in a democracy - of which there are several in the Islamic world. ...


The pejorative term Islamofacism is used mostly by non-Muslims to describe the political and religious philosophies of some militant Islamic groups. These terms lump together a large variety of groups with varying histories and contexts. The articles on militant Islamic groups, Islamic parties and modern Islamic philosophy explain some of their actual views in detail. The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... An Islamic party are those political parties that promote Islam as a political movement by running for elections in a democracy - of which there are several in the Islamic world. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ...


The political character of Islam

Islam is a religion which has existed for over fourteen centuries in many different countries. As such, diverse political movements in many different contexts have used the banner of Islam to lend legitimacy to their causes. Not surprisingly, practically every aspect of Islamic politics is subject to much disagreement and contention between conservative Islamists and liberal movements within Islam. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Muhammad, the Medinan state and Islamic political ideals

Islamists claim that the origins of Islam as a political movement are to be found in the life and times of Islam's prophet, Muhammad. In 622 CE, in recognition of his claims to prophethood, Muhammad was invited to rule the city of Medina. At the time the local Arab tribes of Aus and Khazraj dominated the city, and were in constant conflict. Medinans saw in Muhammad an impartial outsider who could resolve the conflict. Muhammad and his followers thus moved to Medina, where Muhammad drafted the Medina Charter. This document made Muhammad the ruler, and recognized him as the Prophet of Allah. During his rule, Muhammad instituted the laws of the Qur'an, considered by Muslims to be divine revelation. Medina thus became a state based on Islamic law, which is still a basic demand of most Islamic movements. Muhammad gained a widespread following and an army, and his rule expanded first to the city of Mecca and then spread through the Arabian peninsula through a combination of diplomacy and military conquest. On the extreme end of the political spectrum, militant Islamic groups consider Muhammad's own military policies against the pagan tribes of Arabia to legitimize jihad against non-Muslims. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is geographically the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... The Banu Khazraj (Arabic:?) was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


However, the applicability of Muhammad's rule in Medina as a model for a modern state is questioned by liberals. They claim that the laws of the Qur'an were revealed to meet the needs of Muhammad's community, and are not necessarily applicable outside it. Regarding jihad, liberals point to the work of historians such as Montgomery Watt, which shows that Muhammad's military conquest had its origins in the pre-Islamic, bedouin Arab practice of ghazw (usually translated as "tribal raiding"; covering armed attacks for conquest, plunder or the capture of slaves). Liberals use such historical arguments to claim that Muhammad's religious warfare was dictated by his Arab tribal context, and is not necessarily applicable to modern societies. William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) (Arabic: غزو) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzī. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against...


The early Caliphate and Islamic political ideals

After death of Muhammad, his community needed to appoint a new leader (giving rise to the title Caliph, meaning "successor"). Thus the subsequent Islamic empires were known as Caliphates. Alongside the growth of the Umayyad empire, the major political development within Islam in this period was the sectarian split between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims; this had its roots in a dispute over the succession of the Caliphate. The Shi'ites favoured a succession model based on the inheritance of Muhammad's authority by his family. However, the Sunni sect emerged as triumphant in most of the Muslim world, and thus most modern Islamic political movements (with the exception of Iran) are founded in Sunni thought. For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Muhammad's closest companions, the four "rightly guided" Caliphs who succeeded him, continued to expand the state to encompass Jerusalem, Ctesiphon, and Damascus, and sending armies as far as the Sindh [1]. The Islamic empire stretched from Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) to Persia under the reign of the Ummayad dynasty. The conquering Arab armies took the system of Shariah laws and courts to their new military camps and cities, and built mosques for Friday jam'at (community prayers) as well as Madrasahs to educate local Muslim youth. These institutions resulted in the development of a class of ulema (classical Islamic scholars) who could serve as qadis (Shariah-court judges), imams of mosques and madrasah teachers. These classical scholars and jurists all owed their livelihood to the expansionary Islamic empire. Not surprisingly, these ulema gave legal and religious sanction to militarist interpretations of jihad. The political terminology of the Islamic state was all the product of this period. Thus, medieval legal terms such as khalifa, shar'iah, fiqh, maddhab, jizya, and dhimmi all remain part of modern Islamist rhetoric. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı Ä°mparatorluÄŸu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... “Persia” redirects here. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... Sharia (Arabic: also SharÄ«ah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law also known as Allahs Law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


Since the scholarly and legal traditions of the ulema were well-established by the time of the Abbasids, the later Middle Eastern empires and kingdoms (including the Ayyubid, Seljuk, Fatimid, Mamluk and Mongol) had little impact on modern Islamist political ideals. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), Turkish: Kölemen, owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who was converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


The modern political ideal of the Islamic state

In addition to the legitimacy given by medieval scholarly opinion, nostalgia for the days of successful Islamic empire simmered under later Western colonialism. This nostalgia played a major role in the Islamist political ideal of Islamic state, which primarily means a state which enforces traditional Islamic laws. The Islamist political program is generally to be accomplished by re-shaping the governments of existing Muslim nation-states; but the means of doing this varies greatly across movements and circumstances. Many Islamist movements, such as the Jamaat-e-Islami in Bangladesh, have found that they can use the democratic process to their advantage, and so focus on votes and coalition-building with other political parties. Other more radical movements such as Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh embrace militant Islamic ideology, and may even resort to Islamist terrorism. Jamaat-e-Islami (Arabic: جماعتِ اسلامی, Islamic Assembly Jamaat, JI) is an Islamic political movement founded in Lahore by Syed Abul Ala Maududi on 26 August 1941. ... Jamaatul Mujahideen Bangladesh is a radical Islamist organisation from Bangladesh. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


In the face of the tremendous poverty, corruption and disillusionment with conventional politics, the political ideal of the Islamic state has been criticized by many espousing liberal movements within Islam as being utopian and not offering real solutions, for example by Ziauddin Sardar. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Islam as a political movement in the 20th century

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, and the subsequent dissolution of the Caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (founder of Turkey), many Muslims perceived that the political power of their religion was in retreat. There was also concern that Western ideas and influence were spreading throughout Muslim societies. This led to considerable resentment of the influence of the European powers. Resentment of all foreign forces in Arab lands was exacerbated when Hitler indirectly gained control of Syria via Vichy France in 1940. The Baath Party was created in Syria and in Iraq as a movement to resist and harry the British, using some elements of Nazi, Islamic, socialist doctrines, and anti-Semitic propaganda. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ...


After the Second World War

After the war, this party shifted to the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. Stalin had by then become an opponent of Zionism, having like the Arabs initially found it compatible, and then rejected it as bourgeois, racist, and colonial. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Any Arab tendency to anti-semitism was drastically magnified after World War II when Israel was created, at literally the crossroads of all traditional Arab lands. The fact that the Jews had not fought for the land, but the Arabs had, and that the promise made to Arabs had been broken, while that to Jews had been kept, was often ascribed to racism. A religious focus for rhetoric became more common, and more mullahs became involved in politics. The Palestinian Diaspora stressed social structures in Arab states, which expelled many Jews. Zionism was identified as the opponent, and some argued a coherent Islamism was required as a response. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


However, Islam was still not the dominant trend in resisting colonialism or even Zionism. During the 1960s, the predominant ideology within the Arab world was pan-Arabism which deemphasized religion and emphasized the creation of socialist, secular states based on Arab nationalism rather than Islam. However, governments based on Arab nationalism have found themselves facing economic stagnation and disorder. Increasingly, the borders of these states were seen as artificial colonial creations - which they were, having literally been drawn on a map by European colonial powers. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ...


Modern debates

Once the common opposition to colonialism, corruption and racism was established as a focus, debates on political Islam became generally focused on several core questions through the 1970s: It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...

  • The status of women and integration of priorities of feminism into a renewed fiqh
  • Islamic economics and the role of debt in oppression and stagnation of Muslim states
  • Zionism and the response to the formation of the state of Israel and the question of Palestinian statehood
  • Self governance in Muslims nations or in nations with significant Muslim minorities
  • Control of oil revenues in the Middle East

United Nations cooperation was pivotal in this view - as was cooperation with secular forces and allies. The agenda of secular and Islamist movements during this period was all but indistinguishable. However, some rural movements were finding progress made here to be symbolic and unsatisfactory. In 1979 the political situation drastically changed, with Egypt making peace with Israel, the Iranian Revolution, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan - all three events had wide-ranging effects on how Islam was perceived as a political phenomenon. Feminists redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...


To understand this, consider the variety of attitudes Muslims with a fervent belief in Islam as a universal solution to political problems, took to the events of the 1980s and the 1990s: For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Perception of persecution

Some Muslims place the blame for all flaws in Muslim societies on the influx of "foreign" ideas including debt-based capitalism, communism, and even feminism; a return to the principles of Islam is seen as the natural cure. This is however interpreted in very many ways: socialism and Marxism as a guide to adapting Islam to the modern world was in decline by the 1980s as the USSR invaded Afghanistan and polarized attitudes against Communism and other secular variants of socialism. Capitalism was often discredited by plain corruption. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


One persistent theme that both proponents and opponents of Islam as a political movement note is that Muslims are actively persecuted by the West and other foreigners. This view is of course not distinguishable from a critique of imperialism including oil imperialism, since many Muslim nations are sitting on relatively vast oil reserves. Colonialism is often identified as the force which is 'against Islam', and seems to neatly encompass British Empire experiences as well as those of modern times - the long Ottoman domination being more or less forgotten. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Reactive Islam

It was largely through reactive measures that the movement that is labelled Islamist came to be visible to the West, where it was labelled as being a distinct movement from Islam, pan-Arabism and resistance to colonization. The legitimacy of this kind of distinction is very much in doubt. [[Olivier Roy holds that the primary motive of all of this activity is resistance to colonialism and control of the Islamic World by outsiders. In this view, the movement called Islamist is wholly reactive and incidental, just a convenient rationale used to justify what is in fact resistance of a cultural and economic sort. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ...


However, there are many overt similarities. Those militants who follow a version of shariah based on the classical fiqh ("jurisprudence") as interpreted by local ulema ("jurists"), were the most prominent of several competing trends in modern Islamic philosophy in the 1970s and 1980s. It was at this time that they became visible - and a concern - to the West, as they challenged the modernist dictators that the West had generally put trust in. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


See militant Islam for a detailed review of some modern movements that are often labelled Islamist by their opponents. This article is only about the reactive definition of the West, leading to the label. Trends which led to this are summarized by Ziauddin Sardar. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Cold War exploitation

But such cross-cultural exchanges, polite activism and moderate views were very often suppressed by the funders of more militant strains who sought to exploit them against the Soviet Union. The United States, for instance, in the 1980s supplied university-authored textbooks to the mujahedeen of Afghanistan that encouraged militant attitudes and even taught arithmetic using examples involving hand grenades and "dead infidels". The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... An infidel (literally, one without faith) is one who doubts or rejects central tenets of a religion, especially those regarding its deities. ...


There was also pressure against secular socialism in the Islamic World, and especially in Iraq, Syria and Iran, until the Iranian Revolution of 1979 proved it could well be counter-productive and lead to a backlash that put regimes in place that would be hostile to the Western, secular, world. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Role in terrorism

Some militant Islamist forces have been implicated in terrorism and have become targets in a series of military initiatives justified by the US rhetoric of "War on Terrorism", which has been adopted by Russia, Israel and other countries. This has led Muslims and the opponents of these initiatives (in the peace movement) to characterize it sometimes as actually a War on Islam. Terrorist redirects here. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. ... War on Islam is a critical term used by some Muslims and westerners to describe some military actions by Western powers (and nations like Russia and Pakistan) as being allegedly against Muslims, prior to and after 9/11. ...


As part of this war, they claim, literally every political interpretation of Islam, from classical fiqh to Marxist to such moderate views as those of Dr. Shakir, are all being classified as part of one "enemy" movement. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, the subject-object problem arises out of the metaphysics of Hegel. ...


Movements described as 'Islamist'

See list of movements at Islamism.

What these groups have in common tends to be opposition to the United States and Israel. They vary widely in terms of the form of Islamic Law they prefer: Hamas for instance is close to secular in tone, the Taliban nearly medieval. Some include Saudi Arabia's dominant ideology, Wahhabism, on this list, but, interestingly, not the nominally Islamic governments of Pakistan or Turkey. This appears to be largely motivated by geopolitics, and a purely Western idea of "who we can work with, and who not." For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... Wahhabism (Arabic: Al-WahhābÄ«yya الوهابية, Wahabism) is a branch of Sunni Islam practised by those who follow the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, after whom the movement is named. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ...


Another profound bias of such classifications is that it is quite rare to include nominally Christian or Jewish or Buddhist guerillas in any analysis of those faiths' views of politics, but quite common if it is Islam under discussion—and likely being criticized.


Globalization

Along with many other cultural phenomena, Islamic political thought has undergone its own globalization as adherents of many different strains have come together. Even in such strictly controlled, secretive groups as Al-Qaida, there were believing Muslims of drastically varying backgrounds coming together, some of whom accepted the tactics and priorities of the group, and some not. While violent fanatics deployed by cynical leaders make highly visible attacks on Western interests and even on 'homelands', this is thought by many to be no more than backlash for an entire 20th century full of cynical attempts by German, British, and American Empires to deploy Islamic idealists as a mere tactic. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


When Russia joined the Council of the Islamic Conference in 2003, it emphasized that it had a long history of successful co-existence with Muslims, and a large integrated population of Muslims (few of which are in any sense Islamist). President Vladimir Putin, despite a long and bloody confrontation with rebels in Chechnya, offered to act as a bridge or neutral broker in dealings between Muslims and NATO, the EU and USA. This was a quite different rhetoric, a more pragmatic one likely reflecting the reality that the ex-Soviet republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan had substantial Islamic political movements - similar to those in Turkey and Pakistan, relatively modern in tone and willing to participate in the US War on Terrorism to some degree, although not as direct combatants. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ...


Some analysts believe that the old Cold War battlelines have been redrawn, with Russia choosing new allies - those with a record of success in forcing US withdrawals from strategic territories (Beirut, Somalia and - depending on interpretation - Afghanistan and Iraq) with Muslim populations. In this view, the old Marxist alliance against colonialism is the dominant rhetoric. For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ...


Others accept the Russian pledge as sincere, and believe that Islamist movements of all stripes will eventually come to accommodation with domestic secular forces, and Islam as a global anti-corruption, anti-colonialism, and anti-racism movement, less focused on Zionism and Palestine. George W. Bush for instance has noted the real need as economic development in Muslim countries, to break the cycle of poverty that tends to feed into extremist movements. In Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey and Iraq, the Bush administration has worked closely with nominally Islamic forces and ruling political parties in government. It denies intensely that it is involved in a War on Islam. However, polls of Muslim nations indicate these denials are not trusted. Any accommodation will not be quick in coming. This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... In economics and sociology, the cycle of poverty or the poverty cycle is a social phenomenon whereby poverty-stricken individuals exhibit a tendency to remain poor throughout their lifespan and in many cases across generations. ... War on Islam is a critical term used by some Muslims and westerners to describe some military actions by Western powers (and nations like Russia and Pakistan) as being allegedly against Muslims, prior to and after 9/11. ...


See also

Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... The study of Neofascism and religion is a controversial area that examines the parallels and intersections between what are purported to be various forms of neofascism and contemporary religions and religious movements. ... Hizb ut-Tahrir (Arabic: حزب التحرير; English: Party of Liberation) is an international, Sunni, pan-Islamist vanguard[2] political party whose goal is to unite all Muslim countries in a unitary Islamic state or caliphate, ruled by Islamic law and headed by an elected head of state (caliph). ... The Tanzeem-e-Islami (http://tanzeem. ... Ayatollah Mohamed Hossein Kazemini Borujerdi is an Iranian proponent of the separation of religion and politics. ... Pakistan Studies (Urdu: ) is an interdisciplinary course encompassing various aspects of Pakistan’s history and culture, that is a part of the curriculum in Pakistan at various levels. ...

Further reading

  • Roy, Olivier (2007). Secularism Confronts Islam. Columbia University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-231-14102-4. 

Stone, L. A., The Islamic Crescent: Islam and Politics, (63 pp); Central Eurasian Studies On Line: International Eurasian Institute for Economic and Political Research, 2002: [2] Or [3] Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades) is a book by best-selling author Robert Spencer, the director of Jihad Watch. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... Onward Muslim Soldiers: How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West (ISBN#: 0895261006 is a topical nonfiction book by popular counter-terrorism author Robert Spencer, published in October 2003. ... Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American writer on Islam. ... The Legacy of Jihad by Andrew G. Bostom The Legacy of Jihad is a book by Andrew Bostom. ... Andrew G. Bostom, MD, MS is an American scholar and Associate Professor of Medicine at Brown University Medical School. ... Bat Yeor at the Hudson Institute in Washington, DC Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history... Bat Yeor at the Hudson Institute in Washington, DC Bat Yeor (Hebrew: בת יאור) (meaning daughter of the Nile in Hebrew; a pseudonym of Gisèle Littman, née Orebi) is a British writer specializing in the history of non-Muslims in the Middle East, and in particular the history... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ... The War for Muslim Minds is a 2004 book by French author and scholar Gilles Kepel and translation from the French of Fitna: guerre au coeur de lIslam. ... Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar and analyst of the Islamic and the Arab world. ...


Sources

The following sources generally prescribe to the theory that there is a distinct 20th century movement called Islamism that exists independently of Jewish/Christian observers and motivations:

  • "Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Islam for Jews" Khalid Duran with Abdelwahab Hechiche, The American Jewish Committee and Ktav, 2001
  • "The Islamism Debate" Martin Kramer, 1997, which includes the chapter The Mismeasure of Political Islam
  • "Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook" Charles Kurzman, Oxford University Press, 1998
  • "The Challenge of Fundamentalism: Political Islam and the New World Disorder" Bassam Tibi, Univ. of California Press, 1998

However, the following sources very strongly challenge that assertion: Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Martin Kramer (b. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Edward Said, Orientalism
  • Merryl Wyn Davies, Beyond Frontiers: Islam and Contemporary Needs
  • G. H. Jansen, Militant Islam, 1980
  • Hamid Enyat, Modern Islamic Political Thought

These authors in general locate the issues of Islamic political intolerance and fanaticism not in Islam, but in the generally low level of awareness of Islam's own mechanisms for dealing with these, among modern believers, in part a result of Islam being suppressed prior to modern times. Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Edward Said Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward Said that marked the beginnings of postcolonial studies. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Further Reading focusing on democracy in the Middle East, the role of Islamist political parties, and the war on terrorism

  • Marina Ottoway, et al., "Democratic Mirage in the Middle East," Carnegie Endowment for Ethics and International Peace, Policy Brief 20, (October 20, 2002). Internet, available online at: http://www.ceip.org/files/publications/HTMLBriefs-WP/20_October_2002_Policy_Brief/20009536v01.html
  • Marina Ottoway and Thomas Carothers, "Think Again: Middle East Democracy,"Foreign Policy (Nov./Dec. 2004). Internet, available online at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2705&print=1
  • Steven Wright, "The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror", Ithaca Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0863723216
  • Chris Zambelis, "The Strategic Implications of Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Middle East," Parameters, (Autumn 2005). Internet, available online at: http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/05autumn/zambelis.htm
  • Adnan M. Hayajneh, "The U.S. Strategy: Democracy and Internal Stability in the Arab World,"Alternatives (Volume 3, No. 2 & 3, Summer/Fall 2004). Internet, available online at: http://www.alternativesjournal.net/volume3/number2/adnan.htm
  • Gary Gambill, "Jumpstarting Arab Reform: The Bush Administration's Greater Middle East Initiative," Middle East Intelligence Bulletin (Vol. 6, No. 6-7, June/July 2004). Internet, available online at: http://www.meib.org/articles/0407_me2.htm
  • Remarks by the President at the 20th Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy, United States Chamber of Commerce, Washington, D.C., "President Bush Discusses Freedom in Iraq and Middle East," (6 November 2003). Internet, available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/11/20031106-2.html
  • Robert Blecher, "Free People Will Set the Course of History: Intellectuals, Democracy and American Empire," Middle East Report (March 2003). Internet, available online at: http://www.merip.org/mero/interventions/blecher_interv.html
  • Robert Fisk, "What Does Democracy Really Mean In The Middle East? Whatever The West Decides," The London Independent (8 August 2005). Internet, available online at: http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article9888.htm
  • Fawaz Gergez, "Is Democracy in the Middle East a Pipedream?,"Yale Global Online (April 25, 2005). Internet, available online at: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5622

is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Evaluating the Islamist movement - written by Greg Noakes, an American Muslim who works at the Washington Report
  • Muslim scholars face down fanaticism - written by Aicha Lemsine, an Algerian journalist and author.
  • Muslims for Dawah through Peace - Islamic peace movement manifesto

Opposing viewpoints


 
 

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