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Encyclopedia > Political terrorism
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. (Discuss)
Terrorism
General
Definitions
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Counterterrorism
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Individuals
Incidents
Types
Nationalist
Religious
Left-wing
Right-wing
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Narcoterrorism
Domestic
Anarchist
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Eco-terrorism
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Hijacking
Assassination
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Bioterrorism
Nuclear terrorism
Cyber-terrorism
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Lone-wolf

Political terrorism is a form of terrorism (a tactic of violence that targets civilians) used to influence socio-political events so that gains occur that might not have otherwise happened by peaceful means or by conventional warfare. There are obviously different types of psychic terror, from religious and magical terror, to fear of the natural world. Criminal terrorists — those who use blackmail, intimidation, and the promotion of fear — are differentiated from political terrorists because the former seek to enrich themselves, whereas for the latter, it is a sine qua non that terrorist action is motivated and justified by the furtherance of an objective cause. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks that typically fall outside the time, manner of conduct, and place commonly understood as representing the bounds of conventional warfare. ... The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks that typically fall outside the time, manner of conduct, and place commonly understood as representing the bounds of conventional warfare. ... One 1988 study by the US Army [1] found that over 100 definitions of the word terrorism have been used. ... There are eleven major multilateral international conventions related to states responsibilities for combating terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... A terrorist organisation is an organisation that engages in terrorist tactics, they are also (perhaps more neutrally) referred to as militant organisations. ... This list includes terrorist organizations, people, and supporters. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered terrorism. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Religious violence. ... Left-wing terrorism may be defined as violence committed by groups or individuals on the political left in order to achieve a political goal through the creation of fear. ... Right-wing terrorism, is reactionary violence to what is seen as perceived threats to a groups value system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ethnically-motivated terrorism (also Ethnic terrorism or racial terrorism) involves frequent attacks on foreign-born immigrants and ethnic minorities, motivated by racism and xenophobic hatred. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Belaunde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Domestic terrorism is a phrase used to describe some acts of political violence within a state that are carried out or commissioned by forces inside or originating from that state, as opposed to external attacks. ... The heyday of anarchist terrorism was from the 1870s to the 1920s. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism which has been used to describe threats and acts of violence (both against people and against property), sabotage, vandalism, property damage and intimidation committed in the name of environmentalism. ... Aircraft hijacking (also known as Skyjacking) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ... Nuclear terrorism can be used to describe any of the following terrorist assaults: Use of nuclear weapons against a civilian target Use of a radiological weapon or dirty bomb against a civilian target An attack against a nuclear power plant Some believe that no such act has ever taken place. ... Cyber-terrorism is the use of computers and information technology, particularly the Internet to cause harm of severe disruption with the aim of advancing the attackers own political goals. ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... Lone-wolf terrorism takes place outside a command structure and may be unaccountable to the claimed collective cause of a group. ... The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks that typically fall outside the time, manner of conduct, and place commonly understood as representing the bounds of conventional warfare. ... For the song by the California punk band Pennywise, see Society (song). ... Look up Politics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political... The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in our time. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Parapsychology is the study of the evidence involving phenomena where a person seems to affect or to gain information about something through a means not currently explainable within the framework of mainstream, conventional science. ... The origins of the word religion have been debated for centuries. ... The ancient symbol of the pentagram is often used as a symbol for magic. ... The deepest visible-light image of the universe, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. ... Blackmail is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public, a family member, or associates unless a monetary demand is met. ... Intimidation is the act of making others do what one wants through fear. ... Fear is an unpleasant feeling of perceived risk or danger, real or not. ... Sine qua non or conditio sine qua non is a Latin legal term for without which it could not be (but for). It refers to an indispensable action, condition or thing. ...

Contents


Terrorist action and thought

Terrorist action is indiscriminate, arbitrary and unpredictable; the rules of war are disregarded; and non-combatants, men, women, and children, are all seen as potential victims. An action is considered to be terrorist when its psychological influences are out of proportion with its physical consequences. Terrorism is not a single random act, nor it is number of interspersed violent acts; it is a sustained, organized policy of terror that one group of some sort wages on another, usually more powerful, group. Terrorists either reject current moral values as the ideology of the status quo or they hold an amoral outlook, and they claim with their actions that humanitarian considerations can be sacrificed along with human life for a greater political end. They are the ultimate Hitlerians: might is right, and terror is the weapon of the expedient. In the early stage of an insurgency, a terrorist group may use symbolic violence (such as assassinations) to advertise their cause and alert a population to their threat, but, by necessity, will become more clandestine. War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Victim was the title of a British film made in 1961, directed by Basil Deardon and starring Dirk Bogarde and Sylvia Simms. ... Psychology (Classical Greek: psyche = soul or mind, logos = study of) is an academic and applied field involving the study of behavior and its relationship to the mind and brain. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... Morality, in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is innately regarded as right or wrong. ... Look up Status quo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Status quo is a Latin term meaning the present current, existing state of affairs. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ...


Justifications of terrorism

The term counter-terrorism is misleading because it implies that a state is not the initiator of violence. The terrorist justifies his action with three arguments that have a moral context. Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ...

  • The just-vengeance doctrine: Often represented as "an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth", the terrorist group believes that the original group deserves to experience actions similar to what they may have previously dealt.
  • The theory of lesser evil: It may be claimed that a violent action can deter an even more violent consequence. The dropping of atomic bombs is one example of this argument in practice, although nobody who has studied the issue would accept this.
  • The ultima ratio argument: The terrorist group may justify its actions by stating that no other means, such as the media or effective political representation, were available to them to express their discontent. The state uses similar arguments to legitimize its violence, and this is why it should always be borne in mind when thinking about terrorism. It is a didactic concept, used by victors, the powerful and the dominant, to isolate its opponents and vilify them as official enemies. It is often said that terrorism is the weapon of the weak, but if terrorism means using overt, destructive violence to create a climate of fear and to subjugate people to powerful abstractions, then it is obviously the weapon of the strong as well.

Revenge is retaliation against a person or group in response to wrongdoing. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... Fear is an unpleasant feeling of perceived risk or danger, real or not. ...

Types of political terrorism

Revolutionary terrorism

Revolutionary terrorism is the use of systemic, terroristic violence to bring about a revolution. Most groups that succeed in doing so use similar tactics to maintain their rule. Revolutionary terrorism has its origins in reactionary ideas, and in the purported cycles in human societies that rotate the allocation of power. Only with the French Revolution — the Reign of Terror — in the 19th century did the idea evolve of a revolution that could bring about democratic will, participation and collective freedoms, that could carve utopia out of earth, rise to prominence. This type of terrorism is associated with groups, however small they may be, which use ideological and revolutionary constructs to change the existing social order in someway. Look up Revolution on Wiktionary, the free dictionary This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... A reaction is the following: In physics, a reaction (physics) is defined by Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The idea that any given force has a pair or opposite force. ... For the song by the California punk band Pennywise, see Society (song). ... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 – July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Democracy is the idea that the people have the right to rule themselves, in contrast to the earlier idea that the people existed to make the king more glorious and rich or to live for Gods sake. ... Personal liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. Freedom refers, in a very general sense, to the state of being free (i. ... Utopia, in its most common and general positive meaning, refers to the human efforts to create a better society, a perfect society that does not exist (yet). ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ...


Examples

Against indigenous autocracy

In contrast to the 18th century and before, when uprising were inspired and justified by religions, the French Revolution provided a secular justification for agitation on behalf of the public will, and also for visiting vengeance upon the aristocrats of the old ecclesiastic, absolute ancient regime. In the early stages of the insurrection, violence was sporadic and mostly an expression of class revolt. Violence was turned into a policy of terror with the Jacobins, who during the Reign of Terror (17931794), passed the Law of Suspects that enabled the Revolutionary Tribunal to arrest anybody for the flimsiest of reasons, and to carry out grotesque mass executions (by guillotine, gunnings, and drownings). The innovations of this movement were the suppression of potential enemies — not only individuals, but whole groups — and the use of ideological terror. It is anti-clericalism, which was manifested as the confiscation of churches, execution of priests and destruction of once sacred religious insignia, marked a changed from individual assassinations to the use of whole scale terrorist violence to carry out the collective will with an attendant ideological rationalization. The violence of the revolutionaries was waged against tradition and the autocratic state. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... Secularism is commonly defined as the idea that religion should not interfere with or be integrated into the public affairs of a society. ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794). ... The Reign of Terror (June 1793 – July 1794) was a period in the French Revolution characterized by brutal repression. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Law of Suspects is a term which is used to refer to an enactment passed on September 17, 1793 during the course of the French Revolution. ... A church building (or simply church) is a building used in Christian worship. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... Violence refers to acts —typically connotative with aggressive and criminal behaviour —which intend to cause or is causing of injury to persons, animals, or (in limited cases) property. ... The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ...


Between 1800 and 1860, there were more than 500 peasant uprisings in Russia against Tsarist regimes. The revolutionaries of the 19th century were pitted against probably the most oppressive autocracy of the century and, following two armed revolutions (March 812 and October 2425), overthrew the imperial order and established the USSR in 1917. 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 67 days remaining. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Against foreign rule

Numerous groups seeking independence from British colonial rule most visibly occupy this classification. It should be noted that most nationalists achieved independence through political pressure and negotiation from a Britain that, in the post-war period, realized that it was expedient for its inevitable transition from imperial ruler to be as inconspicuous as possible. These countries were freed from military domination only to be straitjacketed by economical and ideological neo-imperialism. However, the recourse to terrorism was the exception and not the rule for anti-colonialist struggle. Evan is so hot, sexy, and cool! Remember that. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... A Posey straitjacket A leather straitjacket A straitjacket is a garment shaped like a jacket with overlong sleeves. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands A cartoon showing the U.S. growing up and growing girth. ...


The Mau Mau Rebellion of Kenya, a secret society that embarked upon a course of violence in the early 1950s, against Europeans who held land that the Mau Mau claimed rightfully belonged to them. The British announced a state of emergency, sent in troops to suppress the threat of a liberationist movement developing, and imprisoned more than 80,000 Kĩkũyũ — the main ethnic group in Kenya — in detention camps which have been unfavourably compared to those of Nazi Germany. Violence was also used against British rule in Ireland, Palestine, Malaya, Cyprus, Aden, and elsewhere. // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby boom from returning... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... A troop is a military unit, which can have different meanings depending on the country in which it is used. ... Liberation means to be freed (or change from a state of lacking freedom to having freedom), see freedom. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... The KÄ©kÅ©yÅ© (otherwise spelled GÄ©kÅ©yÅ©) ethnic group is Kenyas most populous ethnic group. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... Port of Aden (around 1910) Aden (Arabic: عدن []) is a city in Yemen, 105 miles (170 kilometers) East of Bab-el-Mandeb. ...


Against totalitarian states

A totalitarian state is one which not only outlaws what it forbids, but which tries to control the minds of its subjects, and to strike fear into their hearts with the use of secret police. In this context, it should be differentiated from a dictatorship or a tyranny. The success of an attempt to indoctrinate the public mind with the story of a particular regime explains the isolation that the internal dissident faces in a totalitarian nation, and also the ferocity with which the individuals of an invaded country will, at first, resist their invader. The infamous failed bomb plot of July 1944 against Hitler is one example of terroristic violence pitted against totalitarianism, others abound. Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Fear is an unpleasant feeling of perceived risk or danger, real or not. ... A secret police (sometimes political police) force is a police organization that operates in secret to enforce state security. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


Sub-revolutionary terrorism

Sub-revolutionary terrorism is violence that is motivated by political and social concerns other than the ouster of a government, such as for land reforms, for desired legislation, or simply in vengeance for governmental intervention into a particular way of life. Its origins lie in feuding groups who took the law into their own hands to defend their resources, and in assassinations and sultanism (the wiping out of political rivals). In contrast to revolutionary terrorists, the motives of the sub-revolutionary actor are often blurred, so that it difficult to say whether he assassinates for authentic political reasons or because he is a deranged psychopath. This form of terrorism is highly unpredictable and even more dangerous than revolutionary terrorism because it is not retrained within any determinable ideological paradigm. Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... Legislation refers to the process of enacting statutory laws, or to the set of statutory laws in a state. ... Aphorism Critical legal studies Jurisprudence Law (principle) Legal research Letter versus Spirit List of legal abbreviations Legal code Natural justice Natural law Philosophy of law Religious law External links Find more information on Law by searching one of Wikipedias sibling projects: Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School... Resources comprise the base material for an activity or industry: factors of production, the economics term human capital, human resources (HR) and innovation natural resources resource (computer science) resource (Web) resource (Windows) resource (Macintosh) resource (political) resource (project management) Resource Distribution, human influence and the effects of trade. ... Jack Ruby murdered Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a very public manner In its most common use, assassination has come to mean the killing of an important person. ... Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a personality disorder which is often characterised by antisocial and impulsive behaviour. ...


Examples

The Zealots were a 1st century Jewish group who refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Roman rule in Judea, which they felt, was akin to repudiating the authority of god. The most extreme Zealots, the Sicarii (dagger men), carried out assassinations of Romans and moderate Jews. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Zealotry. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי transliterated: Yehudi) is used in many ways, but generally refers to a follower of Judaism, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of these attributes. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and, in a few geographical definitions of Judea... Sicarii (Latin plural of Sicarius, dagger- or later contract- killer) is a term applied, in the decades immediately preceding the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, to the Jewish Zealots, (or insurgents) who attempted to expel the Romans and their partisans from Judea: —Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (xx. ...


The word assassination derives from the Muslim sect, the Assassins, who were probably the first organized group to use violence for a cause it considered righteous, and who belonged to the larger, dissident Shiite Ismaili sect. Some scholars claim that the word assassin itself derives from the Syrian "hashishi", which, of course, refers to narcotics, the Assassins being almost certainly addicts. They believed that their salvation lied in killing the unrighteous Sunni Muslims, and developed guerrilla tactics, such as a code of secrecy, raiding, and the dissemination of their beliefs among peasants, that struck fear into townspeople and made them the first, prototypical terrorist organization. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... A sect is a small religious or political group that has branched off from a larger established group. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Ismaili (Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmâiliyân) branch of Islam is the second largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word narkotikos, meaning benumbing or deadening, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep (such state is narcosis). ... Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Distinguish from the type of ape called a gorilla. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th...


Against liberal democracy

The liberal democracy is a recent (19th century) system that allows greater scope for political opposition than the autocracies and tyrannies which it developed from; the latter being the historical method for organizing any large social system. Yet it has not been immune from terrorism, and its inherent features — freedom of the press, freedom of association, freedom of expression, etc. — allow terroristic organization, recruitment, and operations to be mounted with greater ease than ever before. Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where the ability of elected representatives to exercise decision-making power is subject to the rule of law and moderated by a constitution which emphasizes the protection of the rights and freedoms of individuals and minorities (also called constitutional liberalism), and which... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Freedom of association is the right enjoyed by free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purposes they see fit. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ...


Anarchists are, of course, opposed to all forms of governance and see liberal democracy as a mask for the manipulation and oppression of the masses by the bourgeois order. A number of anarchists who believed that violence in the name of the cause — or "propaganda of the deed" — was legitimate, such as Brousse in France and Malatesta in Italy, who supported assassination attempts. Ravachol of France, who choose to live in poverty, held that property was immoral and that criminal acts, such as robbery and forgery, furthered the anarchic cause. He murdered an aged miser, Jacques Brunel, and used the 15,000 Francs he stole from him to help the families of anarchists who had been sentenced for resisting arrest. He also blew up the homes of the prosecutors who had handed out the punitive sentences, and when sentenced to death himself for the murder of the old man shouted "Vive l'anarchie!" ("Live anarchy!"). Other examples abound in France in the years 18921894, and considering the repression of anarchic practice and the blackening of its thought that followed, all that they indicate is the futility and the counter-productiveness of trying to create a new social order with explosives. Although it is erroneous to associate anarchism with violence, many groups claming to be anarchic, such as the United Kingdom's Angry Brigade in the 1970s, declared that revolutionary violence was a crucial tactic in any social struggle and subsequently developed, expertise in explosives. So did the following two groups: Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Propaganda of the Deed was an anarchist doctrine that promoted the decisive action of individuals to inspire further action by others. ... Ravachol (François Koenigstein, 1859-1892), was a French anarchist best known for propaganda of the deed. ... The Chicago Police Department arrests a man A protester is arrested during a demonstration. ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of all forms of government and social hierarchy. ... The Angry Brigade were a group of anarchist terrorists responsible for a long string of bomb attacks between 1970 and 1972. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ...

The Tupamaros of Uruguay derived their moniker from Tupac Amaru, an Incan who staged an agrarian rebellion in 1780, later executed for doing so. The Tupamaros launched an urban, guerrilla campaign with the aim of bringing about a redistribution of wealth and land. They also kidnapped Uruguayan leaders and foreign diplomats but avoided harming them because they had the intention of provoking the powers-that-be into harsh, violent repression that would turn the population against them and in favour of the Tupamaros' revolt. They raided police stations and telephone exchanges, robbed banks, expropriated weapons, and established their own mobile transmitter to counter their exclusion from the media. The government waged an internal war on the Tupamaros, and by 1972, 3,000 members of the organization were in prison (and 300 had been assassinated) and the group thus lacked the ideological sophistication and resources to continue as a serious threat. In 1985, after most of its leaders had been released, the Tupamaros became a legitimate, democratic political party. West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... RAF Logo with red star and MP5 The Red Army Faction (in German: Rote Armee Fraktion; RAF), also known as the Baader-Meinhof Group, or the Baader-Meinhof Gang, which was one of the core groups within the RAF, was postwar Western Germanys most active left-wing terrorist organization. ... Bank robbery is the crime of robbing a bank. ... ... The term Palestinian terrorism is commonly used for terrorist acts committed by Palestinian citizens and Palestinian organizations against Israeli Jews, and occasionally against nationals of other countries. ... An athlete is a person who has above average physical skills (strength, agility, and endurance) and is thus suitable for physical activities, in particular, contests. ... For the 2005 Steven Spielberg film, see Munich (film). ... Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse) is a terrorist group located in Italy. ... Aldo Moro Aldo Moro (Maglie, Lecce Province, September 23, 1916 - Rome, May 9, 1978) was twice Prime Minister of Italy. ... This article refers to the Inca Túpac Amaru who died in 1572, see Túpac Amaru II for the man whose Christian name was José Gabriel Condorcanqui. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Wealth usually refers to money and property. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... This article is about revolution in the sense of a drastic change. ... In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange (US: telephone switch) is a piece of equipment that connects phone calls. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... This article is about the year. ... Democracy is the idea that the people have the right to rule themselves, in contrast to the earlier idea that the people existed to make the king more glorious and rich or to live for Gods sake. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ...


Harvard educated Theodore Kaczynski (the Unabomber), a quirky former mathematics professor who became a hermit, planted and mailed sixteen homemade bombs between 1978 and 1995, mostly targeting university professors. He opposed all scientific progress, industrialization, and technology, believing that human suffering is the outcome of not living under the conditions with which we evolved, and he outlined his views in a 35,000 word manifesto that the Washington Times published. This document, entitled Industrial Society and Its Future[1], has been dismissed as a rehash of the counter-cultural thought of the 1960s and praised for its lucid intelligence in equal measure. Kaczynski was sentenced to four life terms in prison, plus thirty years, in 1998. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Theodore Kaczynski Dr. Theodore John Kaczynski, Ph. ... Unabomber is a nickname applied to three people: Theodore Kaczynski, an American terrorist. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mathematics Look up Mathematics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Mathematics Bogomolny, Alexander: Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // What is science? There are various understandings of the word science. According to empiricism, scientific theories are objective, empirically testable, and predictive — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A manifesto is a public declaration of principles and intentions, often political in nature. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Repressive terrorism

Repressive terrorism is the use of systematic, centralized violence to suppress, put down, and restrain certain groups, such as dissidents, or even an entire population. It is considered always unpredictable and arbitrary. Secret police, state agents, and informers support the tyrannical rule, whose harsh methods, such as the use of torture, liquidation, and purges, strikes fear into a population. A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively opposes an established opinion, policy, or structure. ... A secret police (sometimes political police) force is a police organization that operates in secret to enforce state security. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was an infamous torture device. ... Liquidation, or winding up, refers to a business whose assets are converted to money in order to pay off debt. ...


Examples

The Nazis who used mass terror in combination with electoral propaganda are an obvious example that warrant no further comment. Along with Mussolini's regime, the Nazis funded the Croatian fascist Ustashi organization, and the Rumanian Iron Guard, both of which held ultra-right wing nationalist philosophies. With the Ustashi, for example, this included massacring large numbers of Serbs and others, and establishing several concentration camps. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Predappio near Forlì, July 29, 1883 – Giulino di Mezzegra near Como, April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... ... Stamp bearing the symbol of the Iron Guard The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given in English to an ultra-nationalist anti-Semitic, fascist movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. Originally founded by Corneliu Zelea... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


Determining political terrorism

There is no adequate scientific or objective understanding of political terrorism. Although it is thought to be the tool of small movements, who lack any power base, and is most successful when waged against an indigenous oppressor, this thinking is too general. There are three main ways of conceptualizing terrorism.

  • Frustration-aggression relative deprivation theory: The motivator for civil conflict is the awareness of a discrepancy between what one group (or individual) has and what is the general baseline of the collective. Rising expectations may overtake capabilities, or capabilities of bringing about a change may remain static while expectations are raised. Conflict often arises from the reluctance — or inability — of leaders to fulfil the demands of insubordinate groups, especially when that group is organized and armed with an ideology that sanctions violence as a means to an end.
  • A focus on the terrorist: Existential satisfaction that a person gains from serving a cause when he lacks belief in anything but his power to destroy is another conceptualization. This idea can be found in the plays of Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, and risks portraying the terrorists as a romantic outsider, as a man who uses his own will, actions and freedom, to resolve the tension he feels from living in a fundamentally philistine society. The flipside of this is, of course, seeing the terrorist as a sociopath who is responsible for his actions and must live with their consequences.
  • The notion of internal war: Terrorism is the first stage of a conflict that will develop into full-scale guerrilla operations. The idea here is that terrorism is part of the fabric of dynamic social progression.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Political terrorism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (770 words)
Political terrorism is a form of terrorism (a tactic of violence that targets civilians) used to influence socio-political events so that gains occur that might not have otherwise happened by peaceful means or by conventional warfare.
Political terrorism is not a single random act, nor it is number of interspersed violent acts; it is a sustained, organized policy of terror that one group of some sort wages on another.
It is often said that terrorism is the weapon of the weak, but if terrorism means using overt, destructive violence to create a climate of fear and to subjugate people to powerful abstractions, then it is obviously the weapon of the strong as well.
Terrorism (4807 words)
Political terrorism, presumably, is the state of mind of political actors who are paralyzed by the threat of unpredictable attack.
Terrorism is the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.
Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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