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Encyclopedia > Political subdivisions of New York State

The definitions of the political subdivisions of the state of New York differ from those in certain other countries or even various other U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. Some of the subordinate political divisions of New York have executive, legislative and judicial branches, as does the state government. A state of the United States (U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states, four of which officially favor the term commonwealth which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Whether a municipality is a city, town or village is not dependent on population or area, but on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature. New York State considers counties, cities, towns and villages to be "municipal corporations" and "general purpose" units of local government. A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... A panorama of Sydney, Australia at night. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...

Contents


County

Map of the counties of New York State (click for larger version)
Map of the counties of New York State (click for larger version)

The county is the primary political subdivision of New York State. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of New York City and do not have functioning county governments. Counties contain a number of towns and may also contain cities. Towns may contain villages and hamlets. Every county has a county seat, often a populous or centrally located city or village, where the county government is located. In some counties, a hamlet is the county seat. Download high resolution version (937x735, 48 KB)Map of New York counties from Census Bureau at http://www. ... Download high resolution version (937x735, 48 KB)Map of New York counties from Census Bureau at http://www. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... A county seat is an administrative center for a county. ...


Counties are responsible for certain functions of planning and governance for all areas within their borders that are not delegated to lower levels of government. These often include overall planning, police service, social welfare, and coordination of special and extended education service. Planning is the management function that is concerned with defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources needed to be used in order to attain the said goals. ... ... Special education, also known as special ed, describes an educational alternative that focuses on the teaching of students with academic, behaviorial, health, or physical needs that cannot sufficiently be met using traditional educational programs or techniques. ...


According to the State of New York Local Government Handbook, "The county is now a municipal corporation with geographical jurisdiction, homerule powers and fiscal capacity to provide a wide range of services to its residents. To some extent, counties have evolved into a form of 'regional' government that performs specified functions and which encompasses, but does not necessarily supersede, the jurisdiction of the cities, towns and villages within its borders."


Most counties of the State operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Nineteen counties, however, are "charter counties". Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, charter counties are afforded greater home rule powers.


A county is usually governed by a county executive and legislature. Also the counties have a county court with associated county prosecutors. A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...


In some counties, the legislature is the Board of Supervisors, composed of town and city supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the principal of "one person, one vote". Other counties, also in the interest of maintaining "one person, one vote", have legislative districts of equal population which may cross municipal borders. Some counties do not use the term "Board of Supervisors", but instead call their legislative body "Board of Representatives", "Board of Legislators," or "County Legislature".


In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Charter counties typically have an elected executive who is independent of the legislature.


See also: List of New York counties Map of the counties of New York State (click for larger version) There are sixty-two counties in the State of New York. ...


City

In New York State, a city is a highly autonomous incorporated area within a county. It provides almost all services to its residents and has the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over its residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ widely among cities, while villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law. Also, villages are part of a town (or towns), with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities (except for the City of Sherrill) are independent of towns. Some cities are completely surrounded by a town, typically of the same name. This arrangement should not lead to the misunderstanding that the city is somehow subordinate to or a part of the town. A panorama of Sydney, Australia at night. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America which leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... In law, jurisdiction from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak, is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted body or to a person to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility. ... Sherrill is a city located in Oneida County, New York. ...


There are sixty-two cities in the state. There are no minimum population or area requirements in order to become a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted New York City and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise their charters or adopt new ones. Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Albany County Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 56. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The forms of government cities can have are council-manager, strong mayor-council, weak mayor-council or commission. Forty-five cities, the majority, use the mayor-council form, in which the mayor is the executive and city council members form the legislature. In some of these cities, the mayor serves only a ceremonial role. Larger cities have city courts. A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ...


New York City is a special case. The city consists of the entire area of five counties. These counties retain a small amount of governance as boroughs. Under the state legislation that allowed the city (as the City of Greater New York) to annex huge areas beyond its original borders (including smaller cities, towns and villages) in 1898, the State of New York retains certain powers over the city. Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Bold textJAMES CHECKLEY Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. ...


Cities in New York State are classified by the Census Bureau as incorporated places and as county subdivision equivalents (except for New York City).


See also: List of cities in New York This List of cities in New York State, USA, is an alphabetic list that also gives the primary county in which each city is located. ...


Town

Map of the towns and cities of New York State, showing population density (click for larger version)
Map of the towns and cities of New York State, showing population density (click for larger version)

In New York State, a town is the major subdivision of each county. Towns provide or arrange for most municipal services for residents of hamlets and selected services for residents of villages. All residents of New York who do not live in a city or on an Indian reservation live in a town. As of the 2000 census, there are 932 towns in New York. Unlike villages, towns cannot cross county borders, since they are part of each county. Download high resolution version (825x565, 40 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (825x565, 40 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... In the United States an Indian reservation is land which is managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interiors Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...


Towns lack an executive branch of government. The town board exercises both executive and legislative functions. The town supervisor presides over the board, but does not possess veto or tie-breaking power. The judicial branch is often a town justice of the peace.


A town can contain zero, one or multiple villages. Five towns are coterminous with their single village: Green Island in Albany County; East Rochester in Monroe County; and Scarsdale, Harrison and Mount Kisco in Westchester County. Green Island is a village and a town located in Albany County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 2,278. ... Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ... The Town/Village of East Rochester, located in Monroe County, New York, is home to about 6,700 people. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1821 Seat Rochester Area  - Total  - Water 3,537 km² (1,366 mi²) 15 km² (6 mi²) 51. ... Scarsdale is both a town and village located in Westchester County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, it had a total population of 17,823. ... Harrison is a village located in Westchester County, New York. ... Mount Kisco is both a village and a town located in Westchester County, New York. ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ...


Towns vary in size and population. The largest town (by area), the Town of Brookhaven, covers 531.5 square miles (1,376.6 km²) (half of that, however, is water — the Town of Webb has the most land area at 451 square miles (1,167 km²)). The smallest, the Town of Green Island, covers only 0.7 of a square mile (1.8 km²). The Town of Hempstead has about 756,000 people (2000 census), making it more populous than any city in the state except New York City. The Town of Red House, the least populous, has 38 permanent residents (2000 census). Brookhaven, New York is a town (county subdivision) in central Suffolk County, New York. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Webb is a town located in Herkimer County, New York. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Green Island is a village and a town located in Albany County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 2,278. ... Hempstead is a town located in Nassau County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 755,924. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Red House is a town located in Cattaraugus County, New York. ...


The word "town" itself may be used informally to refer to any settlement. "A night on the town" could very well mean visiting New York City. "Going into town" could refer to a trip to a village's main built-up area. Many places containing the word "town" in their name are not towns. Examples include several Allentowns, Cooperstown of Baseball Hall of Fame fame, and Elizabethtown, a hamlet in the town of the same name. Cooperstown is a village located in Otsego County, New York and is the County Seat. ... The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, located at 62 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York, United States, is a semi-official museum operated by private interests that serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, the display... Elizabethtown is a hamlet located in the Town of Elizabethtown in Essex County, New York. ...


A town in New York State is equivalent to a civil township in certain other states. Towns in New York State are classified by the Census Bureau as county subdivisions, specifically as minor civil divisions. A civil township is a widely-used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. ... Minor civil division (MCD) is a term used by the United States Census Bureau to designate the primary governmental and/or administrative subdivisions of a county, such as a civil township, precinct, or magisterial district. ...


See also: List of towns in New York As of the 2000 census, there are 932 towns in the state of New York. ...


Village

In New York State, a village is an incorporated area which is usually, but not always, within a single town. A village is a clearly defined municipality that provides the services closest to the residents, such as garbage collection, street and highway maintenance, street lighting and building codes. Some villages provide their own police and other optional services. A village is required to have a village hall or municipal building. Villages have less autonomy than cities. Those municipal services not provided by the village are provided by the town or towns containing the village. As of the 2000 census, there are 553 villages in New York. A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ...


The legislature of a village is the board of trustees, composed of a mayor and (usually) four trustees. The mayor may vote in business before the board and may break a tie. The mayor generally does not possess veto power, unless provided by local law. The mayor is also the executive of the village. A village may also have a full-time village manager, who performs administrative duties which would normally fall upon the mayor. A village must have a municipal building or village hall. Villages may also have a village justice.


To be incorporated as a village, a territory (i.e., given area) must have at least 500 inhabitants and be no more than 5 square miles (13 km²) in area (though there are exceptions to the area rule, such as if an entire town wishes to incorporate as a village). The process of incorporation begins with a petition by either 20% of residents or owners of 50% of assessed real property. It is then voted upon by those living in the territory. Currently, some villages have less than a 500 person population due to loss of inhabitants.


Villages often cross other political boundaries. More than 70 villages are located in two or more towns. Seven villages are divided between two counties. The village of Saranac Lake is in three towns and two counties. Saranac Lake is a village located in the state of New York. ...


A village in New York State is comparable to a town in certain other states. Villages in New York State are classified by the Census Bureau as incorporated places.


See also: List of villages in New York List of villages in New York, arranged in alphabetical order. ...


Hamlet

In New York State, a hamlet is a populated area within a town that is not part of a village. The term "hamlet" is not defined under New York law (unlike cities, towns and villages), but is often used in the state's statutes to refer to well-known populated sections of towns that are not incorporated as villages. A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ...


A hamlet has no legal status (except in the Adirondack Park Agency's land-use classifications) and depends upon the town that contains it for municipal services and government. A hamlet could be described as the rural or suburban equivalent of a neighborhood in a city or village. The area of a hamlet may not be exactly defined and may simply be contained within the zip code of its post office, or may be defined by its school or fire district. Residents of a hamlet often identify themselves more closely with the hamlet than with the town. Some hamlets proximate to urban areas are sometimes continuous with their cities and appear to be neighborhoods, but they still are under the control of the town.


Hamlets are sometimes called unincorporated communities. In fact, some hamlets are former villages that have dissolved their incorporation (Old Forge in Herkimer County and Rosendale in Ulster County, for example). Their land area, though, is within the jurisdiction of a town, which is considered a municipal corporation under state law. For census purposes, the area around a hamlet may be formally defined as a census designated place, though most are not. A census location may have the same name as a hamlet, but the area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau may differ somewhat from the local understanding of the hamlet. This is because hamlets do not have fixed boundaries and area defined by the census is generally based on population density and may include a larger or smaller area than the local understanding of the hamlet. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with unincorporated. ... Old Forge is a hamlet on Route 28 in the Town of Webb in Herkimer County, New York. ... Herkimer County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Rosendale Village is a census-designated place located in Ulster County, New York. ... Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the states beautiful Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... The definitions of the political subdivisions of the state of New York differ from those in certain other countries or even various other U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Other named places

New York contains many named localities which do not merit even the vaguely defined term "hamlet." These locations are often historic, being former post offices, depopulated communities, or cross roads important in an earlier period. Others may represent newly developed housing tracts that eventually might be considered hamlet, or may eventually incorporate as villages.


Subdivisions unique to New York City

Borough

A borough is a political subdivision of New York City only and not New York State or of any other city in the state. Each of the five boroughs of New York City is coextensive with one of its five counties. A borough is a local government administrative subdivision used in the Canadian province of Quebec, in some states of the United States, and formerly in New Zealand. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...

See: The Five Boroughs The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of United States. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is the largest in area and second most populous of the five boroughs of New York City. ... Queens is geographically the largest of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse county in the U.S. It is coterminous with Queens County in the State of New York and is located on western Long Island. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ... The Five Boroughs of New York City The Five Boroughs may also mean The Five Burghs of the Danelaw. ...


The boroughs were originally intended to retain some local governance in the consolidated city that was formed in 1898. Each borough individually elects a borough president. The borough presidents once wielded considerable power as members of the City's Board of Estimate, but their positions now are largely ceremonial and advisory. Likewise, the boroughs and their residents have little distinct power within the city. According to the State of New York Local Government Handbook, "The five boroughs of the City of New York function as counties for certain purposes, although they are not organized as such nor do they operate as county governments." 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Community board

Community boards are what the New York City government Web site refers to as "local representative bodies." The community boards, however, are unelected. Each board consists of fifty unpaid members appointed by the borough president. Half of the members are nominated by the City Council members who represent the area. The power of the community boards is very limited. They serve in an advisory capacity regarding land use and zoning, budget and various concerns of the community. The boards can recommend action on the part of the city government, but they cannot enforce it. There are fifty-nine community boards, identified by borough name and a number (e.g. Manhattan Community Board 3). The Manhattan Community Board 3 is a local governement unit of the city of New York, encompassing the neighborhoods of Tompkins Square, East Village, Lower East Side, Chinatown and Two Bridges, in the borough of Manhattan. ...


Special purpose units of government

In New York State, special purpose units of government provide specialized services only to those who live in the district, and are empowered to tax residents of the district for the services provided in common. Special districts often cross the lines of towns, villages, and hamlets, but rarely cities or counties.


School districts

School districts are the most common kind of special district. They provide, arrange or contract for all public education services, including special education and school transportation, the latter also for non-public schools. School Districts are a form of Special-purpose district in the United States which serves to operate the local public primary, middle, and secondary schools. ...


School districts are often not precisely coextensive with the villages or hamlets that bear the same name, meaning that a person living in one hamlet or village might send their children to a school associated with a different hamlet or village. Residents pay school taxes to the same school district in which they live and their children attend school.


All but five school districts are separate from municipal governments. The exceptions are the five cities whose populations exceed 125,000 (Buffalo, New York City, Rochester, Syracuse and Yonkers), in which education is part of the municipal budget.


Schools in New York city are controlled by the city department of education, but the city is divided by the department into 11 school regions.[1] Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...


There are five types of school districts in the state:


Common school districts

Common school districts are not authorized to operate high schools. They must, therefore, contract with neighboring school districts to provide secondary education for pupils in the district. High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Union free school districts

A union free school district is a district resulted from a "union" of multiple common school districts, "free" from the restrictions that previously barred them from operating high schools. In January 2000, there were 151 school districts of this type. Curiously, 31 provided only elementary education, despite the original intent of "freeing" them from such restrictions. Unlike common school districts, each union free school district is governed by a board of education. Each board must have at least three but not more than nine members.[2] A board of education or a school board or school committee is the title of the board of directors of a local school district. ...


Central school districts

Central school districts are the most common type of school district in the state of New York.


City school districts

There are two types of city school districts, those in cities with over 125,000 people and those in cities with fewer than 125,000 people. Districts for cities with over 125,000 people are coterminous with the city limits, and education is part of the municipal budget. These districts cannot incur debts or levy taxes. Districts for cities with fewer than 125,000 people are separate from the municipal government and are authorized to levy taxes and incur debt. Districts for smaller cities which extend beyond the city borders are called "enlarged city school districts" (for example, Newburgh). Newburgh is a city located in Orange County, New York. ...


Central high school districts

There are only four central high school districts in New York state—three in Nassau and one in Suffolk. These districts provide secondary education to students in two or more common or union free districts. Nassau County is a county located outside New York City in the state of New York. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of New York. ...


Fire districts

Fire districts are public corporations which generally provide fire protection and other emergency response in towns outside villages. Villages generally provide their own fire protection, but joint town-village fire districts are permitted. A fire district can levy taxes and incur debt. Although they operate under certain fiscal restrictions, these districts enjoy a great deal of autonomy in budgeting. The town which the district serves receives the budget and collects the taxes but has no power to amend the budget. The district is governed by a board of elected commissioners.


Fire protection districts

A fire protection district is established by a town board in order to contract fire protection services with any city, village, fire district or incorporated fire company.


Public benefit corporations/authorities

Public benefit corporations in New York State operate like quasi-private corporations, generally with boards appointed by elected officials. They are a form of government bureaucracy in one sense but, unlike government agencies, public benefit corporations are exempt from some regulations. Of particular importance, they can take out their own debt, allowing them to bypass legal limits on state debt. This allows them to make potentially risky capital and infrastructure investments without putting so much of the credit of New York City or New York State on the line. New York State public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations, generally with boards appointed by elected officials. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ...


Public benefit corporations get charters from New York State and are usually designed to perform a specific, narrow function in the public interest. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority manages public transportation in the New York Metropolitan Area (this includes the New York Subway and public bus systems, as well as MTA Metro-North Railroad and the Long Island Rail Road, and the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority). The New York State Thruway Authority originally only maintained the New York State Thruway from New York City to the Pennsylvania border southwest of Buffalo, but due to budgetary maneuvering, now maintains the toll-free I-84 corridor, also. The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority manages much of the public transportation in and around Syracuse. Metropolitan Transportation Authority is the name of a governmental or quasi-governmental body in each of several areas: Metropolitan Transit Authority of Boston Massachusetts, now the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority — Boston, Massachusetts Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority — Los Angeles County, California Metropolitan Transportation Authority — New York metropolitan area See... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... South Ferry station 125th Street station The New York City Subway is a large rapid transit system in New York City, New York, United States. ... Marble Hill station Metro-North (officially MTA Metro-North Railroad) is a suburban commuter railroad running service from New York City to the northern suburbs in New York State and Connecticut. ... The Long Island Rail Road or LIRR (often referred to as the L-I-double-R) is a railroad that serves the length of Long Island, New York. ... The Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, described to the public by the popular name MTA Bridges and Tunnels, or MTA B&T, is an affiliate agency of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, a public benefit corporation, that operates all intrastate toll bridges in New York City. ... NY Thruway Sign New York State Thruway (Interstate 87) looking east from Nordkop Mountain, Suffern, New York The New York State Thruway (officially the Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... NY Thruway Sign The New York State Thruway (officially the Thomas E. Dewey Thruway) is a limited-access toll highway in the U.S. state of New York. ... Official website: Buffalo, NY Location Location of Buffalo in New York State Government County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Geographical characteristics Area Total 136. ... The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority known as CENTRO is the bus system serving Onondaga, Oswego, Cayuga, and Oneida counties in New York State. ... Aerial View of Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ...


Some of these corporations, particularly the "authorities," are criticized as being wasteful or overly secretive. There are literally hundreds, more than 640 as of 2004 according to a New York Times editorial. Some attempts at reform have been made. According to the editorial: It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... An editorial is a statement or article by a news organization (generally a newspaper) that expresses an opinion rather than attempting to simply report news, as the latter should ideally be done without bias. ...

[New York State Comptroller Alan] Hevesi has offered a comprehensive bill that incorporates some of the best ideas in other legislation circulating in Albany [to reform the authorities]. It would also create a commission to assess whether all 640 authorities set up over the last 80 years still need to exist. The Overcoat Protection Authority, for one, would seem to have had its day. [3]

The Overcoat Proection Authority actually isn't the correct name of the entity in question. The correct name of the entity the Times was speaking of is the Overcoat Development Corporation [4], which was designed to lure a clothing manufacturer to New York from Indiana in the 1980s. (Berry, Dan. "The Cold Facts Of Officialdom, Albany-Style," The New York Times, March 20, 2004) The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...


Lack of oversight is a major concern with New York's auhorities. According to the Associated Press: Associated Press logo The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Out of 643 state and local authorities in New York, only 11 need approval by the Public Authorities Control Board before selling bonds. The comptroller's office gets financial reports from just 53. (Johnson, Mark. "Hevesi proposes reforms for state authorities," Associated Press, February 24, 2004)

February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in...

Library districts

Library districts are usually coextensive with the same school district but raise taxes separately and serve all the residents of the library district (save Newburgh, where the library is run directly by the school district out of its budget). They often form cooperative associations with other library districts for shared services, purchasing and cross-library lending. Newburgh is both a city and a town in Orange County, New York. ...


Other types of special purpose units

Other special districts may include emergency rescue squads, sanitation, police, water, and sewer.


Home rule

Incorporated municipal governments (also known as "general purpose units of local government"; i.e., counties, cities, towns and villages) in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions. They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles IX (titled "Local Government", but commonly referred to as the "Home Rule" article) and VIII (titled "Local Finances") of the State Constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


The New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities, towns and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations.


Census-designated place

A census-designated place (CDP) is an area defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only, without any legal consequences. In New York State, a CDP is a part of a town outside any villages. The CDP may contain the entirety of the town outside any villages (only for those towns that actually do contain villages), and it may cross town and county borders. A CDP cannot be any part of a city or a village, nor can it be the entirety of a town. CDPs usually resemble cities or villages in population density and structure. CDPs were formerly called unincorporated places. A census-designated place (CDP) is an area identified by the United States Census Bureau for statistical reporting. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


See also: List of census-designated places in New York As of the 2000 census, there are 434 census-designated places (CDPs) in New York State. ...


See also

Map of the counties of New York State (click for larger version) There are sixty-two counties in the State of New York. ... This List of cities in New York State, USA, is an alphabetic list that also gives the primary county in which each city is located. ... As of the 2000 census, there are 932 towns in the state of New York. ... List of villages in New York, arranged in alphabetical order. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ...

External links

New York State government links

General local government information

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A megabyte is a unit of information or computer storage equal to approximately one million bytes. ...

New York State Constitution

The articles of the New York State Constitution [5] which most closely affect local government are:

New York State Consolidated Laws

The New York State Consolidated Laws [6] which most closely affect local government are

Other links

Flag of New York State of New York
History | Education | Politics | People | Authorities | Political subdivisions | Towns | Villages
Capital Albany
Regions

Adirondack Mountains | Capital District | Catskill Mountains | Central | Finger Lakes | The Holland Purchase | Hudson Valley | Long Island | Mohawk Valley | North Country | Shawangunks | Southern Tier | Upstate | Western It has been suggested that The Poetry Collection be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_York. ... A state of the United States (U.S. state) is any one of the fifty states, four of which officially favor the term commonwealth which, along with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... The Dutch were the first European settlers in the colony known as New Netherland (Nova Belgica in Latin). ... The Politics of New York State tend to be more left-leaning than in most of the rest of the United States, with in recent decades a solid majority of Democratic voters, concentrated in New York City and its suburbs, and in the cities of Buffalo, Rochester and Albany. ... New York State public benefit corporations and authorities operate like quasi-private corporations, generally with boards appointed by elected officials. ... As of the 2000 census, there are 932 towns in the state of New York. ... List of villages in New York, arranged in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of United States state capitals: Trivia - Jefferson City (Missouri) has the longest name of the U.S. state capitals - Only two of the U.S. state capitals are named for their state: Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Indianapolis, Indiana retard See also List of current and former... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Albany County Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 56. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... Eagle Lake, Adirondack region The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, and Warren counties. ... The Capital District (or Capital-Saratoga Area) is a term that refers to four counties that surrounds the Capital of New York and includes the counties of Schenectady County, Albany County, Saratoga County and Rensselaer County. ... Catskill Escarpment and Blackhead Range as seen from Overlook Mountain The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills) a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are not, despite their popular name, true geological mountains, but rather a mature dissected plateau... Central New York is a term used to describe the central region of Upstate New York, roughly including the following counties and cities: The region has a population of about 1,112,646. ... New Yorks Finger Lakes The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York, mainly linear in shape, each lake oriented on a north-south axis. ... Map of the Holland Purchase The Holland Land Company was formed in 1796 by Wilheim Willink and a group of fellow Dutch bankers to purchase from Robert Morris a large tract of land in what is now western New York State, an area later known as the Holland Purchase. ... For the magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine). ... Mercator projection of Long Island Long Island is an island in New York, at 1,377 square miles (3567 km²) the largest island in the continental United States, and with 7. ... The six-county Mohawk Valley Region of the USA includes the industrialized cities of Utica and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. ... The North Country describes the extreme northern frontier of the United States state of New York, bordering Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River (across from the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec), Vermont, and the Adirondack Mountains. ... Shawangunk Ridge from south of New Paltz, N.Y. The Shawangunk Ridge (also known as the Shawangunk Mountains, or The Gunks) is a ridge of mountains in Ulster County, Sullivan County and Orange County in the state of New York, extending from the northernmost point of New Jersey to the... The Southern Tier is a geographical term that refers to the counties of upstate New York State west of the Catskill Mountains along the northern border of Pennsylvania, with the exception of the counties in the far west of the state near the city of Buffalo. ... Upstate New York is the region of New York State outside of the core of the New York metropolitan area. ... Western New York refers to the westernmost counties of New York State, roughly the area included in the Holland Purchase. ...

Metropolitan areas

Albany/Schenectady/Troy | Binghamton | Buffalo/Niagara Falls | Elmira/Corning | Ithaca/Cortland | Jamestown | New York | Poughkeepsie/Kingston/Newburgh | Plattsburgh | Rochester | Syracuse | Utica/Rome | Watertown This List of cities in New York State, USA, is an alphabetic list that also gives the primary county in which each city is located. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Albany County Mayor Gerald D. Jennings Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 56. ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city located in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ... Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy. ... Binghamton is a city in upstate New York in the United States. ... Official website: Buffalo, NY Location Location of Buffalo in New York State Government County Erie County Mayor Byron Brown Geographical characteristics Area Total 136. ... American Falls, one of the three falls that make up Niagara Falls, is located in the city. ... Elmira is a city located in Chemung County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 30,940. ... Corning is a city located in Steuben County, New York, United States. ... It has been suggested that Ithaca Commons be merged into this article or section. ... Cortland is a city in Cortland County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 18,740. ... Jamestown is a city located in Chautauqua County, New York in the USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 31,730. ... Nickname: The Big Apple Official website: City of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area Total 468. ... Poughkeepsies Mid-Hudson Bridge Poughkeepsie is a city in New York, USA and serves as the county seat of Dutchess County, located in the Hudson River Valley roughly midway between New York City and Albany. ... Kingston is a city located in Ulster County, New York, United States. ... Newburgh is a city located in Orange County, New York. ... Plattsburgh is a city located in Clinton County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 18,816. ... A portion of Rochesters skyline, looking north along the Genesee River from the Ford Street Bridge. ... Aerial View of Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ... This article is about Utica in New York, USA. For other places with this name, see Utica. ... Rome is a city located in Oneida County, New York. ... Watertown is a city located in Jefferson County, New York. ...

Counties

Albany | Allegany | Bronx | Broome | Cattaraugus | Cayuga | Chautauqua | Chemung | Chenango | Clinton | Columbia | Cortland | Delaware | Dutchess | Erie | Essex | Franklin | Fulton | Genesee | Greene | Hamilton | Herkimer | Jefferson | Kings (Brooklyn) | Lewis | Livingston | Madison | Monroe | Montgomery | Nassau | New York (Manhattan) | Niagara | Oneida | Onondaga | Ontario | Orange | Orleans | Oswego | Otsego | Putnam | Queens | Rensselaer | Richmond (Staten Island) | Rockland | Saint Lawrence | Saratoga | Schenectady | Schoharie | Schuyler | Seneca | Steuben | Suffolk | Sullivan | Tioga | Tompkins | Ulster | Warren | Washington | Wayne | Westchester | Wyoming | Yates List of New York counties Map of the counties of New York State (click for larger version) Albany County: formed in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties. ... Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ... Allegany County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Main article: New York City The Bronx is one of the five boroughs of New York City in the United States. ... Broome County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Cattaraugus County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1799 Seat Auburn Area  - Total  - Water 2,237 km² (864 mi²) 441 km² (170 mi²) 19. ... Chautauqua County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Chemung County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Chenango County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Clinton County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Cortland County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Delaware County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Dutchess County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Erie County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Essex County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Franklin County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Fulton County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Genesee County, New York - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Greene County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Hamilton County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Herkimer County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1805 Seat Watertown Area  - Total  - Water 4,810 km² (1,857 mi²) 1,515 km² (585 mi²) 31. ... Main article: New York City A map of New York City, highlighting Brooklyn. ... Lewis County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Livingston County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Madison County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1821 Seat Rochester Area  - Total  - Water 3,537 km² (1,366 mi²) 15 km² (6 mi²) 51. ... Montgomery County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Nassau County is a county located outside New York City in the state of New York. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1808 Seat Lockport Area  - Total  - Water 2,952 km² (1,140 mi²) 1,598 km² (617 mi²) 54. ... Oneida County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1794 Seat Syracuse Area  - Total  - Water 2,087 km² (806 mi²) 66 km² (25 mi²) 3. ... Ontario County is a county located in the state of New York. ... The Orange County Government Center in Goshen, N.Y., designed by Paul Rudolph. ... Orleans County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Oswego County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Otsego County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Putnam County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is the largest in area and second most populous of the five boroughs of New York City. ... Rensselaer County is a county in the state of New York. ... Staten Island lies to the southwest of the rest of New York City. ... Rockland County is a county located in the state of New York. ... St. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1791 Seat Ballston Spa Area  - Total  - Water 2,185 km² (844 mi²) 83 km² (32 mi²) 3. ... Location in the state of New York Formed 1809 Seat Schenectady Area  - Total  - Water 543 km² (210 mi²) 9 km² (4 mi²) 1. ... Schoharie County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Schuyler County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Seneca County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Steuben County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Sullivan County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Tioga County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Tompkins County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the states beautiful Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. ... Warren County is a county in the state of New York. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Wayne County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Westchester County is a suburban county with about 940,000 residents located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Wyoming County is a county located in the state of New York. ... Yates County is a county located in the state of New York. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
New York State GTSC Overview (1770 words)
By statute, the Committee is comprised of the heads of the thirteen state agencies with missions related to transportation and safety.
Projects to be conducted with the support of funding from the National Highway Safety Program are included in the New York State's Highway Safety Strategic Plan, which is prepared annually and submitted to NHTSA for approval prior to the beginning of federal fiscal year.
State agencies, political subdivisions of the state, such as counties, towns, villages or not-for-profit organizations that have oversight for highway safety or serve a population that is in need of highway safety program services that could be delivered by the applicant may apply.
New York State | OFT (0 words)
State government entities shall be required to collect and furnish data to OFT and the User Group reflecting administrative and fiscal costs associated with using and maintaining such common standards or existing systems.
Unless otherwise set forth in the standard, state government entities can continue to use their existing system for the remainder of the then-current life cycle or until such entity has a need for design and implementation of a major upgrade of a existing system.
Where a state government entity requests an exemption from a preferred technology standard, such request shall be filed in writing with OFT at least ten (10) weeks in advance of the need to undertake a major upgrade.
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