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Encyclopedia > Political spectrum

A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. It does this by placing them upon one or more geometric axes symbolizing political dimensions that it models as being independent of one another. “Political Parties” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Syncretic Politics involve taking political positions that attempt to reconcile seemingly opposed ideological systems, usually by combining some elements associated with the left with some associated with the right. ... A party platform, also known as an manifesto is a list of the principles which a political party supports in order to appeal to the general public for the purpose of having said partys candidates voted into office. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ... The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is an overview of political parties by country, in the form of a table with a link to a list of political parties in each country and showing which party system is dominant in each country . ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a lists of political parties by United Nations geoscheme around the world in the form of a list to the pages for each region. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Calabi-Yau manifold Geometry (Greek γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, and relative position of figures and with properties of space. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ...

Contents

Determining political spectra

The key assumption of such a spectrum is that people's opinions on many issues correlate strongly, or that one essential issue subsumes or dominates all others. For a political spectrum to exist, there must be a range of beliefs. Political systems in which most people fall clearly into one group or another with almost no one in between, such as most nationalist controversies, are not well described by a political spectrum. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ...


In Iran, for instance, a political spectrum might be separated along the issue of the clergy's role in government. Those who believe clerics should have the power to enforce Islamic law are on one end of the spectrum, while those who support a secular society are on the other; moderates fall at various points in between. In Taiwan, the political spectrum is defined in terms of Chinese reunification versus Taiwan independence. Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Chinese (re)unification (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a goal of Chinese nationalism that refers to the reunification of all of Greater China under a single political entity. ... Taiwan independence (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Pe̍h-oē-jī: Tâi-oân To̍k-li̍p ūn-tōng; abbreviated to 台獨, Táidú, Tâi-to̍k) is a political movement whose goal is primarily to create an independent and sovereign Republic of Taiwan out of the...


Even in issues of nationalism, spectra can exist; for example, in the Basque Country of Spain, Basque nationalists range from the EAJ/PNV, who have engaged in coalition governments with both the socialist PSOE and the conservative Partido Popular, to ETA, which has engaged in armed struggle against the Spanish national government, which they view as an occupying power. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the largest right-wing political party in Spain. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ...


Political spectra can end when one group wins so thoroughly that there is no longer a divergence of opinions. This occurred in the 1960s during the Cultural Revolution in the People's Republic of China in the case between the rightists and the leftists in which the leftists won, or in the late 18th century controversy between the Federalists and the Anti-federalists in the United States. Often in this situation the winners start disagreeing over new issues, and a new political spectrum is created. In some cases, the defeated side can re-appear after several years or several decades, and start the controversy anew. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Anti-Federalist Party, though not a true political party, but a faction, left a major legacy on the country by initiating the Bill of Rights. ...


At other times the political spectrum remains, while the issues which define the spectrum change. The controversy over the selection of William of Orange's successor to the English throne helped to define the British political spectrum which exists to this day, long after the original controversy was resolved.


In some cases, especially in democratic countries without a "first past the post" voting system, multiple spectra can co-exist. For example, from its founding in 1901 to 1909, Australian politics had three poles, each centred on a strong political party: the Free Trade Party, the Protectionist Party and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), a situation that Alfred Deakin referred to as the "game of three elevens". However, by 1909, the Free Traders and Protectionists had merged to become the Liberal Party, in order to negate the ALP (which had also adopted protectionist policies). This continuum remains dominant in federal Australian politics. The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Australia is a federation and a constitutional monarchy, with a written Constitution governing the relationship between the national government (usually referred to as the Commonwealth) and the states. ... The Free Trade Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... The Protectionist Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alfred William Deakin (3 August 1856 – 7 October 1919), Australian politician, was a leader of the movement for Australian federation and later second Prime Minister of Australia. ... For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... The Commonwealth Liberal Party, usually called The Fusion, was a political movement active in Australia shortly after federation. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ...


Left and Right

Main article: Left-Right politics

In modern Western countries, the political spectrum is usually described along left-right lines, based on the seating of the liberal and conservative members of the Legislative Assembly of France in 1791, where liberal and conservative were partly defined by attitudes towards the ancien regime. (See section Historical origin of the terms.) This traditional political spectrum has come to be defined along an axis with socialism and communism, ("the Left") on one end, and nationalism and Fascism ("the Right") on the other. Free market liberalism is generally considered to be center-right; new liberalism or social liberalism is generally assigned to the center, center-left or sometimes (when viewed by conservatives) the left. Christian Democracy may be anywhere from center-right to center-left, depending on the country and era. When the left/right spectrum emerged in the early French revolutionary era the now familiar extremes of communism on the left and fascism on the right were simply not present, and leftwardness and rightwardness were based on one's attitude towards the traditional monarchic style of government. The original laissez faire capitalist "left" would now generally be considered part of the right. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... New liberalism (also called modern liberalism or American liberalism) is a political philosophy that argues for the idea that society has the responsibility of guaranteeing equal opportunities for each of its citizens. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ...


National and cultural differences in the use of the terms left and right are common. In China, left and right have referred to different positions at different times, although the issues were often very different from those in Western nations.


Multiplicity of interpretations of the left-right axis

There are various different opinions about what is actually being measured along this axis, and lines often blur among parties. For more detail see the main article Left-Right politics. While some of these are consistent ways to differentiate between left and right, some of these may be false dichotomies: Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into False dilemma. ...

  • Public control of the means of production (left), or private control of the means of production (right).
  • Workers' self-management (left), or employment (right).
  • Redistribution of wealth and income (left), or acceptance of inequalities as a result of the free market (right).
  • Whether the government's policy on the economy should be interventionist (left) or laissez-faire (right).
  • Support for widened lifestyle choices (left), or support for traditional values (right).
  • Whether human nature is more malleable (left) or intrinsic (right).
  • Whether an individual's locus of control is more external (left) or internal (right).
  • Personal philosophy and liberal spiritualism (left) versus traditional religious morality (right).
  • Collectivism (left) versus individualism (right).
  • Support for internationalism (left), or national interest (right).
  • Support for globalization (left), or cultural and economic autonomy (right).
  • Belief in class conflict (left), or in class collaboration/class ambivalence (right).

These definitions are further blurred by the difference in practice of left and right policies, for example the "leftist" nationalism of Latin America, the "rightist" corporate protectionist policies of the United States, and the existence of ideologies like anarchism, which sometimes seem to fit in both left and right categories and sometimes fit in neither. Worker self-management (or autogestion) is a form of workplace decision-making in which the employees themselves agree on choices (for issues like customer care, general production methods, scheduling, division of labour etc. ... This article is about work. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


Historical origin of the terms

The terms Left and Right refer to political affiliations which originated early in the French Revolutionary era, and referred originally to the seating arrangements in the various legislative bodies of France. The aristocracy sat on the right of the Speaker (traditionally the seat of honor) and the commoners sat on the Left, hence the terms Right-wing politics and Left-wing politics. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This is a glossary of the French Revolution. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ...


Originally, the defining point on the ideological spectrum was the ancien régime ("old order"). "The Right" thus implied support for aristocratic or royal interests, and the church, while "The Left" implied opposition to the same. Because the political franchise at the start of the revolution was relatively narrow, the original "Left" represented mainly the interests of the bourgeoisie, the rising capitalist class. At that time, support for laissez-faire capitalism and Free markets were counted as being on the left; today in most Western countries these views would be characterized as being on the Right. Similarly, the opposition to capitalism was counted as being as "Right-wing", whereas now it is likely to be characterised as "Left-wing". Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


As the franchise expanded over the next several years, it became clear that there was something to the left of that original "Left": the precursors of socialism and communism, advocating the interests of wage-earners and peasants. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Alternative spectra

While the right-left spectrum is so common as to be taken for granted, numerous alternatives exist, usually having been developed by people who feel their views are not fairly represented on the traditional right-left spectrum. The design of a spectrum itself can be politically motivated. One alternative spectrum offered by the conservative American Federalist Journal emphasizes the degree of political control, and thus places totalitarianism at one extreme and anarchism (no government at all) at the other extreme. Another alternative, currently popular among certain environmentalists, uses a single axis to measure what they consider to be the good of the Earth against the good of big business, which is seen as being the force most likely to harm the Earth. Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Bold textHello ...


In 1998, political author Virginia Postrel, in her book The Future and Its Enemies, offered a new single axis spectrum that measures one's view of the future. On one extreme are those who allegedly fear the future and wish to control it: stasists. On the other hand are those who want the future to unfold naturally and without attempts to plan and control: dynamists. The distinction corresponds to the utopian versus dystopian spectrum used in some theoretical assessments of liberalism, and the book's title is borrowed from the work of the anti-utopian classic-liberal theorist Karl Popper. Virginia Postrel is a political and cultural writer of broadly libertarian, or classical liberal, views. ... The Future and Its Enemies is a 1998 book by Virginia Postrel where she describes the growing conflict in post-Cold War society. ... See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society. ... Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, FRS, FBA, (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian and British[1] philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics. ...


The political philosopher Charles Blattberg has argued that the spectrum is best understood as based upon different ways of responding to conflict: conversation (left), negotiation (centre), or force (right). (Blattberg 2001, p.20 et.seq.) Charles Blattberg Charles Blattberg (born 1967 in Toronto, Canada) is a professor of political philosophy at the Université de Montréal. ...


Other axes include:

  • Focus of political concern: Communitarianism vs. Individualism. This axis is often considered perpendicular to the left-right axis in popular multi-axis charts (often rendered "populism" vs. "libertarianism"), but is a legitimate axis in itself, comparing a focus on the community vs. a focus on the individual. This language is preferred to the prejudiced language of "totalitarianism" (anti-freedom) vs. "libertarianism" (pro-freedom), because one can have a political focus on the community without being totalitarian and undemocratic (see the Nolan chart below). Christian Democracy is a political philosophy that would be counted as communitarian on this axis, but is not totalitarian or undemocratic.
  • Role of the church: Clericalism vs. Anti-clericalism. This axis is less significant in the United States (where views of the role of religion tend to be subsumed into the general left-right axis) than in Europe (where clericalism versus anti-clericalism is much less correlated with the left-right spectrum).
  • Urban vs. Rural: This axis may be the most useful and significant today in European as well as Australian and Canadian politics. The Urban vs. Rural axis was equally prominent in the United States' political past, but its importance is debatable at present. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, it would have been described as the conflict between Hamiltonian Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Democrats.
  • Foreign policy: interventionism (the nation should exert power abroad to implement its policy) vs. non-interventionism (the nation should keep to its own affairs); similarly, multilateralism (coordination of policies with other countries) vs. isolationism and unilateralism
  • Relations with individual states or groups of states may also be vital to party politics. During the Cold War, parties often had to choose a position on a scale between pro-American and pro-Soviet, although this could at times closely match a left-right spectrum. At other times in history relations with other powerful states has been important. In early Canadian history relations with Britain were a central theme, although this was not "foreign policy" but a debate over the proper place of Canada within the British Empire.
  • Political violence: pacifism (political views should not be imposed by violent force) vs. militancy (violence is a legitimate or necessary means of political expression). In North America, holders of these views are often referred to as "doves" and "hawks", respectively.
  • Foreign trade: globalization (world economic markets should become integrated and interdependent) vs. autarky (the nation or polity should strive for economic independence). During the early history of the Commonwealth of Australia, this was the major political continuum. At that time it was called Free trade vs. Protectionism.
  • Trade Freedom vs. Trade Equity: Free trade (businesses should be able trade across borders without regulations) vs. Fair trade (international trade should be regulated on behalf of social justice).
  • Diversity: multiculturalism (the nation should represent a diversity of cultural ideas) vs. assimilationism or nationalism (the nation should primarily represent, or forge, a majority culture)
  • Participation: Democracy (rule of the majority, or mob rule) vs. Aristocracy (rule by the enlightened) vs. Tyranny (total degradation of Aristocracy, ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle recognized tyranny as a state in which the tyrant is ruled by utter passion, and not reason like the philosopher, resulting in the tyrant pursuing his own desires rather than the common good.)
  • Freedom: Positive liberty (having rights which impose an obligation on others) vs. Negative liberty (having rights which prohibit interference by others)
  • Social Power: Fascism vs. Anarchy (Control vs. No Control) Analyzes the fundamental political interaction between people, and between individuals and their environment. Often posits the existence of a 'moderate' system as existing between the two extremes.
  • Change: radicals (who believe in rapid change) and progressives (who believe in measured , incremental change) vs. reactionaries (who believe in changing things to the way they were) and conservatives (who believe in minimal or cautious change).
  • Origin of state authority: popular sovereignty (the state as a creation of the people, with enumerated, delegated powers) vs. various forms of absolutism and organic state philosophy (the state as an original and essential authority)
  • International action: Multilateralism (states should cooperate and compromise) versus Unilateralism (states have a strong, even unconditional, right to make their own decisions).
  • Levels of sovereignty: for example unionism vs. federalism vs. separatism; or centralism vs. regionalism. Especially important in societies where strong regional or ethnic identities are political issues.

Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Christian democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Clericalism is the application of the formal, church-based, leadership or opinion of ordained clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757–July 12, 1804) was an Army officer, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, financier and political theorist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale in 1800. ... In politics, interventionism is a term for significant activity undertaken by a state to influence something not directly under its control. ... Nonintervention or Non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations and avoid all wars not related to direct territorial self-defense. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... War Hawk is a term originally used to describe a member of the House of Representatives of the Twelfth Congress of the United States (usually from the south & southwest) who advocated going to war against Great Britain in the War of 1812. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A hive mind (sometimes spelled hivemind) is a form of collective consciousness strongly exhibiting traits of conformity and groupthink. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... // [edit] Primary Passions The Stoics named four primary passions. ... Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Anarchy (from Greek: anarchía, no authority) has a popular meaning of disorder[1]. However it has a more precise meaning in political philosophy to describe any human society which exists without a state. ... Radical Left can refer to: 18th century Radicalism was a separate ideology, which was absorbed into liberalism and socialism. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Pooybuttpular sovereignty is the doctrine that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... Centralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... Regionalism could be Regionalism (politics) Regionalism (literature) Regionalism (art) Regionalism (linguistics) Category: ...

Multi-axis models

A one-axis model is highly over-simplified, and lumps together fairly different political propositions; in particular, as seen before, there are many ways to define the left-right spectrum, which do not yield the same classifications.


Several of the political philosophies that have arisen over the past two centuries do not fit on the one-dimensional left/right line, in particular anarchism and libertarianism. Anarchism is assumed to be "left", while Libertarianism is assumed to be "right". However, on the one-dimensional spectrum, anarchism shares almost the same position as various forms of Marxism, which is obviously inappropriate. Anarcho-capitalism implies the rejection of government and allow individuals to have total control, while Leninism and other forms of Marxism imply the control by society of many activities, though most anarchists do not consider Anarcho-capitalism to be a form of anarchism. At the other end of the left/right line, Libertarianism finds itself in the same position as fascism, which is equally inappropriate. Anarchist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Anarcho-capitalism refers to an anti-statist philosophy that embraces capitalism as one of its foundational principles. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ...


In order to address these problems, a number of proposals have been made for a two-axis system, which combines two models of the political spectrum as axes. Sometimes these systems are constructed for the specific purpose of placing one political group in a particular position, and associating it with motherhood values (values with 100% positive connotations). These charts are academic in origin, but are not widely used in political science. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ...


Hans Eysenck, in his book Sense and Nonsense in Psychology (1956), proposed a two-axis system to explain political values. Rather than devising a political model on purely theoretical grounds, Eysenck submitted value questionnaires to the process of factor analysis, finding two factors, the first of which was easily identified as the classical "left-right" dimension, and the second of which he labeled as "tough-mindedness" versus "tender-mindedness." Tough-minded conservatives distinguished themselves from tender-minded conservatives in their heightened support for militarism and harsh punishment and their less favorable attitudes towards religion. Tough-minded radicals were more likely to favor easier divorce laws and fewer restrictions on birth control and abortion, whereas tender-minded radicals were more interested in pacifism and racial equality. Hans Eysenck Hans Jürgen Eysenck (March 4, 1916 - September 4, 1997) was an eminent psychologist, most remembered for his work on intelligence and personality, though he worked in a wide range of areas. ... Factor analysis is a statistical data reduction technique used to explain variability among observed random variables in terms of fewer unobserved random variables called factors. ...


Eysenck's model was criticized because virtually no values were found to load only on the tough/tender dimension, and also because his interpretation of tough-mindedness as a manifestation of "authoritarian" versus tender-minded "democratic" values was incompatible with opposing theorists' conception of authoritarianism as being related to conservatism. Furthermore, the theory which Eysenck developed to explain individual variation in the observed dimensions, relating tough-mindedness to Extroversion and Psychoticism, did not stand up well to research. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P-E-N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality. ...


Yet the two political dimensions themselves had also been discovered by Ferguson acting in America. In 1939 Ferguson carried out his own analysis using ten scales measuring attitudes toward war, reality of God, patriotism, treatment of criminals, capital punishment, censorship, evolution, birth control, law, and communism. His factor analysis also identified two factors; the first factor, which Ferguson named Religionism, was defined by belief in God and negative attitude toward evolution and birth control, while the orthogonal factor of Humanitarianism was related to attitudes toward the treatment of criminals, capital punishment and war. Simply rotating these two factors 45 degrees renders the tough/tender and left/right axes identified by Eysenck in Britain.


Analyses in countries other than Britain and the United States returned interesting results. This two-factor model was supported by factor analyses of values in France, although here the tough/tender axis was found to explain even more variance in attitudes than the left/right dimension, whereas in the United States and Britain most of the political variance was subsumed by the left/right axis. In the Middle East, this trend is even more pronounced, as Eysenck reports in his 1956 work: "Among mid-Eastern Arabs it has been found that while the tough-minded-tender-minded dimension is still clearly expressed in the relationships observed between different attitudes there is nothing that corresponds to the radical-conservative continuum."


Political compass

Main article: political compass

The political compass largely follows the Eysenck method with the two-axes representing economic issues as right-vs-left and issues of freedom as authoritarian-vs-liberal. One can determine their position on the political compass through a popular online quiz by the same name. The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ... The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ...


Greenberg & Jonas: Left-Right, Ideological Rigidity

In a 2003 Psychological Bulletin paper,[1] Jeff Greenberg and Eva Jonas posit a model comprising the standard left-right axis and an axis representing ideological rigidity. For Greenberg and Jonas, ideological rigidity has "much in common with the related concepts of dogmatism and authoritarianism" and is characterized by "believing in strong leaders and submission, preferring one’s own in-group, ethnocentrism and nationalism, aggression against dissidents, and control with the help of police and military." Greenberg and Jonas posit that high ideological rigidity can be motivated by "particularly strong needs to reduce fear and uncertainty" and is a primary shared characteristic of "people who subscribe to any extreme government or ideology, whether it is right-wing or left-wing." Psychological Bulletin is a scholarly journal specializing in literature reviews. ...


UK Inferred Model: Left-Right, Political Pragmatism

While multiple axes on the political spectrum had been postulated for a while, statistical analysis of survey data using principal component analysis to verify the theory and establish their existence, number and meaning was not done until recently. A 2003 study in the UK yielded two significant eigenvectors (that is, groups of questions that tend to be answered consistently), one less well-constrained than the other. If one examines the survey questions and tries to assign a meaning to the axes it turns out that one is like the familiar "left-right" axis that mixes economic and social issues, and the other indicates a degree of political pragmatism. The outcome of that study is that the UK political spectrum is most sensibly described with two axes. [1] [2] In statistics, principal components analysis (PCA) is a technique that can be used to simplify a dataset; more formally it is a linear transformation that chooses a new coordinate system for the data set such that the greatest variance by any projection of the data set comes to lie on... In linear algebra, the eigenvectors (from the German eigen meaning inherent, characteristic) of a linear operator are non-zero vectors which, when operated on by the operator, result in a scalar multiple of themselves. ...


Nolan: Economic freedom, Personal freedom

Main article: Nolan chart

A second chart is the Nolan chart, created by libertarian David Nolan. This chart shows what he considers as "economic freedom" (issues like taxation, free trade and free enterprise) on the horizontal axis and what he considers as "personal freedom" (issues like drug legalization, abortion and the draft) on the vertical axis. This puts left-wingers in the left quadrant, libertarians in the top, right-wingers in the right, and communitarians (whom Nolan originally named populists) in the bottom. It is possible to consider the Nolan chart to be an Eysenck model that has been rotated 90 degrees. The popular "diamond" presentation of the Nolan chart makes this particular comparison readily apparent. Image File history File links Nolan-chart. ... Image File history File links Nolan-chart. ... The Nolan Chart is a political diagram popularized by the American libertarian David Nolan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Worlds Smallest Political Quiz The Worlds Smallest Political Quiz is a 10-question quiz designed as an outreach and educational tool by the Advocates for Self-Government, created by Marshall Fritz. ... The Nolan Chart is a political diagram popularized by the American libertarian David Nolan. ... The Nolan Chart is a political diagram popularized by the American libertarian David Nolan. ... David Fraser Nolan founded the Libertarian Party in 1971. ... The prohibition of drugs through legislation or religious law is a common means of controlling the perceived negative consequences of recreational drug use at a society- or world-wide level. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Libertarianism (disambiguation). ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The traditional left-right spectrum forms a diagonal across the Nolan chart, with communism and fascism both in the ultra-populist corner, an assignment hotly disputed by more liberal-minded communists who do not advocate state control over matters of personal freedom.


The Nolan chart has been reoriented and visually represented in many forms since David Nolan first created it, and has been the inspiration for an endless array of political self-quizzes, perhaps the most famous of these being the World's Smallest Political Quiz, which places one on the Diamond Chart. As of 2005 this quiz is being used in 420 schools. [3] It can be found in at least a dozen popular textbooks that feature the Quiz as part of their enhanced digital content. [4] In August 2000 Portrait of America did a telephone survey that was done using the same questions and scale. [5]. More recently, The Institute for Humane Studies has created Politopia, a quiz that is considered fairly accurate in comparison to many previous tests set forth before it.[citation needed] Worlds Smallest Political Quiz The Worlds Smallest Political Quiz is a 10-question quiz designed as an outreach and educational tool by the Advocates for Self-Government, created by Marshall Fritz. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in August, 2000. ...


Three Axis Variants

There are two three-axis models based on the Nolan Chart. The Friesian Institute has suggested a model that combines the economic liberty and personal liberty axes with positive liberty, creating a cube. The Vosem Chart splits the economic axis of the Nolan chart into two axes, corporate economics (z-axis) and individual economics (y-axis), which combine with the civil liberty axis (x-axis) to form a cube. Positive liberty is an idea that was first expressed and analyzed as a separate conception of liberty by John Stuart Mill but most notably described by Isaiah Berlin. ...


Hans Eysenck's later research also uncovered a dimension of capitalism versus socialism, contrasting with the social dimension of conservatism versus radicalism identified in his earlier research; an online quiz tests users on the three Eysenckian political dimensions. [6]


Pournelle: Liberty-Control, Irrationalism-Rationalism

The Pournelle chart
Main article: Pournelle chart

This very distinct two-axis model was created by Jerry Pournelle. The Pournelle chart has liberty (a dimension similar to the diagonal of the Nolan chart, with those on the left seeking liberty and those on the right focusing control, farthest right being state worship, farthest left being the idea of a state as the "ultimate evil") perpendicular to Rationalism, defined here as the belief in planned social progress, with those higher up believing that there are problems with society that can be rationally solved, and those lower down skeptical of such approaches. Pournelle chart colorized. ... Pournelle chart colorized. ... The Pournelle chart, developed by Jerry Pournelle (in his 1963 political science Ph. ... Jerry Eugene Pournelle, Ph. ... The Pournelle chart, developed by Jerry Pournelle (in his 1963 political science Ph. ... Liberty is generally considered a concept of political philosophy and identifies the condition in which an individual has immunity from the arbitrary exercise of authority. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


Inglehart: Tradition-Secular, Self Expression-Survivalist

In its January 4, 2003 issue, The Economist discussed a chart [7], proposed by Dr. Ronald Inglehart and supported by the World Values Survey (associated with the University of Michigan), to plot cultural ideology onto two dimensions. On the y-axis it covered issues of tradition and religion, like patriotism, abortion, euthanasia and the importance of obeying the law and authority figures. At the bottom of the chart is the traditionalist position on issues like these (with loyalty to country and family and respect for life considered important), while at the top is the secular position. The x-axis deals with self-expression, issues like everyday conduct and dress, acceptance of diversity (including foreigners) and innovation, and attitudes towards people with specific controversial lifestyles such as homosexuality and vegetarianism, as well as willingness to partake in political activism. At the right of the chart is the open self-expressionist position, while at the left is its opposite position, which Dr. Inglehart calls survivalist. This chart not only has the power to map the values of individuals, but also to compare the values of people in different countries. Placed on this chart, EU countries in continental Europe come out on the top right, Anglophone countries on the middle right, Latin American countries on the bottom right, African, Middle Eastern and South Asian countries on the bottom left, and ex-Communist countries on the top left. is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Political scientist, University of Michigan. ... The World Values Survey is an academic project by social scientists to assess the state of sociocultural and political values of different cultures around the world. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see animal euthanasia. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article refers to human nutrition and diet, for plant based diets in the animal kingdom see herbivore A variety of vegetarian food ingredients Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludes all animal flesh, including poultry, game, fish, shellfish or crustacea, and slaughter by-products. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ...


Political Survey 2005

Based on a March 2005 opinion poll of the whole British population. They claim that there are two different axes which are important in describing British people's political views. The first axis describes people's views on crime and punishment, Europe, and other transnational issues including immigration and international law. This is an identifiably left-right axis, but it is not the traditional left-right scale of economic views.


The second axis describes views on public and private involvement in the economy, international trade, redistributive taxation, and Iraq. People who believe in free markets are also likely to support the war in Iraq and prefer an American to a European model of government. This too might be called left-right, but questions about international relations and other issues are mixed in with the economic issues. [8]


Mitchell: Eight Ways to Run the Country

In his book Eight Ways to Run the Country: A New and Revealing Look at Left and Right (ISBN 0275993582) Brian Patrick Mitchell identifies four main political traditions in Anglo-American history (republican constitutionalism, libertarian individualism, progressive democracy, and plutocratic nationalism), which have given rise to eight distinct political perspectives: communitarian, progressive, radical, individualist, paleolibertarian, paleoconservative, theoconservative, and neoconservative. A potential ninth perspective, in midst of the eight, is populism, which is vaguely defined and situation dependent, having no fixed character other than opposition to the prevailing power. These perspectives vary according to their regard for kratos (the use of force) and arche (the recognition of rank). Mitchell roots his distinction of arche and kratos in the West's historical experience of church and state, crediting the collapse of the Christian consensus on church and state with the appearance of the four main traditions. Mitchell's vertical axis is a scale of kratos/akrateia; his horizontal axis is a scale of archy/anarchy. Anarchy, for Mitchell, is not the absence of government, but the rejection of rank. Thus there can be both anti-government anarchists (left-libertarians, whom Mitchell calls libertarian individualists) and pro-government anarchists (Mitchell's progressive democrats, who use government against social hierarchies such as patriarchy). Mitchell also distinguishes between left-wing anarchists and right-wing anarchists, whom Mitchell renames akratists.


References

  • Charles Blattberg Political Philosophies and Political Ideologies (PDF); online, previous version published in Public Affairs Quarterly 15, No. 3 (July 2001) 193–217.

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

See also

The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... The Nolan Chart is a political diagram popularized by the American libertarian David Nolan. ... The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organization A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ... The word spectrum (plural, spectra) has many uses: // Common nouns The Spectrum article explains why so many things are called by this name The spectrum of activity of a drug The political spectrum of opinion The economic spectrum The bipolar spectrum, in psychology The autistic spectrum, in psychology In the... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Left-Right politics or the Left-Right political spectrum is a common way of classifying political positions, political ideologies, or political parties along a one-dimensional political spectrum. ... Syncretic Politics involve taking political positions that attempt to reconcile seemingly opposed ideological systems, usually by combining some elements associated with the left with some associated with the right. ... Worlds Smallest Political Quiz The Worlds Smallest Political Quiz is a 10-question quiz designed as an outreach and educational tool by the Advocates for Self-Government, created by Marshall Fritz. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... Created by Max Barry, Jennifer Government: NationStates is a game on the World Wide Web that is based on, and is a promotional tool for, his novel Jennifer Government. ...

External links

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Political spectrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3056 words)
Political systems in which most people fall clearly into one group or another with almost no one in between, such as most nationalist controversies, are not well described by a political spectrum.
In Iran, for instance, a political spectrum might be divided along the issue of the clergy's role in government.
While multiple axes on the political spectrum had been postulated for a while, statistical analysis of survey data using principal component analysis to verify the theory and establish their existence, number and meaning was not done until recently.
Political compass - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (288 words)
A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions.
The underlying principle of the Political Compass is that political views may be measured along two separate and independent axes.
The other axis (Authoritarian-Libertarian) purports to measure one's political opinions in a "Social" (as distinct from "Economic") sense, regarding a view of the appropriate amount of "personal freedom": "Libertarianism" is defined as the belief that personal freedom should be maximized, while "Authoritarianism" is defined as the belief that authority and tradition should be obeyed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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