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Encyclopedia > Political science

Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Consent of the governed is a political theory that says a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Comparative politics is a huge subfield of political science that studies the various forms of government found throughout the world. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... It has been suggested that Balance of powers be merged into this article or section. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Voting is a method of decision making where in a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political campaign is an organized effort to influence the decision making process within a group. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ...


Topics in Political Science include political theory and philosophy, political concepts, political systems, ideology, game theory, electoral-voting systems, psephology (voting theory and electoral statistical analysis), geopolitics and political geography, political economy, policy studies and public policy analysis, comparative politics/cross-national political analysis, national political systems (eg, centralisation, regionalism, federalism, core-periphery studies, nation-state analysis etc), international political systems (eg, supranationalism, intergovernmentalism, military alliances, hegemony studies), globalisation studies, political development, postcolonialism studies, institutional theory, international relations, foreign policy analysis, peace studies, conflict analysis, strategic studies, diplomacy studies, international law and politics, public administration and local government studies, political party and coalition analysis, political psychology, political sociology and socialisation studies, micropolitical/behavioural analysis, political history, interest group/pressure group/lobby politics (especially environmental politics/political ecology), bureaucractic studies, administrative and judicial behaviour, legislative processes and public law. Political Science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and also superpowers. Political Science is methodologically diverse. Approaches to the discipline include classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behavioralism, rationalism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, survey research, statistical analysis, case studies, and formal model building. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... A political system is a social system of politics and government. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Psephology is a term for the statistical study of elections. ... Voters at the voting booths in the US in 1945 Voting systems are methods (algorithms) for groups of people to select one or more options from many, taking into account the individual preferences of the group members. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... Political geography is a field of human geography that is concerned with politics. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Policy analysis or Policy studies is the systematic evaluation of alternative means of achieving social and public policy goals. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Comparative politics is a huge subfield of political science that studies the various forms of government found throughout the world. ... Centralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. ... Regionalism could be Regionalism (politics) Regionalism (literature) Regionalism (art) Regionalism (linguistics) Category: ... Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Core-Periphery Theory is based on the notion that as one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, wherein power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... Intergovernmentalism is a theory of decision-making in international organizations, where power is possessed by the member-states and decisions are made by unanimity. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... Post-colonialism refers to the intellectual field opened up by Edward Saids book Orientalism. ... New institutionalism describes social theory that focuses on developing a sociological view of institutions, the way they interact and the effects of institutions on society. ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Foreign policy analysis (FPA) is the systematic study of and research into the processes and theories of foreign policy. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state or province. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Political psychology is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to the study of the psychology behind political behavior by voters, lawmakers, local and national governments and administrations, international organizations, political parties and associations. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... In psychology, socialization is the process by which children and others adopt the behavior patterns of the culture that surrounds them. ... Behaviorism is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors, and as such can be explained scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events in the brain or to non-physiological events... Political history is what most people refer to simply as history. ... An interest group (also called an advocacy group, lobbying group, pressure group (UK), or special interest) is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ... An advocacy group, interest group or lobbying group is a group, however loosely or tightly organized, doing advocacy: those determined to encourage or prevent changes in public policy without trying to be elected. ... A lobby can be: An entryway or waiting area, such as a foyer, from the Latin word lobium, or vestibule. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... A superpower exerts economic, political, cultural and military influence around the globe using hard powers and soft powers. ... Interpretivism in the social sciences refers to a method, or group of methods, that holds that the social sciences ought to be concerned, not simply with quantifying what actually happens in social phenomena, but in providing an interpretation of events and phenomena in terms of how the people involved understand... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Behavioralism (not to be confused with the learning theory, behaviorism) is a political science discipline associated with the rise of the behavioral sciences, modeled after the natural sciences, which seeks to provide a value free, quantified approach to understanding and predicting political behavior. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey, 286). ... It has been suggested that Defensive realism be merged into this article or section. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism Pluralism is, in the general sense, the affirmation and acceptance of diversity. ... Institutionalism can refer to: Institutionalism: Hierarchical organized social structures, using tactical division to divide the work force, paying wages less than needed, to pay even basic living costs, believing their own rhetoric and propaganda, serving the pinnacle position to the detriment of the whole, group think, gone mad. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Statistics is the science and practice of developing knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Case studies involve a particular method of research. ...

Contents

History

Antecedents of political science While the study of politics is first found in the Western tradition in Ancient Greece, political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. ...

Antecedents

Political science is a late arrival in terms of social sciences. However, the discipline has a clear set of antecedents such as moral philosophy, political philosophy, political economy, history, and other fields concerned with normative determinations of what ought to be and with deducing the characteristics and functions of the ideal state. In each historic period and in almost every geographic area, we can find someone studying politics and increasing political understanding. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ... There are several meanings for the word deduction: Natural deduction Deductive reasoning Deductions in terms of taxation, such as Itemized deductions Standard deduction See also: Logic Venn diagram Inductive reasoning Both statistics and the scientific method rely on both induction and deduction. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ...


In ancient India, the antecedents of politics can be traced back to the Rig-Veda, Samhitas, Brahmanas, and Buddhist Pali Canon. Chanakya (c. 350-275 BC) was a professor of political science at Takshashila University, and later the Prime Minister of Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. Chanakya is regarded as one of the earliest political thinkers, and is also known as the Indian Machiavelli. He wrote the Arthashastra, which was one of the earliest treatises on political thought, economics and social order, and can be considered a precursor to Machiavelli's The Prince. It discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations, and war strategies in detail, among other topics on political science. The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit á¹›gveda from á¹›c praise + veda knowledge) is a collection of hymns(each hymn is called a Rucha.) counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language. ... The Samhita (Sanskrit: joined or collected) is the basic text of each of the Vedas, comprising collections of hymns and ritual texts. ... The Brahmana (Sanskrit ब्राह्मण) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion and a philosophy. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Chāṇakya The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty DVD cover of the popular eight-part series based on the Chanakya Chāṇakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... Takshashila University in ancient India was the worlds first university, dated from around 700 BCE. It was well known as an institution of higher learning in ancient India, attracting applicants from around the world who had to sit tough entrance examinations to be admitted. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: India Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य;sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born on c. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


The antecedents of Western politics can also trace their roots back even earlier than Plato and Aristotle, particularly in the works of Homer, Hesiod, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Euripides. Later, Plato analyzed political systems, abstracted their analysis from more literary- and history- oriented studies and applied an approach we would understand as closer to philosophy. Similarly, Aristotle built upon Plato's analysis to include historical empirical evidence in his analysis. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Homer (Greek: , Hómēros) was an early Greek poet and aoidos (rhapsode) traditionally credited with the composition of the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Ευριπίδης) (c. ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ...


During the rule of Rome, famous historians such as Polybius, Livy and Plutarch documented the rise of the Roman Republic, and the organization and histories of other nations, while statesmen like Julius Caesar, Cicero and others provided us with examples of the politics of the republic and Rome's empire and wars. The study of politics during this age was oriented toward understanding history, understanding methods of governing, and describing the operation of governments. Polybius (c. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ...


With the fall of the Roman Empire, there arose a more diffuse arena for political studies. The rise of monotheism and, particularly for the Western tradition, Christianity, brought to light a new space for politics and political action. During the Middle Ages, the study of politics was widespread in the churches and courts. Works such as Augustine of Hippo's The City of God synthesized current philosophies and political traditions with those of Christianity, redefining the borders between what was religious and what was political. Most of the political questions surrounding the relationship between church and state were clarified and contested in this period. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... The separation of church and state is a concept in law whereby the structures of state or national government are kept separate from those of religious institutions. ...


In the Middle East and later other Islamic areas, works such as the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Epic of Kings by Ferdowsi provided evidence of political analysis, while the Islamic Aristotelians such as Avicenna and later Maimonides and Averroes, continued Aristotle's tradition of analysis and empiricism, writing commentaries on Aristotle's works. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (Persian: رباعیات عمر خیام) The Rubáiyát (Arabic: رباعیات) is a collection of poems (of which there are about a thousand) attributed to the Persian mathematician and astronomer Omar Khayyám (1048 – 1123). ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...


During the Italian Renaissance, Niccolò Machiavelli established the emphasis of modern political science on direct empirical observation of political institutions and actors. Later, the expansion of the scientific paradigm during the Enlightenment further pushed the study of politics beyond normative determinations. Empirical is an adjective often used in conjunction with science, both the natural and social sciences, which means an observation or experiment based upon experience that is capable of being verified or disproved. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ...


Studies

The advent of political science as a university discipline is evidenced by the naming of university departments and chairs with the title of political science arising in the 1860s. In fact, the designation "Political Scientist" is typically reserved for those with a doctorate in the field. Integrating political studies of the past into a unified discipline is ongoing, and the history of political science has provided a rich field for the growth of both normative and positive political science, with each part of the discipline sharing some historical predecessors. The American Political Science Association, and political science's preeminent journal The American Political Science Review, was founded in 1903 in an effort to distinguish the study of politics from economics and other social phenomena. In the humanities and social sciences, the term positive is used in a number of ways. ... The American Political Science Association, founded in 1903, serves more than 15,000 members in more than 80 countries, bringing a variety of services to political scientists both inside and outside academic institutions. ...


In the 1950s and the 1960s, a behavioral revolution stressing the systematic and rigorously scientific study of individual and group behavior swept the discipline. At the same time that political science moved toward greater depth of analysis and more sophistication, it also moved toward a closer working relationship with other disciplines, especially sociology, economics, history, anthropology, psychology, public administration and statistics.[citation needed] Increasingly, students of political behavior have used the scientific method to create an intellectual discipline based on the postulating of hypotheses followed by empirical verification and the inference of political trends, and of generalizations that explain individual and group political actions. Over the past generation, the discipline placed an increasing emphasis on relevance, or the use of new approaches and methodologies to solve political and social problems. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ...


The national honor society for college and university students of government and politics in the United States is Pi Sigma Alpha. Pi Sigma Alpha is the National Political Science Honor Society with 621 chapters on campuses across the United States. ...


Contemporary

Political scientists study the allocation and transfer of power in decision-making, the roles and systems of governance including governments and international organizations, political behavior and public policies. They measure the success of governance and specific policies by examining many factors, including stability, justice, material wealth, and peace. Some political scientists seek to advance positive theses by analyzing politics. Others advance normative theses, by making specific policy recommendations. See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... In the humanities and social sciences, the term positive is used in a number of ways. ... In philosophy, normative is usually contrasted with positive, descriptive or explanatory when describing types of theories, beliefs, or statements. ...


The study of politics is complicated by the occasional involvement of political scientists in the political process, since their teachings occasionally provide the frameworks within which other commentators, such as journalists, special interest groups, politicians, and the electorate analyze issues and select options. Political scientists may serve as advisors to specific politicians, or even run for office as politicians themselves. Political scientists can be found working in governments, in political parties or as civil servants. They may be involved with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or political movements. In a variety of capacities, people educated and trained in political science can add value and expertise to corporations. Private enterprises such as think tanks, research institutes, polling and public relations firms often employ political scientists. In the United States, political scientists known as "Americanists" look at a variety of data including elections, public opinion and public policy such as Social Security reform, foreign policy, U.S. congressional power, and the Supreme Court—to name only a few issues. In politics, an electorate is the group of people entitled to vote in an election. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... This article is about the institution. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ...


Alternative terms

Alternative terms for the academic study of politics are political studies, or even politics. While political science implies use of the scientific method, political studies implies a broader approach. This is not a hard and fast rule though-see the example of New York University in particular. The term politics is used at the University of California, Santa Cruz, Ursinus College, Cornell College, Occidental College, New York University, Monash University, Princeton University, and Washington and Lee University while the term government is used by Smith College, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Cornell University, Georgetown University, University of Sydney, University of Ulster, University of Essex, Victoria University of Wellington (which has both a School of Government and a separate Political Science and International Relations Program) and the London School of Economics and Political Science to describe the field, but the choice of a label for a department often has little to do with how the subject is studied. New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... The University of California, Santa Cruz, also known as UCSC or UC Santa Cruz, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California. ... Ursinus College is a small, coeducational, liberal arts college in Collegeville, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the liberal arts college in Mount Vernon, Iowa. ... Occidental College, located in Los Angeles, California, is a small private coeducational liberal arts college. ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... Menzies Building at the Clayton Campus Monash University is Australias largest university with about 55,000 students. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ... Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia, located adjacent to (but not affiliated with) Virginia Military Institute. ... Smith College, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, is the largest womens college in the United States []. Smith admits only female undergraduates, but admits both men and women as graduate students. ... Dartmouth College is a private, coeducational university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ... Cornell University is a private university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and in Education City, Qatar. ... Georgetown University, incorporated as the The President and Directors of the College of Georgetown, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. With roots extending back to March 25, 1634 and founded in its current form on January 23, 1789... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... The University of Essex is a British plate glass university. ... Victoria Universitys Kelburn Campus. ... The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as the London School of Economics or simply the LSE, is a specialist constituent college of the University of London. ...


Further reading

  • American Political Science Review - The Evolution of Political Science. APSR Centennial Volume - Special Issue - November 2006

See also

Wikibooks

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

Lists

Basic topics in political science include: // Nature of political science Main article: Political science Branches of political science Bold textBold text== History of political science == Main article: History of political science Basic political science concepts Political science scholars Leaders in political science Political science lists Main article: List of... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Related topics

Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... In law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak) is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ...

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Political Science (143 words)
Political science is the study of governments, public policies and political processes, systems, and political behavior.
Political scientists use both humanistic and scientific perspectives and tools and a variety of methodological approaches to examine the process, systems, and political dynamics of all countries and regions of the world.
Political science students can gain a versatile set of skills that can be applied in a wide range of exciting careers in federal, state and local governments; law; business; international organizations; nonprofit associations and organizations; campaign management and polling; journalism; precollegiate education; electoral politics; research, university and college teaching
MIT OpenCourseWare | Political Science (559 words)
The Political Science Department was formally established in 1955, within what was then the Department of Economics and Social Science, as part of a broad effort to develop research and training at MIT in the social sciences.
The nucleus of a Political Science faculty had already been formed within the Center for International Studies, a pioneering, interdisciplinary research center working on American foreign policy and security issues, economic and political development in the Third World, Communist societies, and international communication.
Political Science became an independent department in 1965, offering an undergraduate major and a Master's degree, as well as the Ph.D. For more information, go to http://web.mit.edu/polisci/.
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