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Encyclopedia > Political party

A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. Parties often espouse a certain ideology and vision, but may also represent a coalition among disparate interests. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...

Contents

Definitions

In political science several definitions of political parties exists. The first historical definitions of political parties concentrated on the institutional nature of parties (organized assembly) and on their functions (working for the national interest) and partisanship. In Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontent, published in 1770, Edmund Burke formulated the following definition of a political party: "an organized assembly of men, united for working together for the national interest, according to the particular principle they agreed upon." In 1816, Benjamin Constant formulated the ideological definition of parties, which since that time remained accurate only for those parties that belonged to the grand ideological families, but not for opportunist or pragmatic parties, concerned with access to power, regardless the political doctrine or ideology. For him, a political party is "a reunion of men professing the same political doctrine." Marxists used a definition related with the central axiom of their doctrine (politics as class struggle): "a political party is the organization of the most conscious elements of a social class." The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Opportunism is a term mainly used in politics and political science. ... Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


Max Weber kept the function formulated by Burke (realization of a political ideal, but also enlarged the definition, in order to include parties animated by material interests. For him, a party is "an associative relation, an affiliation based on free recruitment. Its goal is to ensure the power for its leaders within an institutionalized group, having as aim the realization of an ideal or obtaining material advantages for its militants." After World War II, political scientists and other researchers concentrated more on the technical and electoral nature of parties. For Anthony Downs, a political party is "a team of men seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining offices in a duly constituted election"[1]. Traditionally, political scientists have focused on the role of political parties as instruments of promoting candidacies in elections to public office. Crotty defines political parties as: For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... Anthony Downs is a noted scholar in public policy, and since 1977 is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C.. Downs has served as a consultant to many of the nations largest corporations, including the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the White House. ...

"A political party is a formally organized group that performs the functions of educating the public to acceptance of the system as well as the more immediate implications of policy concerns, that recruits and promotes individuals for public office, and that provides a comprehensive linkage function between the public and governmental decisionmakers."

[2]


Similarly, according to Coleman, a political party is:

"an association that competes with other similar associations in periodic elections in order to participate in formal government institutions and thereby influence and control the personnel and policy of government."

[3] However, not all political scientists agree that participation is the defining criteria of political parties. Neuman utilizes a broader definition, that political parties are

"the articulate organization of society's active political agents, those who are concerned with the control of governmental power and who compete for popular support with another group or groups holding divergent views."

[4]


Moreover, in many countries political parties predates elections and universal suffrage. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ...


Suryadinata notes that in non-Western societies, standard Western definitions of political parties have limited usage. He urges that the criteria for should be the functions of an organization should be the essential aspect and that an organization might have the functions of a political party without formally identifying itself as a political party.[5]


Party systems

For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This is a list of political topics, including political science terms, political philosophies, political issues, etc. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Consent of the governed is a political theory stating that a governments legitimacy and moral right to use state power is, or ought to be, derived from the people or society over which that power is exercised. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... This is a list of notable political scientists. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Comparative politics is a subfield of political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Street-level bureaucracy is a term used to refer to a public agency employee who actually performs the actions that implement laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The psychodynamics of decision-making form a basis to understand institutional functioning. ... This article is about the political process. ... Vote redirects here. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... “Electioneering” redirects here. ...

Nonpartisan

In a nonpartisan system, no official political parties exist, sometimes reflecting legal restrictions on political parties. In nonpartisan elections, each candidate is eligible for office on her or his own merits. In nonpartisan legislatures, there are no typically formal party alignments within the legislature. The administration of George Washington and the first few sessions of the US Congress were nonpartisan. Washington also warned against political parties during his Farewell Address[6]. The unicameral legislature of Nebraska is the only state government body that is nonpartisan in the United States today. Many city and county governments[vague] are nonpartisan. In Canada, the territorial legislatures of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are nonpartisan. Nonpartisan elections and modes of governance are common outside of state institutions. Unless there are legal prohibitions against political parties, factions within nonpartisan systems often evolve into political parties. Much of the contents of this page were merged with Non-partisan_democracy. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... The Nebraska Legislature is the U.S. state of Nebraskas legislative branch. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ...


Single dominant party

In single-party systems, one political party is legally allowed to hold effective power. Although minor parties may sometimes be allowed, they are legally required to accept the leadership of the dominant party. This party may not always be identical to the government, although sometimes positions within the party may in fact be more important than positions within the government. Communist states such as China are some of the examples; others can be found in Fascist states such as Nazi Germany was between 1933 and 1945. The single-party system is thus usually equated with dictatorships and tyranny. A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


In dominant-party systems, opposition parties are allowed, and there may be even a deeply established democratic tradition, but other parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Sometimes, political, social and economic circumstances, and public opinion are the reason for others parties' failure. Sometimes, typically in countries with less of an established democratic tradition, it is possible the dominant party will remain in power by using patronage and sometimes by voting fraud. In the latter case, the definition between Dominant and single-party system becomes rather blurred. Examples of dominant party systems include the People's Action Party in Singapore and the African National Congress in South Africa. One party dominant systems also existed in Mexico with the Institutional Revolutionary Party until the 1990s, in the southern United States with the Democratic Party from the 1930s until the 1970s, and in Indonesia with the Golongan Karya (Party of the Functional Groups) from early 1970s until 1998. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. ... ... Electoral fraud is the deliberate interference with the process of an election. ... Party logo with a symbol of red lightning that signifies action. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Party of the Functional Groups (Indonesian: Partai Golongan Karya) is a political party in Indonesia, also known as Golkar (Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya, or Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups). ...


Two dominant parties

Two-party systems are states such as the United States and Jamaica in which there are two political parties dominant to such an extent that electoral success under the banner of any other party is extremely difficult. One right wing coalition party and one left wing coalition party is the most common ideological breakdown in such a system but in two-party states political parties are traditionally catch all parties which are ideologically broad and inclusive. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate voting in nearly all elections. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Left wing redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catch-all party. ...


A plurality voting system (such as that in the United States) usually leads to a two-party system, a relationship described by Maurice Duverger and known as Duverger's Law[7]. An example of a plurality ballot. ... Maurice Duverger (born June 5, 1917) is a French jurist. ... Duvergers Law is a principle which asserts that a first-past-the-post election system or in other words, a Single-member, Simple-plurality system, naturally leads to a two-party system. ...


Multiple parties

A poster for the European Parliament election 2004 in Italy, showing party lists

Multi-party systems are systems in which more than two parties are serious contenders to participate in ruling. Download high resolution version (553x678, 61 KB)announcement of elections in Brunate (near Como), Italy, 2004-06-07. ... Download high resolution version (553x678, 61 KB)announcement of elections in Brunate (near Como), Italy, 2004-06-07. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ...


Canada, the Republic of Ireland and and the United Kingdom are examples where there are two strong parties, with a third party that is electorally successful. This "third" party may frequently rank second in elections, and pose a threat to the other two parties, but has still never led the government. Such a party is particularly influential when its support or opposition sustains or ends a minority government. For minority governments in general, see dominant minority. ...


Finland is a rare case of a nation where three parties routinely hold top office. It is very rare for a country to have more than three parties who all have a roughly equal chance of independently forming government.


Colombia was a two-party system country but after 2002 elections six parties are considered to have the chance to led the government due to Alvaro Uribe new politics vision. Also see: 2002 (number). ... lvaro Uribe V lez (born July 4, 1952) is the President of Colombia (since 2002). ...


More commonly, in cases where there are three or more parties, no one party is likely to gain power alone, and parties work with each other to form coalition governments. This has been an emerging trend in the politics of the Republic of Ireland and is almost always the case in Germany on national and state level, and in some constituencies at the communal level. The major drawback of any coalition government is that it is potentially vulnerable to rapid changes and tends to lack stability. A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ...


Party funding

Political parties are funded by contributions from their membership and by individuals and organizations which share their political ideas or who stand to benefit from their activities. Political parties and factions, especially those in government, are lobbied vigorously by organizations, businesses and special interest groups such as trades unions. Money and gifts to a party, or its members, may be offered as incentives. In the United Kingdom, it has been alleged that peerages have been awarded to contributors to party funds, the benefactors becoming members of the Upper House of Parliament and thus being in a position to participate in the legislative process. Famously, Lloyd George was found to have been selling peerages and to prevent such corruption in future, Parliament passed the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925 into law. Thus the outright sale of peerages and similar honours became a criminal act, however some benefactors are alleged to have attempted to circumvent this by cloaking their contributions as loans, giving rise to the 'Cash for Peerages' scandal. Such activities have given rise to demands that the scale of donations should be capped. As the costs of electioneering escalate, so the demands made on party funds increases. In the UK some politicians are advocating that parties should be funded by the State; a proposition that promises to give rise to interesting debate. Along with the increased scrutiny of donations there has been a long term contraction in party memberships in a number of western democracies which itself places more strains on funding. For example in the United Kingdom and Australia membership of the two main parties in 2006 is less than an 1/8 of what it was in 1950, despite significant increases in population over that period. In Ireland, elected representatives of the Sinn Féin party take only the average industrial wage from their salary as a representative, while the rest goes into the party budget. Other incomes they may have are not taken into account. Elected representatives of the Socialist Party (Ireland) take only the average industrial wage out of their entire earnings. A political faction is presently an informal grouping of individuals, especially within a political organisation, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a... This article is about the political effort. ... In the computer field, a Special Interest Group is a community with a particular interest in a specific technical area. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Peerage is a system of titles of nobility which exists in the United Kingdom and is one part of the British honours system. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that makes the sale of Peerages and other Honours illegal. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Cash for Peerages (also Loans for Peerages, Cash for Honours, Loans for Honours) is the name given by some in the media to a political scandal in the United Kingdom in 2006 and 2007 concerning the connection between political donations and the award of life peerages. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The Socialist Party (in Irish Páirtí Sóisialach) is a political party active in Ireland. ...


Some nations, such as Australia, give political parties public funding for advertising purposes during election periods.


Colors and emblems for parties

Main article: see political colour and List of political party symbols

Generally speaking, over the world, political parties associate themselves with colors, primarily for identification, especially for voter recognition during elections. Red usually signifies leftist, communist or socialist parties. Conservative parties generally use blue or black. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // For more in depth information on this, see Political colour red - Socialism, Communism pink - Socialism,Homosexuality, Women blue - Conservatism, Jews, Men green - Environmentalism, Islam, Capitalism, Agrarianism, Irish Nationalism black - Anarchism, Fascism, Catholicism, Monarchism, Blacks orange - Christian Democracy, Ulster loyalism, Netherlands, Hindu Nationalism white - Monarchism, Whites purple - Monarchism brown - Nazism, Hispanics... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ...


Pink sometimes signifies moderate socialist. Yellow is often used for libertarianism or classical liberalism. Green is the color for green parties, Islamist parties and Irish nationalist and republican parties in Northern Ireland. Orange is sometimes a color of nationalism, such as in The Netherlands, in Israel with the Orange Camp or with Ulster Loyalists in Northern Ireland; it is also a color of reform such as in Ukraine. In the past, Purple was considered the color of royalty (like white), but today it is sometimes used for feminist parties. White also is associated with nationalism. "Purple Party" is also used as an academic hypothetical of an undefined party, as a centralist party in the United States (because purple is created from mixing the main parties' colours of red and blue) and as a highly idealistic "peace and love" party[1]-- in a similar vein to a Green Party, perhaps. Black is generally associated with fascist parties, going back to Mussolini's blackshirts, but also with Anarchism. Similarly, brown is often associated with Nazism, going back to the Nazi Party's brown-uniformed storm troopers. This article is about the color. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... A yellow Tulip. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party (Pronounced fee-na fall.) (English: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... This article is about the color. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brown (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ... Hitler addressing SA members in the late 1920s The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ...


Color associations are useful for mnemonics when voter illiteracy is significant. Another case where they are used is when it is not desirable to make rigorous links to parties, particularly when coalitions and alliances are formed between political parties and other organizations, for example: Red Tory, "Purple" (Red-Blue) alliances, Red-green alliances, Blue-green alliances, Pan-green coalitions, and Pan-blue coalitions. Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... In politics, a red-green alliance is an alliance of red socialist or communist parties with green environmentalist parties. ... A Blue-Green alliance describes an alliance between political parties and other organizations. ... The Pan-Green Coalition (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) or Pan-Green Force (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is currently an informal political alliance in the Republic of China (Taiwan), consisting of the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan Solidarity Union (TSU), and the minor Taiwan Independence Party (TAIP). ... The Pan-Blue Coalition (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍聯盟; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝联盟; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Pan-Blue Force (Traditional Chinese: 泛藍軍; Simplified Chinese: 泛蓝军; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is a political coalition in Taiwan, consisting of the Kuomintang (KMT), the People First Party (PFP), and the smaller New Party (CNP). ...


Political color schemes in the United States diverge from international norms. Since 2000, red has become associated with the center-right Republican Party and blue with the center-left Democratic Party. However, unlike political color schemes of other countries, the parties did not choose those colors; they were used in news coverage of 2000 election results and ensuing legal battle and caught on in popular usage. GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


The emblem of socialist parties is often a red rose held in a fist. Communist parties often use a hammer to represent the worker, a sickle to represent the farmer, or both a hammer and a sickle to refer to both at the same time. An emblem consists of a pictorial image, abstract or representational, that epitomizes a concept - often a concept of a moral truth or an allegory. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... Using a sickle A sickle is a curved, hand-held agricultural tool typically used for harvesting grain crops before the advent of modern harvesting machinery. ... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ...


The emblem of Nazism, the swastika or "hakenkreuz," has been adopted as a near-universal symbol for almost any organized hate group, even though it dates from more ancient times. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... This article is about the symbol. ... The swastika is a cross with its arms 90° to either right or left. ...


Symbols can be very important when the overall electorate is illiterate. In the Kenyan constitutional referendum, 2005, supporters of the constitution used the banana as their symbol, while the "no" used an orange. A symbol or (in many senses) token is a representation of something — an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... The 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum occured on 21 November 2005. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ...


International organizations of political parties

During the 19th and 20th century, many national political parties organized themselves into international organizations along similar policy lines. Notable examples are the International Workingmen's Association (also called the First International), the Socialist International (also called the Second International), the Communist International (also called the Third International), and the Fourth International, as organizations of working class parties, or the Liberal International (yellow), Christian Democratic International and the International Democrat Union (blue). Worldwide green parties have recently established the Global Greens. The Socialist International, the Liberal International, and the International Democrat Union are all based in London. The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... The working class is a social class often contrasted with middle class and upper class in terms of the nature of work undertaken (manual labour or skilled), the level of remuneration (typically low hourly rates although there are exceptions) and access to resources (limited access to capital, education and land). ... Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The Christian Democrat and Peoples Parties International (IDC-CDI) is the global political international dedicated to the promotion of Christian democracy. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, nationalist, classical liberal, anti-Communist and some Christian democratic political parties. ... Green parties around the world are formally organized political parties based on the principles of Green politics. ... The Global Greens (or formally: the Global Green Network) are an organization of cooperating Green parties. ... The International Democrat Union (IDU) is an international grouping of conservative, nationalist, classical liberal, anti-Communist and some Christian democratic political parties. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


References

  1. ^ Anthony Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy (1957).Insert footnote text here
  2. ^ Udofia, O. E.. Nigerian Political Parties: Their Role in Modernizing the Political System, 1920-1966 in Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4. (Jun., 1981), pp. 435-447.
  3. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dominican_republic
  4. ^ Martz, John D.. Dilemmas in the Study of Latin American Political Parties in The Journal of Politics, Vol. 26, No. 3. (Aug., 1964), pp. 509-531.
  5. ^ Suryadinata, Leo in The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 50, No. 4. (Nov., 1991), pp. 877-880.
  6. ^ Redding 2004
  7. ^ Duverger 1954

Bibliography

  • Abizadeh, Arash. 2005. "Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections." World Order Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 7-49.
  • Duverger, Maurice. 1954. Political Parties. London: Methuen.
  • Gunther, Richard and Larry Diamond. 2003. "Species of Political Parties: A New Typology," Party Politics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 167-199.
  • Neumann, Sigmund (ed.). 1956. Modern Political Parties. IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Redding, Robert. 2004. Hired Hatred. RCI.
  • Sutherland, Keith. 2004. The Party's Over. Imprint Academic. ISBN 0-907845-51-7
  • Ware, Alan. 1987. Citizens, Parties and the State: A Reappraisal. Princeton University Press.

See also

The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world in the form of a table including links to the lists of political parties in the countries and entities listed in the list of countries, showing which party system... The sociologist Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification in which he defines party class as a group of people (part of a society) that can be differentiated on the basis of their affiliations in the political domain. ... Particracy is a form of government where the will of political parties dominates over the will of individual politicians. ... A political faction is presently an informal grouping of individuals, especially within a political organisation, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Single-party system. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // For more in depth information on this, see Political colour red - Socialism, Communism pink - Socialism,Homosexuality, Women blue - Conservatism, Jews, Men green - Environmentalism, Islam, Capitalism, Agrarianism, Irish Nationalism black - Anarchism, Fascism, Catholicism, Monarchism, Blacks orange - Christian Democracy, Ulster loyalism, Netherlands, Hindu Nationalism white - Monarchism, Whites purple - Monarchism brown - Nazism, Hispanics...

External links

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Politics1 - Guide to American Political Parties (9606 words)
The party ran nuclear physicist John Hagelin as the NLP Presidential nominee in 1992 (ballot status in 32 stares - 39,000 votes - 0.04%), 1996 (ballot status in 44 states - 7th place - 110,000 votes - 0.1%) and 2000 (ballot status in 39 stares - 7th place - 83,000 votes - 0.08%).
Marxist political organizer James Harris was the SWP Presidential nominee in 1996 (ballot status in 11 states - 8,500 votes - 0.01%) and 2000 (ballot status in 14 states - 7,378 votes - 9th place - 0.01%).
Marxist political organizer and journalist Róger Calero was the SWP Presidential nominee in 2004 -- ballot status in 14 states - 10,791 votes - 9th place - 0.01% -- even though he was constitutionally ineligible as a foreign citizen living in the US as a Permanent Resident Alien.
Political party: A Glossary of Political Economy Terms - Dr. Paul M. Johnson (226 words)
In a democracy, political parties primarily function as agencies for recruiting suitable candidates to run for elective office and for organizing and conducting election campaigns.
They may also become important in selecting candidates for appointive political office when winning the election has provided the party's leaders with power to appoint new officials to the cabinet and other top policy-making positions in the government
Political parties may also have another function as vehicles for coordinating the day to day activities and policy decisions of their elected and appointed office-holders so as to fulfill the party's policy platform, as for example, through an organized party caucus and a full-time party leadership machinery in the parliament or other legislative assembly.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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