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Encyclopedia > Political parties of minorities

Ethnic parties aim to represent an ethnic group in a political system, be it a sovereign state or a subnational entity. An alternate designation is 'Political parties of minorities', but they should not be mistaken with regionalist or separatist parties, whose purpose is territorial autonomy. Regionalism could be Regionalism (politics) Regionalism (literature) Regionalism (art) Regionalism (linguistics) Category: ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ...

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Historical ethnic parties

The oldest prototypes of ethnic parties are the Jewish parties of the Russian and Austro-Hungarian empires, e.g. Bund, Folkspartei, Agudat Israel, and the Swedish party in Finland, Svenska Folkpartiet (SFP), all of them founded in the end of the 19th century or in the first decade of the 20th. A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... The Folkspartei (yiddish: Yidishe folkspartay; Peoples Democratic Party, folkist party) was founded after the 1905 pogroms in Russia by Simon Dubnow and Israel Efrojkin. ... Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ... The Swedish Peoples Party (Svenska folkpartiet (SFP) in Swedish or Ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP) in Finnish) is a Swedish minority and mainly liberal party in Finland. ...


Ethnic parties and political ideologies

Ethnic parties may take different ideological positions.


For instance, the parties competing for Jewish votes in interwar Poland and Lithuania had a range of different political views. There were Zionist parties (themselves divided into Revisionist, General or Labour parties), there was Agudat Israel (an Orthodox religious party), the Bund (Marxist) and the Folkspartei (liberal). Categories: Organization stubs | Israel-related stubs | Israeli political parties | Orthodox Judaism ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... The Folkspartei (yiddish: Yidishe folkspartay; Peoples Democratic Party, folkist party) was founded after the 1905 pogroms in Russia by Simon Dubnow and Israel Efrojkin. ...


In some political systems, party politics are mostly based on ethnicity, as in Bosnia-Herzegovina and its federal regions, in Israel, in Surinam, in Sabah, in Sarawak or in Guyana. In Fiji, 46 seats out of 71 are elected from ethnically-closed Communal constituencies, as there was in the pre-Israel Palestine Jewish Assembly, the asefat ha-nivharim, with separate 'curiae' for Ashkenaz, Sepharad and Oriental, and Yemeni Jews. Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 76... State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ... Communal constituencies have been the most durable feature of the Fijian electoral system. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... Sepharad is a Biblical placename of uncertain location. ... This article deals with those Jewish communities indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa. ... Yemenite Jews (תֵּימָנִי, Standard Hebrew Temani, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānî; plural תֵּימָנִים, Standard Hebrew Temanim, Tiberian Hebrew Têmānîm) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן far south, Standard Hebrew Teman, Tiberian Hebrew Têmān), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ...


As a consequence, it would be somewhat irrelevant to classify some parties in these systems as 'ideological' (social-democrat, liberal, christian-democrat etc.) and some others as 'purely autonomist', 'purely ethnic' or 'purely minority' parties. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Autonomism can refer to: Autonomism may refer to a bundle of left-wing movements historically bound-up with Italian Autonomist marxism. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has...


The SFP is a full-fledged member of the Liberal International, as well as the Movement for Rights and Freedoms, representing the Turkish minority in Bulgaria, the South Tyrol People's Party SVP (grouping German- and Ladin-speaking inhabitants of Italian South Tyrol province) is a member of the Christian Democratic European People's Party, whereas the SDLP, an Irish Catholic party in Northern Ireland is a member of the Socialist International, etc.. Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Движение за права и свободи, Dviženie za Prava i Svobodi) is a centrist ethnic political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ... The South Tyrolese Peoples Party (German: Südtiroler Volkspartei) was founded 1945 and is a political party in the South Tyrol region of Italy. ... South Tyrol-Alto Adige (Italian: Alto Adige, German and Ladin: Südtirol; official in Italian: Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano - Alto Adige, official in German: Autonome Provinz Bozen - Südtirol, official in Ladin: Provinzia Autonòma de Balsan - Südtirol) is an autonomous province of Italy that belongs to the region... The European Peoples Party (EPP) is the largest European political party. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... Irish Catholics are persons of predominantly Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International is a worldwide organization of social democratic, labor, and democratic socialist political parties. ...


In interwar Poland, Jewish, German and Ukrainian parties never attracted all Polish Jews, Germans and Ukrainians of whom some were members of 'national' ideological Polish parties, mostly the Socialist and Communist parties, who were considered more open-minded than the conservative or nationalist parties. From the Middle Ages until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the Polish population. ...


Ethnic parties and elections

Common lists or electoral agreements can be organized either between ethnic parties (Flemish parties 'Kartel's for municipal elections in Brussels or Union des Francophones in Flemish Brabant, the coalition for the 2001 parliamentary elections in Bulgaria between the - mostly Turkish - Movement for Rights and Freedoms and the Roma party Euroroma) or between two parties having common ideological options beyond ethnic differences, as the Bund and the 'Polish' socialist party PPS for the municipal elections in 1939. On several occasions some or all Flemish parties bundled forces on Vlaams Kartel lists for municipal elections in Brussels (in Dutch Vlaams Kartels), sometimes getting together one or two seats in the municipal council, sometimes getting none. ... Flemish Brabant is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Движение за права и свободи, Dviženie za Prava i Svobodi) is a centrist ethnic political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ... Euroroma (official website) is the biggest political party, engaged with the problems of gypsies in Bulgaria. ... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples...


Some ethnic parties only take part in substatal electoral competition, thus making them somewhat invisible to outside observers: the SSW in Schleswig-Holstein, the German parties in Denmark and Poland, the Roma parties in Slovakia. Tzigane redirects here; for the composition by Maurice Ravel, see Tzigane (Ravel). ...


It can occur that a single 'supra-ideological' party achieves, with varying shades of success, the representation of a whole ethnic group, as for the Svenska Folkpartiet in Finland, the South Schleswig Voter Federation for Danes and Frisians in the German Land of Schleswig-Holstein, the Unity for Human Rights Party for Greeks in Albania, the Slovenska Skupnost for Slovenes in Northeastern Italy, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms for Turks in Bulgaria, the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. The Swedish Peoples Party (Svenska folkpartiet (SFP) in Swedish or Ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP) in Finnish) is a Swedish minority and mainly liberal party in Finland. ... The South Schleswig Voter Federation (German: Südschleswigscher Wählerverband, Danish: Sydslesvigsk Vælgerforening, Frisian: Söödschlaswiksche WäälerferbÃ¥nd) is a minor political party in Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Albanian political parties ... The Movement for Rights and Freedoms (Движение за права и свободи, Dviženie za Prava i Svobodi) is a centrist ethnic political party in Bulgaria, based in the Turkish minority. ... The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, UDMR; Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség, RMDSZ) is an ethnically based political party representing ethnic Hungarians in Romania. ...


In most cases, ethnic parties compete inside electoral systems where voters aren't compelled to vote according to ethnic affiliations and may vote too for 'non ethnic', 'transethnic' or 'supraethnic' ideological parties. In most Near Eastern Arab countries, the only such parties were the Communist parties, whose founding fathers and subsequent leaders came mostly from the Jewish, Armenian, Kurdish or Shi'ia minorities. The socialist movement in Thessaloniki (present Northern Greece) during the last decade of the Ottoman Empire was divided across ethnic lines between the Sephardi Jews (who formed the majority of the population), the Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavs and the Greeks, but all groups united when it came to election time. Coordinates 40°38′ N 22°57′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Macedonia Prefecture Thessaloniki [1] Population 607,987 source (2006) Metropolitan area population 2,395,220 Area 17. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Languages Ladino also Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, and Shuadit Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Sephardi Jews (Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Tiberian ; plural ספרדים, Standard Tiberian ) are a subgroup of Jews originating in the Iberian Peninsula, usually defined in contrast to Ashkenazi Jews; frequently used...


'Intraethnic parties', or political parties inside diasporic communities

There is also a specifically diasporic type of political parties that could be labelled as 'intraethnic parties', i.e. parties that compete only inside the political sphere.


The Jewish and Armenian (Dashnak, Ramgavar, or Hentchak) parties belong to this category, as well as the international sections of national parties, such as the (U.S.) Republicans Abroad and Democrats Abroad, the (British) Labour Party International, the (French) Parti Socialiste's Fédération des Français de l'Etranger or the American and European branches of the Israeli Likud and of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China). The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. ... The Ramgavar is an Armenian political party in Lebanon. ... The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, also known as the Hentchak, is one of the oldest political parties in Armenia. ... Category: ... Democrats Abroad Democrats Abroad is the official organization of the Democratic Party of the United States for expatriates, representing Democrats that are citizens of the U.S. but live outside the United States. ... Likud (Hebrew: ליכוד, literally means consolidation) is a centre-right political party in Israel. ... The Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a centre-right political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of sitting...


There can also be political groupings representing members of a national community living aborad, such as the Association Démocratique des Français de l'Etranger (left-wing) and the Union des Français de l'Etranger (right-wing), both competing for seats in the Conseil Supérieur des Français de l'Etranger, or the various political lists competing for the Comitati degli Italiani all'Estero (COMITES).


  Results from FactBites:
 
U.S.ENGLISH Foundation Official Language Research - Macedonia: Legislation (3698 words)
The Parties undertake to take appropriate measures to protect persons who may be subject to threats or acts of discrimination, hostility or violence as a result of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious identity.
The Parties undertake to recognize that every person belonging to a national minority has the right to display in his or her minority language signs, inscriptions and other information of a private nature visible to the public.
The Parties shall refrain from measures which alter the proportions of the population in areas inhabited by persons belonging to national minorities and are aimed at restricting the rights and freedoms flowing from the principles enshrined in the present framework Convention.
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