FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Political machine
In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker

A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. Machines sometimes have a boss, and always have a long-term corps of dedicated workers who depend on the patronage generated by government contracts and jobs. Machine politics has existed in many United States cities, especially between about 1875 and 1950, but continuing in some cases down to the present day. It is also common (under the name clientelism or political clientelism) in Latin America, especially in rural areas, and also in some African states and other emerging democracies, like postcommunist Eastern European countries. Japan's Liberal Democratic Party is often cited as another political machine, maintaining power in suburban and rural areas through its control of farm bureaus and road construction agencies. (American Journey, 2005) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links BOSSCROKER.JPG Summary Boss Crocker on Tammany US Cartoon 1899 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links BOSSCROKER.JPG Summary Boss Crocker on Tammany US Cartoon 1899 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The cover of the April 23, 1884 issue. ... All politics revolved around the Boss. ... ... In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ... This article is about the system of organization called a political machine. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This section needs to be updated. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


The key to a political machine is patronage: holding public office implies the ability to do favors (and also the ability to profit from political corruption). Political machines generally steer away from issue-based politics, favoring a quid pro quo (something for something) with certain aspects of a barter economy or gift economy: the patron or "boss" does favors for the constituents, who then vote as they are told to. Sometimes this system of favors is supplemented by threats of violence or harassment toward those who attempt to step outside of it. World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... Barter is a simple form of trade where goods or services are exchanged for a certain amount of other goods or services, i. ... A gift economy is an economic system in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future quid pro quo. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ...

Contents

Political machines in the United States

In the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century, it was mainly the larger cities that had machines — Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York City, Philadelphia, Kansas City, etc. — and each city's machine was run by a "boss," a man who had the allegiance of local business leaders, elected officials and their appointees, and who knew the proverbial buttons to push to get things done. There were benefits and problems because of political machines ruling. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Cleveland redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many machines formed in cities to serve immigrants to the U.S. in the late 19th century. Many immigrants viewed machines as a vehicle for political enfranchisement. Additionally, many immigrants were unfamiliar with the sense of civic duty that was part of American republicanism. They traded votes for power. The main role of the machine staffers was to win elections—usually by turning out large numbers of voters on election day. Occasionally illegal tactics were used in local elections (but rarely in state or presidential elections). Immigration is the movement of people into one place from another. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...


Civic-minded citizens, such as the Anthony Alatzas, denounced the corruption of the political machines. They achieved national civil-service reform and worked to replace local patronage systems with civil service. By Theodore Roosevelt's time, the Progressive Era mobilized millions of civic minded citizens to fight the machines. In the 1930s, James A. Farley was the chief dispenser of the Democratic Party's patronage system through the Postal Department and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) which eventually nationalized many of the job benefits machines provided. The New Deal allowed machines to recruit for the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), making Farley's machine the most powerful, all patronage was screened through Farley including Presidential appointments. The New Deal machine fell apart after James A. Farley left the administration over the third term in 1940. Those agencies were abolished in 1943 and the machines suddenly lost much of their patronage. In any case the poor immigrants who benefited under James A. Farley's National machine had become assimilated and prosperous and no longer needed the informal or extralegal aides provided by machines. In the 1940s most of the big city machines collapsed, with the notable exception of the Chicago machine. A local political machine in Tennessee was forcibly removed in what was known as the Battle of Athens. For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... The Post Office Department was the former name of the United States Postal Service when it was a Cabinet department. ... WPA Graphic The Works Progress Administration (later Work Projects Administration, abbreviated WPA), was created on May 6, 1935 by Presidential order (Congress funded it annually but did not set it up). ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... CCC workers on road construction, Camp Euclid, Ohio 1936 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a work relief program for young men from unemployed families, established on March 19, 1933 by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... Chicago machine redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Combatants Local World War II Veterans, Citizens McMinn County Sheriffs Department Commanders Various GIs Sheriff Pat Mansfield, Paul Cantrell Strength * Dozens of men 3 M1 Garand rifles 5 M1911 pistols 24 M1917 Enfield rifles Other guns Dynamite * 100+ deputies One Thompson submachine gun Issued pistols Jail walls Casualties Some...


Machines are often said to have drawn their strength from, and served as a power base for, ethnic immigrant populations. In truth it was primarily Irish immigrants who benefited from the Machine system, which reached its pinnacle under James A. Farley during Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal administration. Also, even among the Irish, help for new immigrants declined over time. It was in the party machines' interests to only maintain a minimally winning amount of support. Once they were in the majority and could count on a win, there was less need to recruit new members, as this only meant a thinner spread of the patronage rewards to be spread among the party members. As such, later-arriving immigrants, such as Jews, Italians, and other immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, rarely saw any reward from the machine system. At the same time, most of political machines' staunchest opponents were members of the established class (nativist Protestants). In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... FDR redirects here. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ...


Since the 1960s, some historians have reevaluated political machines, considering them corrupt but also efficient. Machines were undemocratic, but at least responsive. They were corrupt, but they were also able to contain the spending demands of special interests. In Mayors and Money, a comparison of municipal government in Chicago and New York, Ester R. Fuchs credited the Chicago Democratic Machine with giving Mayor Richard J. Daley the political power to deny labor union contracts that the city could not afford and to make the state government assume burdensome costs like welfare and courts. Describing New York, Fuchs wrote, "New York got reform, but it never got good government." At the same time, as Dennis R. Judd and Todd Swanstrom point out in City Politics, ISBN, this view often coincided with a lack of period alternatives. They go on to point out that this is a falsehood, since there are certainly examples of reform oriented, anti-machine leaders during this time. Hazen Pingree is one such example. Though sometimes labeled as a "boss", Pingree in fact did not operate under the same type of patronage system that characterized the Machines. While this hardly settles the matter in either direction, it is simply important to remember that the legacy of the Political Party Machines in the 19th and 20th centuries remains ambiguous at best. The Chicago Democratic Machine was a political machine led by former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. ... Hazen Stuart Pingree (August 30, 1840–June 18, 1901) was a four-term Republican mayor of Detroit (1889-1897) and Governor of the U.S. state of Michigan (1897-1901). ...


Smaller communities as Parma, Ohio in the post-Cold War Era under Prosecutor Bill Mason's "Good Old Boys" and especially communities in the Deep South, where small-town machine politics are relatively common also feature what might be classified as political machines, although these organizations do not have the power and influence of the larger boss networks listed in this article. For example, the “Cracker Party” was a Democratic Party political machine that dominated city politics in Augusta, Georgia for over half of the 20th century. [1] [2] [3] [4] Parma is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio in Cuyahoga County and is the largest suburb of Cleveland. ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ...


Notable "Bosses" and their political machines

See also Political boss and Category:Political bosses.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed A boss, in political science, is a person who wields de facto power over a particular political region or constituency. ...

State Bosses

In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... This article is about the state. ... Alfred Emanuel Smith ( December 30, 1873– October 4, 1944), often known as Al Smith, was Governor of New York and a U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... FDR redirects here. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Thomas Benton Catron (born October 6, 1840, died May 15, 1921) was an American Politician who was influential in the establishment of the U.S. State of New Mexico. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Thomas C. Platt Thomas C. Platt was a three term U.S. Senator from New York in the years 1881 and 1897-1909. ... This article is about the state. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Edward DiPrete (born July 8, 1934), U.S. Republican Party politician, He served as Governor of Rhode Island from 1985 to 1991, and was defeated for reelection by former federal prosecutor Bruce Sundlun in 1990. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Huey Pierce Long, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Matthew Stanley Quay (September 30, 1833 - May 28, 1904) was an immensely powerful Pennsylvania political boss; kingmaker (Benjamin Harrison, 1888). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Albert Jennings Fountain disappearance involved an event which occurred on February 1, 1896 when Colonel Albert Jennings Fountain and his son Henry disappeared near Las Cruces, New Mexico. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ...

County Bosses

Daniel Patrick OConnell (died 1977) was the leader of the United States Democratic Party political machine in Albany County, New York from about 1919 until his death. ... Location in the state of New York Formed November 1, 1683 Seat Albany Area  - Total  - Water 1,381 km² (533 mi²) 25 km² (10 mi²) 1. ... Leander Henry Perez, Sr. ... Plaquemines Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... George Norcross III is a political leader for the Democratic Party of Camden County, New Jersey, United States and other areas of the South Jersey region. ... Camden County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... George Berham Parr (1901-1975) was a member of the Parr political family, which controlled a Democratic party political machine that controlled Duval County and, to a lesser extent, Jim Wells County, Texas. ... Duval County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Chicago machine redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... John H. Stroger, Jr. ... Cook County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Theodore Roosevelt home at Sagamore Hill Nassau County is a suburban county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ...

City Bosses

Doc Ames Albert Alonzo Doc Ames (January 18, 1842–November 16, 1911) held several terms as mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota in the late 19th century and very early 20th century. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Martin Behrman (14 October 1864–12 January 1926), an American Democratic politician, was the longest-serving mayor in New Orleans history. ... NOLA redirects here. ... Christopher Augustine Buckley, Sr. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Fred Busse (born: March 3, 1886; died: July 9, 1914; buried in Graceland Cemetery) served as mayor of Chicago, Illinois (1907-1911) for the Republican Party. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... St. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Edward Hull Crump (October 2, 1874–October 16, 1954) was a Memphis, Tennessee insurance broker, businessman, and political figure in the early 20th century. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... James Michael Curley (November 20, 1874-November 12, 1958) was an American political figure who served in the United States House of Representatives, as the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, and as governor of Massachusetts. ... Boston redirects here. ... Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Tom Dennison, aka The Old Grey Wolf (? 1858 - February 1934) was the early 20th century political boss of Omaha, Nebraska. ... Omaha redirects here. ... William Flinn (1851—1924) was a powerful political boss and construction magnate in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Frank Hague Frank Hague (January 17, 1876 – January 1, 1956) was the mayor of Jersey City, New Jersey from 1917 to 1947. ... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... Augusta is a city in the state of Georgia in the United States of America. ... Peter P. McDonough (b. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Robert Erastus McKisson (January 30, 1863–October 14, 1915) was an American politician of the Republican party and served as the 33rd mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1895 and 1898. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... William Miller or Bill Miller may refer to (items are alphabetized according to the word in boldface): // William Miller (Australian athlete) (1847-1939) Bill Miller (film producer) William Miller (minister) (1815-1874) William Harris Miller, Australian musician with 1970s band The Ferrets best known for their #2 hit Dont... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Thomas Joseph Pendergast (July 22, 1873 – January 26, 1945) controlled Kansas City as a political boss. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Abraham Rueff (September 2, 1864 San Francisco, California - February 29, 1936 San Francisco, California), known as Abe Ruef, was an American lawyer and politician. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... 1869 Tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... William Scott Vare (December 24, 1867–August 7, 1934) was an American construction contractor and Republican Party politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... John Henry Whallen (May 1, 1850 – December 3, 1913) was a Democratic Party political boss in Louisville, Kentucky during the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Louisville redirects here. ... David Raymond Miller (born December 26, 1958) is a Canadian politician. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

See also

Crony capitalism is a pejorative term describing an allegedly capitalist economy in which success in business depends on an extremely close relationship between the businessman and the state institutions of politics and government, rather than by the espoused equitable concepts of the free market, open competition, and economic liberalism. ...

References

The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ...

Further reading

  • John M. Allswang, Bosses, Machines, and Urban Voters (1986)
  • Erie, Steven P. Rainbow's End: Irish-Americans and the Dilemmas of Urban Machine Politics, 1840—1985 (1988).
  • Finegold, Kenneth. Experts and Politicians: Reform Challenges to Machine Politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago (1995) on Progressive Era
  • Harold F. Gosnell; Boss Platt and His New York Machine: A Study of the Political Leadership of Thomas C. Platt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Others. (1924)
  • Harold F. Gosnell; Machine Politics: Chicago Model (1937)
  • Kaufman, Robert R. "The Patron-Client Concept and Macro-Politics: Prospects and Problems" Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Jun., 1974) , pp. 284-308
  • Keefer, Philip. 2005. "Clientelism, Credibility and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies." Presented at The Quality of Government: What It Is, How to Get It, Why It Matters, International Conference, Göteborg, 17-19 November.
  • Mandelbaum, Seymour J. Boss Tweed's New York (1965) (ISBN)
  • Nylen, William. 2003. Participatory Democracy versus Elitist Democracy: Lessons from Brazil. Palgrave-Macmillan, New York. [review]
  • Samuel P. Orth; The Boss and the Machine: A Chronicle of the Politicians and Party Organization (1919), short survey
  • M. Ostrogorski; Democracy and the Party System in the United States (1910)
  • William Riordan, Plunkett of Tammany Hall memoir of New York City ward boss
  • Royko, Mike. "Boss: Richard J. Daley of Chicago." (1972) Plume reprint edition (1988). ISBN 0-452-26167-8
  • Scott, James C. "Corruption, Machine Politics, and Political Change" American Political Science Review, Vol. 63, No. 4 (Dec., 1969) , pp.
  • Stave, Bruce M. and Sondra Astor Stave, eds., Urban Bosses, Machines, and Progressive Reformers (1984).
  • Stave, Bruce M. , John M. Allswang, Terrence J. McDonald, Jon C. Teaford. "A Reassessment of the Urban Political Boss: An Exchange of Views" History Teacher, Vol. 21, No. 3 (May, 1988) , pp. 293-312
  • Steffens, Lincoln. The Shame of the Cities (1904) muckraking expose of machines in major cities
  • Harold B. Zink; City Bosses in the United States: A Study of Twenty Municipal Bosses (1930)
  • Tennessee Williams Cuty Bosses in the United States: A Study of Twenty Municipal Bosses

Mike Royko (September 19, 1932 – April 29, 1997) was a long-running newspaper columnist in Chicago, Illinois. ...

External links

  • Bruce Stave, "Urban Bosses and Machine Politics" in The Reader's Companion to American History

  Results from FactBites:
 
political machine - definition of political machine in Encyclopedia (377 words)
Political machines generally steer away from issues-based politics, favoring a quid pro quo with certain aspects of a barter economy or gift economy: the patron or "boss" does favors for the constituents; constituents vote as they are told to.
The machines formed in cities largely as a result of the waves of immigration to the US in the late nineteenth century; the immigrants were demanding resources far faster than legislation and construction could provide them, and political machines came into being as they encouraged immigrants to exchange their votes for favors.
The corruption of the political machines, especially Boss Tweed's notorious Tammany Hall in New York City, eventually became too obvious for the middle class to ignore, and by Theodore Roosevelt's time the Progressive Era was established.
Machine Politics (1044 words)
The potent Democratic machine that dominated Chicago politics for nearly half a century formed under the leadership of Anton Cermak, a Bohemian immigrant of working-class origins.
Nor did the election to the mayoralty of Richard M. Daley, the eldest son of the deceased boss, indicate a resurrection of the machine in a new guise.
As the younger Daley readily acknowledged, radically different demographics and the attendant alterations in the political calculus clearly made the machine politics for which Chicago became famous an anachronism by the end of the twentieth century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m