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Encyclopedia > Political integration of India
Current political map of India showing states and territories.
Current political map of India showing states and territories.

The political integration of India established a united nation for the first time in centuries from a plethora of princely states, colonial provinces and possessions. Despite partition, a new India united peoples of various geographic, economic, ethnic, linguistic and religious backgrounds. The process began in 1947, with the unification of 565 princely states through a critical series of political campaigns, sensitive diplomacy and military conflicts. India was transformed after independence through political upheaval and ethnic discontent, and continues to evolve as a federal republic natural to its diversity. The process is defined by sensitive religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims, diverse ethnic populations, as well as by geo-political rivalry and military conflicts with Pakistan and China. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article is under construction. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... The economy of India is the third largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing... Map of South Asia in native languages. ... An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... Hundreds of Princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


When the Indian independence movement succeeded in ending the British Raj on August 15, 1947, India's leaders faced the prospect of inheriting a nation fragmented between medieval-era kingdoms and provinces organised by colonial powers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of India's most respected freedom fighters, as the new Minister of Home Affairs was the man responsible for employing political negotiations backed with the option (and the use) of military force to ensure the primacy of the Central government and of the Constitution then being drafted. The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; IPA: ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... The Home Minister, or more properly the Minister for Home Affairs, is a position in the Indian Cabinet, at both State and Union levels. ...


India's constitution pronounced it a Union of States, exemplifying a federal system with a strong central government. Over the course of the two decades following Independence the Government of India forcefully acquired the Indian possessions of France and Portugal. But the trend changed as popular movements arose for the recognition of regional languages, and attention for the special issues of diverse regions. A backlash ensued against centralization — the lack of attention and respect for regional issues resulted in cultural alienation and violent separatism. The Central government attempted to balance the use of force on separatist extremists with the creation of new States in order to reduce the pressures on the Indian State. The map has been redrawn, as the nature of the federation transforms. Today, the Republic of India is a Union of 28 states and 7 union territories. The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Federalism can refer to either: The form of government, or constitutional structure, found in a federation. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ...

Contents

British India

Created by the British, Madras was composed of five different linguistic groups and parts of five modern states.

British colonisation of the Indian subcontinent began in the early 18th century. By the mid-19th century, most of the subcontinent was under rule. With the arrival of Lord Mountbatten (the former Lord Louis Mountbatten later created Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, then promoted to Earl) as the Viceroy of India in early 1947, the British government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee made a clear indication that the independence of India was imminent. Elections for provincial legislatures and the Constituent Assembly of India had been held in 1946. India's top political parties, the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League were both negotiating the impending transfer of power as well as the make-up of the new Indian government. In June 1947, the Congress and the League agreed to the partition of India into two independent British Commonwealth dominions: India and Pakistan. Burma had been separated from British India in 1937 and it became independent along with Ceylon (never a part of British India) in 1948. Download high resolution version (524x640, 246 KB)Nineteenth-century map. ... Download high resolution version (524x640, 246 KB)Nineteenth-century map. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The Governor-General of India (or Governor-General and Viceroy of India) was the head of the British administration in India. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, and served as its first Parliament as an independent nation. ... Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party and abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the Great Leader of the Muslim League The All India Muslim League was a political party in British India was the driving force behind the creation of a Muslim state on the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is under construction. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George...


Without the princely states, the Dominion of India would comprise the provinces of Bombay Presidency, Madras Presidency, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Central Provinces and Berar, Assam, Orissa, Bihar, and the chief commissioners' provinces of Coorg, Ajmer-Merwara, Panth-Piploda, and Delhi. The North West Frontier Province, Sind, and the chief commissioners' province of Baluchistan would go to Pakistan. The provinces of Bengal and Punjab had been partitioned in 1946, with India retaining West Bengal and East Punjab, the Hindu-majority portions of the larger provinces. West Punjab and East Bengal were heavily Muslim, and went to Pakistan. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands would be turned over to the control of India. Anthem God Save The King Capital New Delhi Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy King of India George VI Governor-General  - 1947-48 The Earl Mountbatten of Burma  - 1948-50 C. Rajagopalachari Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru Historical era Cold War  - Independence August 15, 1947  - Indo... Bombay Presidency was a former province of British India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... United Provinces, 1903 The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, mainly referred to simply as the United Provinces, was a former province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947. ... The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... now. ... Ajmer-Merwara (also Ajmere-Merwara) is a former province of British India. ... Panth-Piploda was a province of British India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... The Chief Commissioners Province of Baluchistan was a former province of Pakistan located in the northern parts of modern Balochistan province. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This article is about the Pakistani province. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Lakshadweep is the smallest Union Territory of India. ...


Princely states

The Saurashtra and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat (depicted) were home to over two hundred princely states.
The Saurashtra and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat (depicted) were home to over two hundred princely states.

There were between 570 and 600 princely states which enjoyed special recognition by and relationship with the British Raj. The British government announced in the Indian Independence Act 1947 that with the transfer of power on August 15, 1947, all of these states would be freed of their obligations to the British Empire, and thus would be free to join either India or Pakistan, or to choose to become independent. The kingdom of Nepal was an independent treaty ally, and became a fully sovereign nation. The kingdom of Bhutan would dissolve its protectorate relationship similarly, but via treaty in 1949, India would become the guarantor of its security. The kingdom of Sikkim became a protectorate of India. Apart from a few which were geographically unalienable from Pakistan, approximately 565 princely states were clearly linked to India, the largest nation. Download high resolution version (1000x901, 265 KB)Baroda state in 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x901, 265 KB)Baroda state in 1909. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Hundreds of princely states in British India existed prior to the independence of India and Pakistan (including the present Bangladesh) in 1947, ruled by semi-independent potentates. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... 1. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ...


The largest of them included Hyderabad and Kashmir, while 222 states existed in the Kathiawar peninsula alone. The states comprised more than half of the territory of India and a large proportion of its population. It was believed that without a single federal structure India would be susceptible to political, military and social conflicts. The British had taken control of India piecemeal and over the course of a century; most of the states had signed different treaties at different times with the British East India Company and the British Crown, giving the British Raj varying degrees of control over foreign, inter-state relations and defence. Indian monarchs accepted the suzerainty of Britain in India, paid tribute and allowed British authorities to collect taxes and appropriate finances, and in many cases, manage the affairs of governance via the Raj's Political Department. The princes were represented in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Chamber of Princes, and under law enjoyed relationships described as that of allies, not subordinates. Thus the princes maintained a channel of influence with the British Raj. The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen_in_Parliament) legislative power. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for India during the British Raj. ... The Chamber of Princes was an institution established in 1921 by royal proclamation to provide a forum in which the rulers of the Indian princely states could make contact with the British Rajs colonial government of India. ...


Process of accession

Vallabhbhai Patel in Bardoli, 1928.
Vallabhbhai Patel in Bardoli, 1928.

The states of Gwalior, Bikaner, Patiala and Baroda were the first to join India on April 28, 1947. Others were wary, distrusting a democratic government led by revolutionaries of uncertain, and possibly radical views, and fearful of losing their influence as rulers. Travancore and Hyderabad announced their desire for independence while the Nawab of Bhopal, Hamidullah Khan, expressed his desire to either negotiate with Pakistan or seek independence. The Nawab was a powerful influence on a number of princes, as he was the former chancellor of the Chamber of Princes. In addition, Jodhpur, Indore and Jaisalmer conducted a dialogue with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the slated Governor-General of Pakistan, to discuss terms for a possible accession to it. While this surprised many in both India and Pakistan, neither party could ultimately ignore the fact that these kingdoms were Hindu-majority, which rendered their membership in overwhelmingly Muslim Pakistan untenable. Image File history File links Sardarvp. ... Image File history File links Sardarvp. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Bikaner is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan in western India. ... , Patiala   (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. ... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... The Nawabs of Bhopal were the Muslim rulers of the princely state of Bhopal, located in the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, in medieval and British India. ... Major-General H.H Sikander Saulat, Ifthikhar ul-Mulk, al-Haj Nawab Sir Hafiz Muhammad Hamidullah Khan, Nawab of Bhopal, GCSI, GCIE,CVO (9 September 1894-4 February 1960) was the last ruling Nawab of the state of Bhopal prior to its merger with the state of Madhya Pradesh in... The Chamber of Princes was an institution established in 1921 by royal proclamation to provide a forum in which the rulers of the Indian princely states could make contact with the British Rajs colonial government of India. ... , Jodhpur   (जोधपुर), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर /   is the commercial capital of the Malwa region and the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Jaisalmer   (The Golden City) is a town in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Image:Governor General PK.jpg Flag of the Governor-General of Pakistan The Governor-General of Pakistan was the resident representative of King George VI in Pakistan from 1947 to 1952 and then Queen Elizabeth II (Queen of Pakistan) from 1952 until 1956 when Pakistan was proclaimed a republic. ...


Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the Minister for Home and States Affairs, and was given the explicit responsibility of welding a united and strategically secure India in time for the transfer of power. Patel was considered the best man for the task by the Congress Party, as well as Lord Mountbatten and senior British officials. Mahatma Gandhi had, in fact, said to Patel "the problem of the States is so difficult that you alone can solve it".[1] He was recognised by the Princes and parliamentarians alike to be a man of integrity; and, in addition, he was believed to have the practical acumen and resolve to accomplish a monumental task. Patel asked V. P. Menon, a senior civil servant with whom he had worked over the partition of India, to become the Secretary in charge of the Home and States Ministry, as it then was. Patel's admirers would later call him the Iron Man of India[2] for his decisive actions at this time. Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; IPA: ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ... The Home Minister, or more properly the Minister for Home Affairs, is a position in the Indian Cabinet, at both State and Union levels. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the Partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... This article is under construction. ...


Instrument of accession

Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon devised a formula to propose to the monarchs. The Instrument of Accession was the official treaty to be signed between the Government of India or the Government of Pakistan and the accession candidates. According to the basic tenets of the treaty, the Government of India would control only foreign affairs, defence and communications, leaving all internal issues to be administered by the states. On July 5, 1947, the official policy of the Government of India was released, and stated: The Government of India (Hindi: भारत सरकार [1]Bhārat Sarkār), officially referred to as the Union Government, and commonly as Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of a federal union of 28 states and 7 union territories, collectively called the Republic of... Government of Pakistan (Urdu: حکومتِ پاکستان)The Constitution of Pakistan provides for a Federal Parliamentary System of government, with a President as the Head of State and an indirectly-elected Prime Minister as the chief executive. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

We ask no more of the States than accession on these three subjects in which the common interests of the country are involved. In other matters we would scrupulously respect their autonomous existence. This country… is the proud heritage of the people who inhabit it. It is an accident that some live in the States and some in British India… None can segregate us into segments… I suggest that it is better therefore for us to make laws sitting together as friends than to make treaties as aliens. I invite my friends the rulers of States and their people to the councils of the Constituent Assembly in this spirit of friendliness… Congressmen are no enemies of the princely order.[3]

Considering that the princes had to sign away the sovereignty of states where their families had reigned for centuries, and that they believed that India's security would be jeopardised if even one state refused to sign on, Patel and Menon were of the opinion that this was the best deal that could be put to the princes. While negotiating with the states, Patel and Menon also guaranteed that monarchs who signed on willingly would be retained as constitutional heads of state, although they would be 'encouraged' to hand their power over to an elected government. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, the state would be represented in the Constituent Assembly of India, thus becoming an active participant in framing the new Constitution. The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India, and served as its first Parliament as an independent nation. ...


Patel's diplomacy

Lord Louis Mountbatten played an important role in convincing reluctant monarchs to accede to the Indian Union.
Lord Louis Mountbatten played an important role in convincing reluctant monarchs to accede to the Indian Union.

On May 6, 1947, Patel began lobbying the princes, attempting to make them receptive towards dialogue with the future Government and trying to forestall potential conflicts. Patel used social meetings and unofficial surroundings to engage most monarchs, inviting them to lunch and tea at his home in Delhi. At these meetings, Patel would claim that there was no inherent conflict between the Congress and the princely order. Nonetheless, he stressed that Congress expected the princes to accede to India in good faith before the deadline, August 15, 1947. Patel also listened to the monarchs’ opinions, seeking to address their two chief concerns: Lord Louis This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Lord Louis This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • The princes feared that the Congress would be hostile to the princely order, attacking their property and, indeed, their civil liberties. They were moved to this concern by the fact that a large proportion of Congress was of socialist inclination. Patel, no socialist himself, promised personally that the Congress, would not politically attack the Indian princes nor deprive them of any more political power or property than was 'necessary' for the stability and unity of India.
  • Patel assured the monarchs of the states that after acceding to India, they would be allowed to retain their property and estates. Further, they would be fully eligible to run for public office.
  • For the loss of income (from revenue), the monarchs would be compensated with a privy purse.
  • The princes were also worried that the guarantees offered by Patel while the British were still in charge would be scrapped after August 15. Patel thus had to promise to include the guarantees of privy purses and limited central powers in the as yet unframed Constitution.

Patel invoked the patriotism of India's monarchs, asking them to join in the freedom of their nation and act as responsible rulers who cared about the future of their people. V. P. Menon was frequently dispatched to hold talks with the ministers and monarchs. Menon would work each day with Patel, calling him twice, including a final status report in the night. Menon was Patel's closest advisor and aide on the diplomacy and tactics, and handling of potential conflicts, as well as his link with British officials. Patel also enlisted Lord Mountbatten, who was trusted by most of the princes and was a personal friend of many, especially the Nawab of Bhopal, Hamidullah Khan. Mountbatten was also a credible figure because Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel had asked him to become the first Governor General of the Dominion of India. In a July, 1947 gathering of rulers, Mountbatten laid out his argument: Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... In India, the Privy Purse was a grant given since 1947 to the rulers of the princely states of the Indian sub-continent as part of their terms of accession to the new republics of India and Pakistan, respectively. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... A Governor-General (in Canada always, and frequently in Pakistan/India prior to the abolition of the last monarchy, Governor General) is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors [1]. The most common contemporary usage of the term is to refer to... Anthem God Save The King Capital New Delhi Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy King of India George VI Governor-General  - 1947-48 The Earl Mountbatten of Burma  - 1948-50 C. Rajagopalachari Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru Historical era Cold War  - Independence August 15, 1947  - Indo...

...The subcontinent of India acted as an economic entity. That link is now to be broken. If nothing can be put in its place, only chaos can result and that chaos, I submit, will hurt the states first. The States are theoretically free to link their future with whichever Dominion they may care. But may I point out that there are certain geographical compulsions which cannot be evaded?[4]

Mountbatten stressed that he would act as the trustee of the princes' commitment, as he would be serving as India's head of state well into 1948. Mountbatten engaged in a personal dialogue with the Nawab of Bhopal. He asked through a confidential letter to him, that he sign the instrument of accession, which Mountbatten would keep locked up in his safe. It would be handed to the States Department on August 15 only if the Nawab did not change his mind before then, which he was free to do. The Nawab agreed, and did not renege over the deal.[5] is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Accession of the states

From June to August 15, 1947, 562 of the 565 India-linked states signed the instrument of accession. Despite dramatic political exchanges, Travancore, Jodhpur and Indore signed on time. Patel was also willing to take on other Indian leaders for the sake of accomplishing the job. The privy purse pledge was offensive to many socialists, and Prime Minister Nehru had complained of Patel by-passing the Cabinet to make the pledge to the Princes. Patel described the pledge as an essential guarantee of the Government's intentions, and it was duly incorporated into the Constitution. (In 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's Congress Party would repeal the clause through a constitutional amendment.[6]) Patel defended their right to retain property and contest elections for public office, and today, especially in states like Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, descendants of the formerly royal families play an important role in politics. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) ran a whole big country. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ...


However, in the strenuous process of integration three major conflicts arose that posed a major threat to the Union:


Junagadh

Junagadh was a state on the southwestern end of Gujarat, with the principalities of Manavadar, Mangrol and Babriawad. The Arabian Sea stood between it and Pakistan, and over 80% of its population was Hindu. Possibly on the advice of his Dewan, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, who was prominent in the Muslim League, the Nawab of Junagadh Mahabhat Khan acceded to Pakistan. The accession was announced on August 15, 1947, when Pakistan had come into being. When Pakistan confirmed the acceptance of the accession in September, the Government of India was outraged that Muhammad Ali Jinnah would accept the accession of Junagadh despite his argument that Hindus and Muslims could not live as one nation.[7] Patel believed that if Junagadh was permitted to go to Pakistan, it would exacerbate the communal tension already simmering in Gujarat. Junagadh is one of the modern districts of Saurastra, Gujarat. ... Junagadh is a city, in Junagadh District, in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Shah Nawaz Bhutto (Urdu: شاہ نواز بھٹو) was a well known feudal lord and politician hailing from Larkana in Sindh province of Pakistan. ... The All India Muslim League (Urdu: مسلم لیگ), founded at Dhaka in 1906, was a political party in British India that developped into the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state from British India on the Indian subcontinent. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Patel gave Pakistan time to void the accession and hold a plebiscite in Junagadh. Samaldas Gandhi formed a democratic government-in-exile, the Aarzi Hukumat (in Urdu:Aarzi: Temporary, Hukumat: Government) of the people of Junagadh. Eventually, Patel ordered the forcible annexation of Junagadh's three principalities. Junagadh's court, facing financial collapse and no possibility of resisting Indian forces, first invited the Aarzi Hukumat, and later the Government of India to accept the reins. A plebiscite was conducted in December, in which approximately 99% of the people chose India over Pakistan.[8] Samaldas Gandhi was an Indian freedom fighter who headed the Arzi Hukumat or Peoples Government of the erstwhile princely state of Junagadh. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Kashmir

Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. The dark-brown region represents Indian-administration Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese administration
Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. The dark-brown region represents Indian-administration Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese administration

Maharaja Hari Singh, a Hindu, was equally hesitant about acceding to either India — he felt his mostly Muslim subjects would not like joining a Hindu-majority nation — or Pakistan — an eventuality which he would personally prefer to avoid. He personally believed that Kashmir could exercise its right to stay independent; a belief in which he was backed by Sheikh Abdullah, the leader of Kashmir's largest political party, the National Conference. However, Pakistan coveted the Himalayan kingdom, while Indian leaders including Gandhi and Nehru hoped that the kingdom would join India. Hari Singh signed a Standstill Agreement (preserving status quo) with Pakistan, but did not make his decision by August 15. This article encapsulates the history of a border issue between India and Pakistan, generally termed as the Kashmir conflict. ... The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... The Disputed Territory : Shown in green is Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great... Hari Singh was the last maharaja of the kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Executive President Prime Minister The Union Ministries Legislative Parliament Rajya Sabha Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Speaker of the House Judicial Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Supreme Court High Courts District Courts Constitution Fundamental Rights and Directive principles Regions States and territories Elections General Elections State Assembly... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pakistan, concerned about the lack of movement on the front, attempted to force the issue by permitting the incursions of tribals from the North-West Frontier, followed in September 1947 by regular forces. India offered military assistance to the Kashmiri Government, which was totally without an organised military; such assistance, however, was conditional on the Maharaja signing the Instrument of Accession, which he then did.[9] By this time the raiders were close to the capital of Srinagar. Indian troops secured Jammu, Srinagar and the valley itself during the First Kashmir War, but the intense fighting flagged with the onset of winter, which made much of the state impassable. Prime Minister Nehru, recognising the degree of international attention brought to bear on the dispute, declared a ceasefire and sought U.N. arbitration with the promise of a plebiscite. Patel had argued against both, describing Kashmir as a bilateral dispute and its accession as justified by international law. Patel had feared that the U.N.'s involvement would stall the process and allow Pakistan to reinforce its presence in Kashmir; in addition, it was far from clear, which way a plebiscite would go. In 1957, Kashmir was officially integrated into the Union, but with special provisions made for it in the Constitution's Article 370. The northwestern portion that remained under control of the Pakistan army is today Pakistan-administered Kashmir. In 1962, China occupied Aksai Chin, the northeastern region bordering Ladakh. Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... For Srinagar in Uttarakhand, see Srinagar, Uttarakhand. ... Jammu   (Hindi: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں) is one of the three regions comprising the disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders General K M Cariappa, Lt Gen S M Shrinagesh, Maj Gen K S Thimayya, Maj Gen Kalwant Singh Maj Gen Akbar Khan Casualties 1,104 killed[1](Indian army) 684 KIA(State Forces)[2] [3] 3,152 wounded [1] 1,500 killed[4] (Pakistan army) The... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Article 370 of the Indian constitution, which is of a temporary nature grants special status to Jammu and Kashmir. ... Pakistan Army Flag The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... China - India western border showing Aksai Chin Aksai Chin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Hindi: अकसाई चिन) is a region located at the juncture of China, Pakistan, and India. ... , Ladakh (Tibetan script: ལ་དྭགས་; Wylie: la-dwags, Ladakhi IPA: , Hindi: लद्दाख़, Hindi IPA: , Urdu: لدّاخ; land of high passes) is a region in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India sandwiched between the Kuen Lun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people...


Hyderabad

Main article: Operation Polo
Hyderabad state in 1909. Its area stretches over the present Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra.
Hyderabad state in 1909. Its area stretches over the present Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra.

Hyderabad was a state that stretched over 82,000 square miles (over 212,000 square kilometres) in the center of India and with a population of 16 million, 85% of whom were Hindus. Its ruler was Nizam Usman Ali Khan, and had always enjoyed a special relationship with the British Raj. When the British ruled out dominion status, the Nizam set his mind upon independence, under the influence of Muslim radical Qasim Razvi. Without Hyderabad, a large gap would exist in the centre of the united nation envisioned by Indian nationalists and the Indian public. Patel believed that Hyderabad was looking to Pakistan for support, and could pose a constant threat to India's security in the future. Patel argued that Hyderabad was essential for India's unity, but he agreed with Lord Mountbatten that force should not be used immediately. A Standstill Agreement was signed — an agreement made with no other princely state without an explicit assurance of eventual accession. However, Patel required Hyderabad promise it would not join Pakistan. Mountbatten and India's agent K.M. Munshi engaged the Nizam's envoys into negotiations. However, no deal was reached that both sides found acceptable, and the Nizam alleged that India had created a blockade. India, on the other hand, charged that Hyderabad was receiving arms from Pakistan, and that the Nizam was allowing Razvi's Razakar militants to intimidate Hindus and attack villages in India.[citation needed] Combatants Union of India State of Hyderabad Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri S.A. El Edroos #, Qasim Razvi # Strength 35,000 Indian Armed Forces 40,000 Hyderabad State Forces est. ... Download high resolution version (1000x790, 274 KB)Hyderabad state in 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x790, 274 KB)Hyderabad state in 1909. ... The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The Nizam of Hyderabads coat of arms Nizam-ul-Mulk, commonly shortened to Nizam, was the title taken by the Asif Jahi rulers of Hyderabad state in India. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... Qasim Razvi was an activist and political leader who believed in independence for the state of Hyderabad from Indian hegemony. ... Kanhaiyalal Maneklal Munshi was an Indian freedom fighter from the state of Gujarat. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Razakar is a Persian word which means volunteer. ...


Lord Mountbatten crafted a proposal called the Heads of Agreement, which called for the disbandment of the Razakars and restriction of the Hyderabad army, for the Nizam to hold a plebiscite and elections for a constituent assembly, and for eventual accession. While India would control Hyderabad's foreign affairs, the deal allowed Hyderabad to set up a parallel government and delay accession. Hyderabad's envoys assured Mountbatten that the Nizam would sign the agreement, and he lobbied Patel hard to sign for India. Patel signed the deal but retained his belief that the Nizam would not accept it.[10] The Nizam, taking Razvi's advice dismissed the plan. In September 1948, Patel made it clear in Cabinet meetings that he intended to use force against the Nizam.[11] He obtained the agreement of the new Governor-General Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari and Prime Minister Nehru after some contentious debate, and under Operation Polo, sent the Army to invade Hyderabad. Between September 13 and 18th, Indian troops fought Hyderabadi troops and Razakars and defeated them. Patel retained the Nizam as the head of state as a conciliatory gesture. The main aim of Mountbatten and Nehru in attempting to achieve integration through diplomacy had been to avoid an outbreak of Hindu-Muslim violence. Patel insisted that if Hyderabad was allowed to continue its independence, the prestige of the Government would be tarnished and then neither Hindus nor Muslims would feel secure in its realm.[12] Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Combatants Union of India State of Hyderabad Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri S.A. El Edroos #, Qasim Razvi # Strength 35,000 Indian Armed Forces 40,000 Hyderabad State Forces est. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conflicting agendas

Different theories have been proposed to explain the designs of Indian and Pakistani leaders in this period. Rajmohan Gandhi postulates that an ideal deal working in the mind of Patel was that if Muhammad Ali Jinnah let India have Junagadh and Hyderabad, Patel would not object to Kashmir acceding to Pakistan.[13] In his book Patel: A Life, Gandhi asserts that Jinnah sought to engage the questions of Junagadh and Hyderabad in the same battle. It is suggested that he wanted India to ask for a plebiscite in Junagadh and Hyderabad, knowing thus that the principle then would have to be applied to Kashmir, where the Muslim-majority would, he believed, vote for Pakistan. In a speech at the Bahauddin College in Junagadh following the latter's take-over, Patel said: Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...

If Hyderabad does not see the writing on the wall, it goes the way Junagadh has gone. Pakistan attempted to set off Kashmir against Junagadh. When we raised the question of settlement in a democratic way, they (Pakistan) at once told us that they would consider it if we applied that policy to Kashmir. Our reply was that we would agree to Kashmir if they agreed to Hyderabad.[14]

Patel's opinions were not India's policy, nor were they shared by Nehru, but both leaders were angered at Jinnah's courting the princes of Jodhpur, Bhopal and Indore.[15] In her book The Sole Spokesman, Ayesha Jalal argues that Jinnah had never actually wanted partition, but once created, he wanted Pakistan to become a secular state that was inclusive to its Hindu minority and strategically secure from a geographically-larger India, thus encouraging Hindu states to join. When Jinnah remained adamant about Junagadh, and when the invasion of Kashmir began in September 1947, Patel exerted himself over the defense and integration of Kashmir into India. India and Pakistan clashed over Kashmir in 1965 and 1971, as well as over the sovereignty of the Rann of Kutch in August, 1965. Dr. Ayesha Jalal (Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani historian. ... Combatants India Pakistan Commanders Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri Harbakhsh Singh Ayub Khan Musa Khan Casualties 3,264 killed[1] 8,623 wounded[1] (From July to ceasefire) 3,800 killed[2] (September 6 - 22) 4,000 - 8,000 killed/ captured[3][4][5] (July to September 6) The Indo-Pakistani War... Combatants India Mukti Bahini Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 400,000+ troops Casualties 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] c. ... Rann of Kutch on the Top Left. ...


Integrating the Union

The province of Punjab was one of the largest in British India, and was divided in 1946. Today it stands within Pakistan, and the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.

Many of the 565 states that had joined the Union were very small and lacked resources to sustain their economies and support their growing populations. Many published their own currency, imposed restrictions and their own tax rules that impeded free trade. Although Prajamandals (People's Conventions) had been organised to increase democracy, a contentious debate opened over dissolving the very states India promised to officially recognise just months ago. Challenged by princes, Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon emphasized that without integration, the economies of states would collapse, and anarchy would arise if the princes were unable to provide democracy and govern properly. In December 1947, over 40 states in central and eastern India were merged into the Central Provinces and Orissa. Similarly, Patel also obtained the unification of 222 states in the Kathiawar peninsula of his native Gujarat. In a meeting with the rulers, Menon said: Download high resolution version (1000x822, 294 KB)Punjab Province in 1909. ... Download high resolution version (1000x822, 294 KB)Punjab Province in 1909. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... , Haryana (Hindi: हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, IPA: ) is a state in north India. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x807, 278 KB)Central Provinces and Berar, British India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x807, 278 KB)Central Provinces and Berar, British India. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... Berar is a former province of British India, located in central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1246, 429 KB)Southern portion of Madras Presidency, British India. ... Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... Kerala (IPA: ; Malayalam: കേരളം — Keralam) is a state on the southwestern tropical Malabar Coast of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... A British Raj province comprising British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ...

His Highness the Maharaja of Bhavnagar has already declared himself in favour of a United Kathiawar State. I may also remind you of the metaphor employed by Sardar Patel, of how a large lake cools the atmosphere while small pools become stagnant...It is not possible for 222 States to continue their separate existence for very much longer. The extinction of the separate existence of the States may not be palatable, but unless something is done in good time to stabilise the situation in Kathiawar, the march of events may bring more unpalatable results.[16]

In Punjab, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union was formed. Madhya Bharat and Vindhya Pradesh emerged from the princely states of the former Central India Agency. Himachal Pradesh was created from 30 states of the former Punjab Hill States Agency. A few large states, including Mysore, Kutch, and Bilaspur, remained distinct, but a great many more were merged into the provinces. The Northeast Frontier Agency (present-day Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland) was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs with the Governor of Assam. The Constitution of India, adopted on January 26, 1950 gave the states many powers, but the Union government had superior powers — including dissolving state governments if law and order were disrupted.[17] National institutions were emphasized to prevent factionalism and separatism. A common judiciary and the Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service were created to erect a single government infrastructure. The united leadership to fight social, economic challenges of India for the first time in thousands of years was welcomed by most Indians. , Bhavnagar (Gujarati: , Hindi: , ) is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat. ... The Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) was a former state of India. ... Madhya Bharat is former state in west-central India. ... Vindhya Pradesh is a former state of India. ... The Central India Agency was a political unit of British India, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... The Punjab Hill States Agency was an administrative unit of British India. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... Bilaspur is a location in the state of himachal Pradesh, India. ... North Eastern Frontier Agency was one of the British agencies in British India. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The (IAS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India; other two services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Foreign Service (IFS). ...


Pondicherry and Goa

See also: French India, Portuguese India French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Portuguese India (Portuguese: or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugals colonial holdings in India. ...


In the 1950s, the regions of Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahe and Chandernagore were still colonies of France, and Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa remained as colonies of Portugal. The lodges in Machilipatnam, Kozhikode and Surat were ceded to India in October 1947. An agreement between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France's remaining Indian possessions to choose their political future. Chandernagore was ceded to India on May 2, 1950, and was merged with West Bengal on October 2, 1955. On November 1, 1954, the four enclaves of Pondicherry, Yanaon, Mahe, and Karikal were de facto transferred to the Indian Union and became the Union territory of Pondicherry. Portugal had resisted diplomatic solutions, and refused to transfer power. Dadra and Nagar Haveli were incorporated into India in 1953 after bands of Indian irregulars occupied the lands, but Goa, Daman and Diu remained a bone of contention. Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry | Cities and towns in India ... Yanam or Yanaon is a district of the Union territory of Pondicherry and a town in that district. ... Categories: India geography stubs | Pondicherry ... Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar, is a city in India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Arbitration by the World Court and the United Nations General Assembly favoured self-determination, but Portugal resisted all overtures from India. On December 18, 1961, in what Prime Minister Nehru termed as a police action, the Indian Army liberated Goa, Daman and Diu.[18] The Portuguese surrendered on December 19, and 3,000 Portuguese soldiers became prisoners of war. This take-over ended the last of the European colonies in India. In 1987, Goa achieved statehood. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


States reorganization

The Constitution did not re-shape India's map — it established three orders of states that preserved the territories and governing structures of the recent past. However, India's ethnically diverse population was dissatisfied with colonial-era arrangements and centralised authority, which disempowered ethnic groups that did not form a significant population in a province. The many regional languages of India were without official use and recognition. Political movements arose in the regions demanding official use and autonomy for the Marathi-, Telugu-, Tamil-speaking regions of the Bombay state and Madras state. Incidents of violence grew in cities like Bombay and Madras as the demands gained momentum and became a potential source of conflict. Potti Sreeramulu undertook a fast-unto-death, demanding an Andhra state. Sreeramulu lost his life in the protest, but Andhra State was soon created in 1953 out of the northern, Telugu-speaking districts of Madras state as a result of aroused popular support. This article needs to be wikified. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Bombay state is a former state of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... This is duplicate of Potti_Sriramulu Sri Sriramulu Potti (1901-1952) was an Indian freedom fighter. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ...


Prime Minister Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to recommend a reorganization of state boundaries along linguistic lines. The States Reorganisation Act of 1956, which went into effect on November 1, 1956, was the largest single change to state borders in the history of independent India. Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore, Punjab, and Rajasthan were enlarged by the addition of smaller states and parts of adjacent states. Hyderabad was partitioned among Bombay, Mysore, and Andhra Pradesh states, and the new linguistic state of Kerala was created by merging the Malayalam-speaking state of Travancore-Cochin with Malabar District of Madras state. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Thiru-Kochi, formerly known as Travancore-Cochin, is a former state of India. ... Malabar District was an administrative district of British India and independent Indias Madras State. ...


On May 1, 1960, Gujarat and Maharashtra were created out of Bombay State, which had been enlarged by the Act, as a result of conflicting linguistic movements. Violent clashes erupted in Mumbai and villages on the border with Karnataka over issues of Maharashtrian territory. Maharashtra still claims Belgaum as its own. In 1965, unrest broke out in Madras when Hindi was to take effect as India's national language. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Belgaum (proposed to be renamed Belagaavi) (Kannada: ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ, Marathi: बेळगांव;  ), also known as Belgaon, is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka, India. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ...


Punjab and northeastern India

A culture of centralization was resented across many regions — it stifled regional autonomy and cultural identity. Inefficiency, corruption and economic stagnation in 1960s and 1970s aided this argument. Although Punjab was one of the most prosperous states, demands for greater autonomy and statehood arose. In 1966, Punjab was divided into Sikh-majority Punjab and Hindu-majority Haryana, with their joint capital in Chandigarh, a union territory. Certain northern districts were allocated to Himachal Pradesh. Jawaharlal Nehru had opposed creating separate states for different religious communities, but it was carried out by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who faced pressure from the SGPC and leaders like Master Tara Singh. When the Khalistan insurgency created turmoil in the 1980s, the Army attacked militant encampments in the Golden Temple.[19] The bloody outcome outraged the Sikhs, who saw it as a desecration of their holiest shrine by the Government. Indira Gandhi was assassinated, which in turn resulted in communal violence in Delhi. The Government employed martial law and force to crush the militant groups, but also began a process of devolving powers to the states as a means to end separatism. Punjab today is one of the most peaceful and prosperous states. , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... , Haryana (Hindi: हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, IPA: ) is a state in north India. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... A young Indira Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, during one of the latters fasts Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindi: ) (19 November 1917 - October 31, 1984) ran a whole big country. ... The Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee is a sikh religious organization responsible for the upkeep of Gurudwaras. ... Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, Rawalpindi, Punjab - 22 November 1967, Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century. ... Ĩ:This is about the proposed nation-state, see Khalistan movement for a detailed article on the attempted creation of this state A proposed flag for Khalistan Khālistān (East Punjabi: , West Punjabi: ), meaning The Land of the Pure, was the name given to a proposed nation-state by Jagjit... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ...


China does not recognise the McMahon Line that is the framework of its boundary with India, and lays a claim to the territory of Arunachal Pradesh — briefly occupied by Chinese forces in the Sino-Indian War. In 1967, Chinese and Indian forces clashed at the Chola Border Post in Sikkim, whose merger with India was disputed for long but resolved in 2003.[20] Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Assam, known as the Seven Sisters, became states between the 1970s and 1980s. In 1975, India under Indira Gandhi integrated Sikkim into the Union after a plebiscite resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of merger with India, but the Army had to forcibly take control from the Chogyal. In the 1960–70s, violent militancy arose in Assam and Nagaland.[21] Neglect and discrimination by the Union government, as well as poverty and cultural aversion resulted in violence against refugees from Bangladesh and other settlers. The ULFA insurgency paralyzed Assam in the 1980s. Similar tensions in Mizoram and Tripura forced the Indian government to impose a martial law environment. The decline of popular appeal, increased autonomy, economic development and rising tourism has helped considerably reduce violence across the region. The McMahon Line crosses a high-altitude wasteland which was briefly the focus of world attention in 1962 as Indian and Chinese forces struggled for control. ... Combatants China India Commanders Zhang Guohua[4] Brij Mohan Kaul Strength 80,000[5][6] Casualties Killed 1,460 (Chinese sources)[7] None captured[8][9][10][11] Wounded 1,697[7] Killed 3,128 (Indian sources)[12] Captured 3,968[2] Wounded 548[13] The Sino-Indian War (Simplified... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... The Seven Sister States of India The Seven Sister States are a region in northeastern India, comprising the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Chogyal were the monarchs of the former country of Sikkim. ... The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist organization from Assam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Modern developments

Several new states were created in 2000 — Chhattisgarh (from Madhya Pradesh), Jharkhand (from Bihar) and Uttarakhand (from Uttar Pradesh). This resulted from a national debate concerning the purported need to partition large states burdened with socioeconomic challenges, including overpopulation and the political marginalisation of ethnic minorities. Such debate has not ceased: there are proposals for the creation of Vidarbha from Maharashtra, Telangana from Andhra Pradesh, Bundelkhand from parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, and Jammu and Ladakh from Kashmir.[22] , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Map of the districts comprising the Vidarbha region. ... Location of Telangana region Telangana region marked in white. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ...


Correspondingly, governments have begun devolving power to regional levels as a means of increasing popular representation and administrative efficiency, as well as alleviating social problems. These include disparities in economic growth — despite India's rapid economic development — and the corresponding easing of socioeconomic pressures faced by communities across these regions. Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are forming special commissions for their Purvanchal, Rayalaseema, Telangana and Coastal Andhra regions. Groups, including self-appointed representatives of northeastern India's Bodo people, are pushing — often via violent insurgency — for either the formation of a Bodoland state or independence.[23] In 2003, an agreement was signed between the Union government, the state of Assam and the main Bodo separatist groups. This created the Bodoland Territorial Councils, which granted autonomy to regions with significant Bodo populations. Other groups are pushing for the conferral of statehood upon Kutch, Cooch Behar, Gorkhaland, Kamtapur,Tulu Nadu, and Coorg. Purvanchal is a geographic region of north-central India, which comprises the eastern end of Uttar Pradesh state. ... the region marked in green Rayalaseema is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... Coastal Andhra is an unofficial region of Indias Andhra Pradesh state. ... A Bodo girl in the traditional Bodo dokhna. ... National colours of Bodoland Bodoland is the name adopted by Bodo nationalists in Assam, India to denote their homeland, over which they want to exercise greater control. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... For other uses see Cooch Behar (disambiguation) Cooch Behar (Bengali: কোচবিহার Pronunciation: kOOch bÄ­här`) is the district headquarters and the largest town of Cooch Behar District of Indian state of West Bengal. ... Gorkaland is the name given to the area around Darjeeling and the Duars in north West Bengal in India. ... Kamtapur is a state demanded by the Rajvanshi people of Jalpaiguri district in northern West Bengal, India. ... Map of Tulu Nadu with respect to the rest of Karnataka. ... now. ...


See also

 v  d  e Indian Independence Movement
History: Colonisation - British East India Company - Plassey - Buxar - British India - French India - Portuguese India - More...
Philosophies: Indian nationalism - Swaraj - Gandhism - Satyagraha - Hindu nationalism - Indian Muslim nationalism - Swadeshi - Socialism
Events and movements: Rebellion of 1857 - Partition of Bengal - Revolutionaries - Ghadar Conspiracy - Champaran and Kheda - Jallianwala Bagh Massacre - Non-Cooperation - Flag Satyagraha - Bardoli - 1928 Protests - Nehru Report - Purna Swaraj - Salt Satyagraha - Act of 1935 - Legion Freies Indien - Cripps' mission - Quit India - Indian National Army - Bombay Mutiny
Organisations: Indian National Congress - Ghadar - Home Rule - Khudai Khidmatgar - Swaraj Party - Anushilan Samiti - Azad Hind - More...
Indian leaders: Mangal Pandey - Rani of Jhansi - Bal Gangadhar Tilak - Gopal Krishna Gokhale - Lala Lajpat Rai - Bipin Chandra Pal - Mahatma Gandhi - M. Ali Jinnah - Sardar Patel - Subhash Chandra Bose - Badshah Khan - Jawaharlal Nehru - Maulana Azad - Chandrasekhar Azad - Rajaji - Bhagat Singh - Sarojini Naidu - Purushottam Das Tandon - Tanguturi Prakasam - Alluri Sitaramaraju - More...
British Raj: Robert Clive - James Outram - Dalhousie - Irwin - Linlithgow - Wavell - Stafford Cripps - Mountbatten - More...
Independence: Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Partition of India - Political integration - Constitution - Republic of India

The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal), La Compagnie des Indes Orientales Commanders Colonel Robert Clive (later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey) Mir Jafar Ali Khan (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab), M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council) Strength 2,200 European soldiers... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... French India is highlighted in light blue on the subcontinent. ... Portuguese India (Portuguese: or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugals colonial holdings in India. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Gandhism (or Gandhi-ism) is an informal reference to the vision, core inspirations, principles, beliefs and philosophy of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian Independence Movement. ... Mohandas Karamchand “Mahatma” Gandhi, who developed Satyagraha Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas K. Gandhi. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu polity [1] (Hindu Rashtra), and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... Swadeshi is the Indian term for the boycott of British goods. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Combatants Indian Freedom Fighters, Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi, Indian civilians in some areas. ... The Indian Independence Movement was a series of revolutions empowered by the people of India put forth to battle the British Empire for complete political independence, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... The Ghadar conspiracy of 1915 was a conspiracy formulated by the Ghadar Party to forment and trigger a Pan-Indian mutiny in the British Indian Army, from Punjab to Singapore, in February 1915 to overthrow The Raj in the Indian subcontinent. ... The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919. ... The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and... ... Flag Satyagraha is a term that describes campaigns of peaceful civil disobedience during the Indian independence movement that focused on exercising the right and freedom to hoist the nationalist flag and challenge the legitimacy of British Raj in India through the defiance of laws prohibiting the hoisting of nationalist flags... The Bardoli Satyagraha of 1925 in the state of Gujarat, India during the British Raj was a major episode of civil disobedience and revolt in the Indian Independence Movement. ... The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform in that colony. ... The Nehru Report (1928) was a memorandum outlining a proposed new Dominion (see dominion status) constitution for India. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... 24. ... The Legion Freies Indien, or the Indische Freiwilligen-Legion Regiment 950 variously known as the Tiger Legion, the Free India Legion (in English), The Azad Hind Legion, or the I.R 950 (Indisches Infanterie Regiment 950) was an Indian armed unit raised in 1941 attached to the Wehrmacht, ostensibly according... Sir Stafford Cripps Mission was an attempt in late March of 1942 by the British War Cabinet to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in World War II. Led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the majority Indian National Congress and its supporters were engaged in a program of... The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement in India launched in August 1942 in response to Mahatma Gandhis call for immediate independence of India. ... The Indian National Army (I.N.A) or Azad Hind Fauj was the army of the Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (The Provisional Government of Free India ) which fought along with the Japanese 15th Army during the Japanese Campaign in Burma, and in the Battle of Imphal, during the Second... The Bombay Mutiny was the mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy in Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 21 February 1946. ... The flag adopted in 1931 and used by the Provisional Government of Free India during the Second World War. ... The Ghadar Party was an organization founded by the Indians(mostly Punjabis, of the United States and Canada in June, 1913 with the aim to liberate India from British rule. ... Home Rule flag The Home Rule Movement was formed by Annie Besant and Lokmanya Tilak with the aim of seeking a Dominion status within the British Empire to the Indian Empire in 1917. ... An old red shirt activist, picture taken by Mukulika Banerjee: The Pathan Unarmed Khudai Khidmatgar (Pashto: خدای خدمتگر) literally translates as the servants of God. ... Swaraj Party, a political party of colonial India, was organized in 1923 by Deshbandhu Chitaranjan Das (1870-1925) and Motilal Nehru (1861-1931), to participate in legislative councils. ... Anushilan Samiti was the principal secret revolutionary organisation operating in Bengal in the first quarter of the 20th century. ... Flag of the Provisional Government of Free India. ... For the Hindi film of the same name, see The Rising (Indian film). ... Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi (c. ... Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) born May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, India was one of the founding social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai 1892–1893, Rattanbai Petit 1918–1929 Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place... Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel (October 31, 1875–December 15, 1950), popularly referred to as Sardar Patel, was an Indian statesman, an important leader of the Indian National Congress and the deputy Prime Minister in the first cabinet of Independent India. ... Subhash Chandra Bose, (Bangla: নেতাজী সুভাষ চন্দ্র বসু ( सुभाष चदंर वसु ) Shubhash Chôndro Boshu) (January 23, 1897 – presumably August 18, 1945 [although this is disputed]note), also known as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian Independence Movement against the British Raj and was a prominent supporter of the Axis dictatorships as... Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (also known as Bacha Khan) (1890 - January 20, 1988) was a Pathan political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition to British rule during the final years of the Empire on the Indian sub-continent. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: , from Persian Javâher-e Laal, meaning Red Jewel) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a political leader of the Indian National Congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of Independent India. ... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... Chandrasekhar Azad चंद्रशेखर आजाद (July 23, 1906 – February 27, 1931) was an Indian revolutionary and the mentor of Bhagat Singh. ... Rajaji Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (December 1878 - December 25, 1972), known as or Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian lawyer, writer, statesman and a Hindu spiritualist. ... Bhagat Singh (Punjabi,Gurmukhi: ਭਗਤ ਸਿੰਘ) (Urdu-Shahmukhi: ) (September 28,[1] 1907–March 23, 1931) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most famous revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. ... Sarojini Naidu (February 13, 1879 - March 2, 1949) was known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India) and was a child prodigy, freedom fighter and poet. ... Purushottam Das Tandon (August 1, 1882 – July 1, 1962), was a freedom fighter, social reformer and national political leader of India. ... It has been suggested that Tanguturi Prakasham be merged into this article or section. ... Image:D:Alluri Sitarama raju. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Sir James Outram Sir James Outram (January 29, 1803-March 11, 1863), English general, and one of the heroes of the Indian Mutiny, was the son of Benjamin Outram of Butterley Hall, Derbyshire, civil engineer. ... James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess and 10th Earl of Dalhousie (April 22, 1812–December 19, 1860) was a British statesman, and a colonial administrator in India. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (16 April 1881–23 December 1959), known as The Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as The Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a British Conservative politician. ... Victor Alexander John Hope, 2nd Marquess of Linlithgow (24 September 1887 - 5 January 1952) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. ... Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, CMG, MC, PC (May 5, 1883 – May 24, 1950) was a British field marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, known as Stafford Cripps, (April 24, 1889 - April 21, 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years following World War II. // Cripps was born in London. ... Admiral of the Fleet Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas George Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, PC (25 June 1900–27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and finalize plans for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... 1. ... This article is under construction. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... “Andhra” redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi: Aruṇācal PradeÅ›) is the eastern most state on Indias north-east frontier. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Haryana (Hindi: हरियाणा, Punjabi: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, IPA: ) is a state in north India. ... , Himachal Pradesh   (Panjabi: ਹਿਮਾਚਲ ਪਰਦੇਸ਼,(Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA: ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the area controlled by India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झारखंड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Bengali: মণিপুর, Meitei Mayek: mnipur) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखंड), known as Uttaranchal from 2000 to 2006, became the 27th state of the Republic of India on November 9, 2000. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh   (Punjabi: , Hindi: , pronunciation: ) also called The City Beautiful , is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 406. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  2. ^ Sardar Patel. University of California. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  3. ^ Menon, V. P. (1998). Integration of Indian States. India: Orient Longman, 99-100. ASIN: B0007ILF54. 
  4. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 411-12. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  5. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 413-14. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  6. ^ The Constitution (26th Amendment) Act, 1971 (PHP). National Informatics Centre (2004-11-09). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  7. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 292. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  8. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 438. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  9. ^ "Instrument of Accession" (PHP), Hindustan Times, 2006-05-02. Retrieved on 2006-10-27. 
  10. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 480. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  11. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 481-82. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  12. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 483. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  13. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 430-38. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  14. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 438. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  15. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (1991). Patel: A Life. India: Navajivan, 407-08. ASIN B0006EYQ0A. 
  16. ^ Menon, V. P. (1998). Integration of Indian States. India: Orient Longman, 193-94. ASIN: B0007ILF54. 
  17. ^ President's Rule has been imposed frequently in states, especially during the Indian Emergency (1974–1977) under the Articles 352–360.
  18. ^ Liberation of Goa (PHP). Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  19. ^ Operation Bluestar (PHP). Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  20. ^ The Chola Incident (PHP). Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  21. ^ K. P. S. Gill. Isolation breeds terrorism (PHP). South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  22. ^ "Jammu State Demand" (PHP), Rediff.com. Retrieved on 2006-10-27. 
  23. ^ Bodoland Insurgency (PHP). Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.

Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the Partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the Partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Rajmohan Gandhi, Patel: A Life (1990, Navajivan, Ahmedabad; ASIN: B0006EYQ0A)
  • V.P. Menon, Integration of Indian States (Orient Longman, 1998; ASIN: B0007ILF54)
  • V.P. Menon, Transfer of Power in India (Re-published: Sangam Books Ltd., 1999; ISBN 81-250-1596-5])
  • Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman (Cambridge University Press, 1994; ISBN 0-521-45850-1)
  • Pyarelal Nayyar, Mahatma Gandhi: the Last Phase (Navajivan, 1958; ASIN: B0007JRD6I)
  • H. V. Hodson, The Great Divide (Oxford University Press, 2005; ISBN 0-19-577340-3)
  • Alan Campbell-Johnson, Mission with Mountbatten (Penguin Books Ltd., 1985; ISBN 0-241-11536-1)
  • Zubrzycki, John. (2006) The Last Nizam: An Indian Prince in the Australian Outback. Pan Macmillan, Australia. ISBN 978-0-3304-2321-2.

Rajmohan Gandhi is a biographer and grandson of Mahatma Gandhi. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... Vapal Pangunni Menon was an Indian civil servant who played a vital role in the partition of India and the integration of independent India, during the period 1945-1950. ... Dr. Ayesha Jalal (Urdu: عائشہ جلال) is a Pakistani historian. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Pyarelal Nayyar (? - 1982) was the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi in his later years. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

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