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Encyclopedia > Political geography

Political geography is the field of human geography that is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally political geography adopts a three scale structure for the purposes of analysis with the study of the state at the centre, above this is the study of international relations (or geopolitics), and below it is the study of localities. The primary concerns of the sub-discipline can be summarised as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory. Population density by country, 2006 Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about the South Carolina newspaper; The State is also the name of a 1990s television series and an album by Nickelback. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ...

Contents

History

The origins of political geography lie in the origins of human geography itself and the early practitioners were concerned mainly with the military and political consequences of the relationships between physical geography, state territories, and state power. In particular there was a close association with regional geography, with its focus on the unique characteristics of regions, and environmental determinism with its emphasis on the influence of the physical environment on human activities. This association found expression in the work of the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel who, in 1897 in his book Politische Geographie, developed the concept of Lebensraum (living space) which explicitly linked the cultural growth of a nation with territorial expansion, and which was later used to provide academic legitimation for the imperialist expansion of the German Third Reich in the 1930s. Regional geography is a study of regions throughout the world in order to understand or define the unique characteristics of a particular region which consists of natural as well as human elements. ... Environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism, is the view that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture. ... Friedrich Ratzels photograph from the University of Leipzig Friedrich Ratzel (August 30, 1844, Karlsruhe, Baden – August 9, 1904, Ammerland) was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for coining the term Lebensraum (living space). // Ratzels father was the head of the household staff of the Grand Duke of Baden. ... Lebensraum (German for habitat or living space) was one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology. ...


The British geographer Halford Mackinder was also heavily influenced by environmental determinism and in developing his concept of the 'geopolitical pivot of history' or heartland (first developed in 1904) he argued that the era of sea power was coming to an end and that land based powers were in the ascendant, and, in particular, that whoever controlled the heartland of 'Euro-Asia' would control the world. This theory involved concepts diametrically opposed to the ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahan about the significance of sea power in world conflict. The heartland theory hypothesized the possibility of a huge empire being created which didn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to supply its military industrial complex, and that this empire could not be defeated by the rest of the world coalitioned against it. This perspective proved influential throughout the period of the Cold War, underpinning military thinking about the creation of buffer states between East and West in central Europe. Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (September 27, 1840–December 1, 1914) was a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ...


The heartland theory depicted a world divided into a Heartland (Eastern Europe/Western Russia); World Island (Eurasia and Africa); Peripheral Islands (British Isles, Japan, Indonesia and Australia) and New World (The Americas). Mackinder claimed that whoever controlled the Heartland would have control of the world. He used this warning to politically influence events such as the Treaty of Versailles, where buffer states were created between the USSR and Germany, to prevent either of the them controlling the Heartland. At the same time, Ratzel was creating a theory of states based around the concepts of Lebensraum and Social Darwinism. He argued that states were 'organisms' that needed sufficient room in which to live. Both of these writers created the idea of a political and geographical science, with an objective view of the world. Pre-World War II political geography was concerned largely with these issues of global power struggles and influencing state policy, and the above theories were taken on board by German geopoliticians (see Geopolitik) such as Karl Haushofer who - perhaps inadvertently - greatly influenced Nazi political theory. A form of politics legitimated by 'scientific' theories such as a 'neutral' requirement for state expansion was very influential at this time. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... General Karl Haushofer General Karl Ernst Haushofer (August 27, 1869, Munich - March 13, 1946, Pähl) was a German geopolitician. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


The close association with environmental determinism and the freezing of political boundaries during the Cold War led to a considerable decline in the importance of political geography which was described by Brian Berry in 1968 as 'a moribund backwater'. Although in other areas of human geography a number of new approaches were invigorating research, including quantitative spatial science, behavioural studies, and structural marxism, these were largely ignored by political geographers whose main point of reference continued to be the regional approach. As a result much political geography of this period was descriptive with little attempt to produce generalisations from the data collected. It was not until 1976 that Richard Muir could argue that political geography might not be a dead duck but could in fact be a phoenix.


Areas of Study

From the late-1970s onwards political geography has undergone a renaissance, and could fairly be described as one of the most dynamic of the sub-disciplines today. The revival was underpinned by the launch of the journal Political Geography Quarterly (and its expansion to bi-monthly production as Political Geography). In part this growth has been associated with the adoption by political geographers of the approaches taken up earlier in other areas of human geography, for example, Ron Johnston's work on electoral geography relied heavily on the adoption of quantitative spatial science, Robert Sack's work on territoriality was based on the behavioural approach, and Peter Taylor's work on World Systems Theory owes much to developments within structural marxism. However the recent growth in the vitality and importance of the sub-discipline is also related to changes in the world as a result of the end of the Cold War, including the emergence of a new world order (which as yet is only poorly defined), and the development of new research agendas, such as the more recent focus on social movements and political struggles going beyond the study of nationalism with its explicit territorial basis. Recently, too, there has been increasing interest in the geography of green politics (see, for example, David Pepper's work), including the geopolitics of environmental protest, and in the capacity of our existing state apparatus and wider political institutions to address contemporary and future environmental problems competently.


Political geography has extended the scope of traditional political science approaches by acknowledging that the exercise of power is not restricted to states and bureaucracies, but is part of everyday life. This has resulted in the concerns of political geography increasingly overlapping with those of other human geography sub-disciplines such as economic geography, and, particularly, with those of social and cultural geography in relation to the study of the politics of place (see, for example, the books by David Harvey and Joe Painter). Although contemporary political geography maintains many of its traditional concerns (see below) the multi-disciplinary expansion into related areas is part of a general process within human geography which involves the blurring of boundaries between formerly discrete areas of study, and through which the discipline as a whole is enriched.


In particular, then, modern political geography often considers:

  • How and why states are organized into regional groupings, both formally (e.g. the European Union) and informally (e.g. the Third World)
  • The relationship between states and former colonies, and how these are propagated over time, for example through neo-colonialism
  • The relationship between a government and its people
  • The relationships between states including international trades and treaties
  • The functions, demarcations and policings of boundaries
  • How imagined geographies have political implications
  • The influence of political power on geographical space
  • The study of election results (electoral geography)

For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Neo Colonialism is the belife that former colonies of European powers have never recieved economic freedom from their former rulers. ... The concept of Imagined geographies has evolved out of the work of Edward Said, particularly his critique on Orientalism. ...

Critical Political Geography

Critical political geography is mainly concerned with the criticism of traditional political geographies. Focusing on the expansion of geographical knowledge, within each critical argument is generally nested an alternative cause for the issue at hand, such as within Andrew Feenberg's Critical Theory of Technology.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Notable Political Geographers

John A. Agnew was a prominent British American political geographer, 2003-2004 Guggenheim Award winner and currently Professor of Geography at UCLA. In Place and Politics (1987), John Agnew contends that for a space to become a place, three requirements need to be met : A specific location, something that answers... Categories: People stubs | 1861 births | 1947 deaths | British MPs | Geographers | Geopoliticians ... Derek Gregory (1 March 1951) is an influential British geographer from the United Kingdom. ... Doreen Elizabeth Massey, Baroness Massey of Darwen (born 5 September 1938) is a Labour member of the House of Lords. ... General Karl Haushofer General Karl Ernst Haushofer (August 27, 1869, Munich - March 13, 1946, Pähl) was a German geopolitician. ... Friedrich Ratzels photograph from the University of Leipzig Friedrich Ratzel (August 30, 1844, Karlsruhe, Baden – August 9, 1904, Ammerland) was a German geographer and ethnographer, notable for coining the term Lebensraum (living space). // Ratzels father was the head of the household staff of the Grand Duke of Baden. ... Yves Lacoste is a French geographer and geopolitician. ... Ellen Churchill Semple (January 8, 1863, Louisville, Kentucky – May 8, 1933, West Palm Beach, Florida). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Richard Hartshorne (1899-1992), was a prominent American geographer. ...

References

  1. ^ faculty.washington.edu/jarosz - Journal articles with peer review

to be added - see further reading for initial indications

Further reading

  • Agnew J 1997 Political geography: a reader London: Arnold.
  • Buleon P 1992 'The state of political geography in France in the 1970s and 1980s' Progress in Human Geography Vol. 16 (1) pp24–40
  • Feenberg A 2006 "CRITICAL THEORY OF TECHNOLOGY." SFU. 22 May <http://www.sfu.ca/~andrewf/CRITSAM2.HTM>
  • Harvey D 1996 Justice, nature and the geography of difference Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Johnston RJ 1979 Political, electoral and spatial systems Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Painter J 1995 Politics, geography and 'political geography': a critical perspective London: Arnold.
  • Pepper D 1996 Modern environmentalism London: Routledge.
  • Sack RD 1986 Human territoriality: its theory and history Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Short JR 1993 An introduction to political geography: 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
  • Taylor PJ 1993 Political geography: world economy, nation state and locality Harlow: Longman Scientific & Technical.

See also


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