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Encyclopedia > Political divisions of Mexico
Mexico

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Mexico
Image File history File links Mexico_coat_of_arms. ... Politics of Mexico takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. These states conform one federated State or Union that has had exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal District a territory that does not belong to a state in particular but to all, as well as the islands, atolls and reefs that do not belong to any state. The Federal District is coextensive with Mexico City, capital of the federation and seat of government. The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... The Mexican Executive Cabinet is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... The LX Legislature of the Congress of Mexico will be meeting from September 1, 2006, to August 31, 2009. ... The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (SCJN) is the highest Federal court in the United Mexican States. ... This article lists political parties in Mexico. ... Politics of Mexico Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Mexico ... The general election was held in Mexico on Wednesday, July 6, 1988. ... On Sunday August 18, 1991 they were held in Mexico legislative elections, in which they were chosen to federal level: 32 Senators. ... This line is only vandalism. ... On Sunday July 6, 1997 they were held in Mexico legislative elections, in which they were chosen to federal level: 32 Senators. ... Mexico held a general election on Sunday, 2 July 2000. ... A number of elections, both federal and local, took place in Mexico during 2003: // Chamber of Deputies – 500 federal deputies Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Colima state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Nuevo León state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2003 Sonora... A number of local elections took place in Mexico during 2004: // Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Chihuahua state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Durango state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Zacatecas state election Governor, state congress, and mayors See: 2004 Aguascalientes state... A number of local elections took place in Mexico during 2005: // Governor, five mayors, and 21 (15+6) local deputies See: 2005 Baja California Sur state election Governor, mayors, and local congress See: 2005 Guerrero state election Governor, eight mayors, and 25 (15+10) local deputies See: 2005 Quintana Roo... A number of elections on the federal and local level are scheduled to take place in Mexico during 2006. ... The Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) is an autonomous, public organization responsible for organizing federal elections in Mexico, that is, those related to the election of president of the United Mexican States and to the election of Lower and Upper Chamber members that constitute the Mexican Union Congress. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Traditionally, the Government of Mexico has sought to maintain its interests abroad and project its influence largely through moral persuasion. ... The Mexican military forces are composed of the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force as a subordinate entity) and the Mexican Navy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Nickname: La Ciudad de los Palacios Country Mexico State Federal District Founded (as Tenochtitlan) 1325 Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard Area    - City 1,479 1 km² Elevation 2,240 m Population    - City (2005) 8,720,916  - Density 5,741/km² Time zone Central Time zone (UTC-6) 1 Area of...

Contents

Origin of the federation

Map of the Mexican federation in 1847

The United Mexican states were born as an independent Union after the ratification of the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States, on October 4, 1824. During the course of the year the several states what would form the federation had begun to write and ratify their own constitutions. Central America which had been part of the ephemeral Mexican Empire, decided not to join the Union and to become an independent state made up by the territory that once had formed the Captaincy General of Guatemala. In the Central American region of Chiapas a movement requested a referendum to let their citizens choose whether to remain as part of Mexico or to join the Central American newly formed federation. The majority of the population voted for the Union to Mexico, and Chiapas seceded from Central America and joined the Mexican federation in 1824. Thus, the founding states were 19: Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila y Texas, Durango, Guanaxuato, México, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla de los Ángeles, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sonora y Sinaloa (also called Estado de Occidente, "Western State"), Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Xalisco, Yucatán and Zacatecas. Three federal territories were formed: Higher California, Lower California, Colima, and Santa Fe of New Mexico. Later that year the Federal District was created. Tlaxcala (after a long debate at the Congress) became a federal territory on November 24, 1824. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The 1824 Constitution was the first full constitution adopted by the Mexican Republic. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... The Captaincy General of Guatamala (Spanish: Capitania General de Goathemalawa) was an administrative division in Spanish America which covered much of Central America, extending from the Soconusco region - located in what is now the southern part of Mexico (states of Chiapas, Tabasco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan) - to Costa Rica. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Chihuahua is a state in northwestern Mexico. ... Coahuila y Tejas (or Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... The United Mexican States. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Querétaro (formal name: Querétaro de Arteaga) is a state in central Mexico. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... Sonora y Sinaloa (Sonora and Sinaloa) was one of the constituent states of the Mexican Republic under its Constitution of 1824. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... Jalisco is one of FAGGITS of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Colima is a state in western Mexico. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Tlaxcala is the name of both a state of Mexico and of that states capital city. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The federation was dissolved on two separate occasions during the 19th century and a centralist type of government was established. The first period spanned from 1835 to 1846 starting with the ratification of the Siete Leyes (Seven Laws), the foundational and constitutional framework that created the "First Central Republic" and after a brief dictatorial period, the ratification of the Bases Orgánicas de la República confirmed this form of internal organization and created the "Second Central Republic". During this period Texas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas y Yucatán declared their independence from Mexico if federalism was not fully restored. Texas became an independent republic in 1836 and never joined Mexico again. Yucatan became an independent republic for 2 years and rejoined the Union when Antonio López de Santa Anna allowed the state to retains its political and fiscal autonomy (a constitution and custom laws) which differentiated the state from the rest of the states which had been transformed into "departaments". It became independent again when these privileges were abolished, but rejoined the Union after the Mexican-American War. After the Mexican-American War, and through the Pact of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Mexico had to cede the territories of New Mexico and the Upper California to the United States. These territories would eventually become the US states California, New Mexico and Arizona, and included regions that would become part of the states of Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas and Wyoming. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Texas is the gayest motherfucking state out there they can suck my big black balls. ... October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, also known simply as Santa Anna (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876) was a Mexican dictator who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain, and... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... It has been suggested that Arizona Governors Mansion be merged into this article or section. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Federalism was restored in 1846, and in 1857 a new federal constitution was ratified. In 1864, the federation was dissolved for a second time and a constitutional and centralist monarchy was established, headed by Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg. Maximilian was deposed in 1867 by the republican forces, and the federation was finally restored. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The federation

The states

The states of the Mexican federation are free, sovereign, autonomous and independent from each other. They have the right to create their own constitution. However, they cannot make an alliance with any other state of the Union nor with any independent state except those agreements between the states located at the international borders if there is an unexpected invasion from a foreign nation.


The political organization of each state is based on a separation of powers in a congressional system: the legislative power is represented by a unicameral congress, the executive power is independent from the legislative and is headed by a "governor" and its cabinet, the judicial power is exercised by a Court of Justice. A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Every state is represented by three senators in the Senate: two are elected through universal suffrage by plurality; the third one is assigned to the "first minority" party. The federation conforms a single constituency from which 32 senators are elected by proportional representation with open party lists. Deputies, on the contrary, do not represent the states, but the citizens. The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate form the Congress of the Union. Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, or economic or social status. ... A plurality, or relative/simple majority as it is also referred to outside the United States (especially in non-English speaking countries; in the US, simple majority has another meaning), is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority in the American sense of the... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is an electoral system delivering a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...

The United Mexican States
State Capital Admission
to Union
Population (2005) Area (km²)
1. Aguascalientes Aguascalientes 1835 1 051 000 5 625
2. Baja California Mexicali 1952 2 842 000 71 546
3. Baja California Sur La Paz 1974 517 000 73 943
4. Campeche Campeche 1858 751 000 57 727
5. Chiapas Tuxtla Gutiérrez 1824 4 256 000 73 681
6. Chihuahua Chihuahua 1824 3 238 000 247 487
7. Coahuila de Zaragoza Saltillo 1824 1 2 475 000 151 445
8. Colima Colima 1857 562 000 5 627
9. Durango Durango 1824 1 489 000 123 367
10. Guanajuato Guanajuato 1824 4 893 000 30 621
11. Guerrero Chilpancingo de los Bravo 1858 3 116 000 63 618
12. Hidalgo Pachuca de Soto 1869 2 334 000 20 856
13. Jalisco Guadalajara 1824 6 652 000 78 630
14. México Toluca de Lerdo 1824 14 161 000 22 333
15. Michoacán de Ocampo Morelia 1824 3 988 000 58 667
16. Morelos Cuernavaca 1869 1 605 000 4 892
17. Nayarit Tepic 1917 943 000 27 862
18. Nuevo León Monterrey 1824 2 4 164 000 64 203
19. Oaxaca Oaxaca de Juárez 1824 3 522 000 93 343
20. Puebla Puebla de Zaragoza 1824 5 391 000 34 251
21. Querétaro Arteaga Santiago de Querétaro 1824 1 593 000 11 658
22. Quintana Roo Chetumal 1974 1 134 000 42 535
23. San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí 1824 2 412 000 61 165
24. Sinaloa Culiacán 1831 3 2 610 000 57 331
25. Sonora Hermosillo 1831 3 2 384 000 179 516
26. Tabasco Villahermosa 1824 2 013 000 24 747
27. Tamaulipas Ciudad Victoria 1824 2 3 020 000 80 148
28. Tlaxcala Tlaxcala de Xicoténcatl 1857 1 061 000 3 997
29. Veracruz Xalapa 1824 7 081 000 71 856
30. Yucatán Mérida 1824 4 1 803 000 39 671
31. Zacatecas Zacatecas 1824 1 357 000 75 416


1Joined the federation under the name of Coahuila and Texas. In 1833 the district of Bexar seceded constitutionally from the state to form the separate state of Texas which became an independent republic in 1836, and the name of the state was shortened to Coahuila. Briefly, in 1856 Nuevo León annexed Coahuila in a referendum and declared its independence from Mexico. After the defeat of the separatist forces, Coahuila separated from Nuevo León.

2Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and Coahuila declared their independence form Mexico and form a de facto independent country for 250 days, after which the separatist forces were defeated and they rejoined the federation.


3In 1824 this state joined the Union as the state of Sonora and Sinaloa, though its own constitution chose the name "Estado de Occidente". In 1830 the state was divided in two to form the separate states of Sonora and Sinaloa, which, after ratifying their own constitutions joined the federation in 1831.


4The Captaincy General of Yucatán joined the Mexican Empire and then the federation in 1824. It became an independent republic in two occasions (1841-1843 and 1846-1848). This state comprised the territories of Campeche, Quintana Roo and Yucatán.
Aguascalientes is a state of Mexico, situated in the center of the country. ... Main Central Square often called The Exedra The city of Aguascalientes is the capital of the state of Aguascalientes in western central Mexico. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... now. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is a small city on the shores of the Gulf of California. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The State of Campeche was long a part of Yucatán and shared its history through the mid 19th century. ... View of Campeche, showing Cathedral and part of old city fortifications Campeche is a city of Mexico located at 19°85′ N 90°53′ W, on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Tuxtla Gutiérrez is the capital city of the Mexican state of Chiapas. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Chihuahua is a state in northwestern Mexico. ... The city of Chihuahua is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Saltillo is a city in northeast Mexico, located at 25°42′ N 101°00′ W. It is the current capital of the state of Coahuila. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Colima is a state in western Mexico. ... hi == Headline text == HEY PEOPLE WHAT IT DO??????????? Colima is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The city of Durango (formally: Victoria de Durango) is the capital of the state of Durango, Mexico, located at . ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... A view of downtown Guanajuato from one of its many hills. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Chilpancingo (formally: Chilpancingo de los Bravos) is a city in the state of Guerrero, Mexico, located at 17° 33′0″N, 99° 30′0″W. It is the capital of Guerrero. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... Pachuca (elevation: 2,426 meters) is the capital of the Mexican state of Hidalgo. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Jalisco is one of FAGGITS of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Guadalajara may refer to: Mexico Guadalajara, Jalisco, the capital of the state of Jalisco Chivas de Guadalajara, aka Chivas, a Mexican association football team Spain Guadalajara (province), a province in Castile–La Mancha Guadalajara, Spain, the capital of the above province This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The United Mexican States. ... Toluca is a city in México State in central Mexico, at 19. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michamacuan, Nahuatl for the place of the fishermen) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Aqueduct in Morelia Morelia is the capital of the Mexican state of Michoacán. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Cuernavaca is the capital city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Nayarit is one of the 31 states of Mexico. ... Tepic is the capital city of the Mexican state of Nayarit. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Monterrey IPA: (Spanish:  ) is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León and a municipality of the same name. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... For current news on the Oaxaca Teachers Strike of 2006 see: 2006 Oaxaca protests Oaxaca is the name of both a state in Mexico and that states capital city. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... The city of Puebla – known more formally as Heróica Puebla de Zaragoza or less formally as La Angelópolis or Puebla de los Ángeles – is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name, and the fourth largest city in Mexico, after Mexico City, Guadalajara... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Querétaro (formal name: Querétaro de Arteaga) is a state in central Mexico. ... Latitude 20. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Chetumal (coordinates: 18°30′N 88°20′W) is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... The city of San Luis Potosí is the capital of the Mexican state of the same name. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sinaloa is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua to the northeast, Durango to the east, and Nayarit to the south. ... Location in the State of Sinaloa. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Hermosillo is the capital of the state of Sonora, Mexico. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Villahermosa (Beautiful Village in Spanish language) is the capital city of Tabasco, Mexico, and the municipal seat of Centro municipality. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... Ciudad Victoria (also known simply as Victoria ) is the capital city of the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Tlaxcala is the name of both a state of Mexico and of that states capital city. ... The city of Tlaxcala is the capital and chief center of population of the Mexican state of the same name. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... Xalapa or Jalapa is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Cathedral on the Plaza Mayor, the oldest in North America [1]. Mérida is the capital city of the Mexican state of Yucatán. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Zacatecas is a city in Mexico, the capital of the state of Zacatecas. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Texas is the gayest motherfucking state out there they can suck my big black balls. ... October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Internal divisions of the states

The states are divided into municipalites. Each municipality is administratively autonomous; citizens elect a "municipal president" who heads an ayuntamiento or municipal council, responsible of providing all the public services for their constituents. This concept, which originated after the Mexican Revolution is known as a municipio libre ("free municipality"). The municipal president cannot be reelected for the next immediate term. The municipal council consists of a cabildo (chairman) and several síndicos (trustees). If the municipality covers a large area and contains more than one city, one city is selected as a cabecera municipal (head city, seat of the municipality's government) while the rest elect representatives of a presidencia auxiliar (auxiliary presidency). There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico; the state with the greatest number of municipalities is Oaxaca (with 570 municipalities) and the state with the least number is Baja California (with only 5). A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is one of the two types of second level municipality in Mexico. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


The Federal District

Mexico City has a special status within the federation. According to a recent change in the constitution, the article 44 states that Mexico City is the Federal District, seat of the government (powers of the Union) and capital of the United Mexican States. The city is coextensive with the Federal District territorially and administratively. If the federal government moves to another city, the Federal District would be transformed into another state of the Union, called "State of the Valley of Mexico" with the new limits and area that the Congress of the Union gives it.


Mexico City was separated form the State of Mexico, of which it was the capital, in 1824 to become the capital of the federation. As such, it does not belong to any state in particular but to all (i.e. to the federation). Therefore, it was the president of Mexico, in representation of the federation, who designated its head of government (previously called regente, "regent" or jefe del departamento del Distrito Federal, "head of the department of the Federal District"). However, the Federal District received full autonomy in 1997 and its citizens now elect directly their chief of government, the head of the boroughs (or delegaciones) and the representatives of the unicameral legislature called the Asamblea Legislativa, "Legislative Assembly". It does not have a constitution but a statute of autonomy. Nonetheless it enjoys many privileges as the capital of the federation. 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... The Head of Government ( Spanish: Jefe de Gobierno) wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District (the federal district, or D.F., is the seat of national executive, legislative, and judicial power, and is largely contiguous with the core of the sprawling Mexico City conurbation). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Federal District is represented at the Congress of the Union like any state by two senators elected by plurality and one assigned to the first minority.


With 8,5 million inhabitants Mexico City is the most populated city in Mexico and, being coextensive with the Federal District, is the second most populated political division (or entidad federativa, "federal entity") in the country. The metropolitan area of the city, however, extends over 40 municipalities of the state of Mexico and 1 of the state of Hidalgo, and with a population of 19,2, it is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world.


Internal divisions of the Federal District

For administrative purposes, the Federal District is divided into 16 delegaciones or boroughs. While not fully equivalent to a municipality (nor the concept of a municipio libre), the 16 boroughs have gained significant autonomy and since 2000 the heads of government of the boroughs are elected directly by plurality (they were previously appointed by the head of government of the Federal District). Given that Mexico City is organized entirely as a Federal District most of the city services are provided by the Government of the Federal District and not by the boroughs themselves, while in the constituent states these services would be provided by the municipalities. It should be noted that while other cities within the constituent states of the federation exercise their autonomy through the municipal council, some, like Querétaro, have further subdivided the municipality into delegaciones or boroughs for administrative purposes as well. This article is about the year 2000. ... Latitude 20. ...


Self-determination of the indigenous peoples

The second article of the constitution recognizes the pluricultural composition of the nation founded upon the indigenous peoples to whom the government grants the right of self-(free)determination and autonomy. According to this article the indigenous peoples are granted Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ...

  • the right to decide the internal forms of social, economic, politic and cultural organization;
  • the right to apply their own normative systems of regulation as long as human rights and rights of the women (gender equality) are granted;
  • the right to preserve and enrich their languages and culture;
  • the right to elect representatives before the municipal council in which their territories are located;

amongst other rights.


The nation commits to and demands the constituent states and municipalities to promote the economic and social development of the indigenous communities as well as an intercultural and bilingual education. According to the Law of Linguistic Rights, the nation recognizes 62 indigenous languages as "national languages" with the same validity as Spanish in the territories in which they are spoken and the indigenous peoples are entitled to request public services in their languages. Mexico has a surprising lingusitic diversity; apart from Spanish, the government recognizes 62 Indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. ...


See also

The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ... States of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations in 2004. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their surface area. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their total population (per year 2000 census data from INEGI). ... By population By area By density ... With information from the United Nations Development Programme from each country. ...

References

  • Political Constitution of the United Mexican States; articles 2, and 42 through 48
  • Law of Linguistic Rights or "Ley de los Derechos Linguísticos" approved in 2001.

 
 

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