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Encyclopedia > Political corruption
World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians". High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption.

In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, like repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government is not considered political corruption either. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) Beschreibung Beschreibung: Übersicht des Korruptionswahrnehmungsindexes, nach Ländern (Stand: 2005) Description: Overview of the index of perception of corruption (last update: 2005) Description: Carte du monde de lindice de perception de la corruption (année 2005) Quelle... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) Beschreibung Beschreibung: Übersicht des Korruptionswahrnehmungsindexes, nach Ländern (Stand: 2005) Description: Overview of the index of perception of corruption (last update: 2005) Description: Carte du monde de lindice de perception de la corruption (année 2005) Quelle... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ...


All forms of government are susceptible to political corruption. Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and trafficking, it is not restricted to these organized crime activities. In some nations corruption is so common that it is expected when ordinary businesses or citizens interact with government officials. The end-point of political corruption is a kleptocracy, literally "rule by thieves". Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index by Transparency International, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. High numbers (green) indicate relatively less corruption, whereas lower numbers (red) indicate relatively more corruption. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ... For other uses, see Human trafficking (disambiguation). ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ...


What constitutes illegal corruption differs depending on the country or jurisdiction. Certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some countries, government officials have broad or not well defined powers, and the line between what is legal and illegal can be difficult to draw.


Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion (£494bn) and the burden of corruption falls disproportionately on the bottom billion people living in extreme poverty.[1]

Contents

Effects

Effects on politics, administration, and institutions

Corruption poses a serious development challenge. In the political realm, it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Corruption in elections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law; and corruption in public administration results in the unfair provision of services. More generally, corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government as procedures are disregarded, resources are siphoned off, and public offices are bought and sold. At the same time, corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. See also: Good governance An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. ...


Economic effects

Corruption also undermines economic development by generating considerable distortions and inefficiency. In the private sector, corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves, the management cost of negotiating with officials, and the risk of breached agreements or detection. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting red tape, the availability of bribes can also induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. Openly removing costly and lengthy regulations are better than covertly allowing them to be bypassed by using bribes. Where corruption inflates the cost of business, it also distorts the playing field, shielding firms with connections from competition and thereby sustaining inefficient firms. The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... Red tape (or sometimes paperwork) is a derisive term for excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. ...


Corruption also generates economic distortions in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful. Officials may increase the technical complexity of public sector projects to conceal or pave way for such dealings, thus further distorting investment. Corruption also lowers compliance with construction, environmental, or other regulations, reduces the quality of government services and infrastructure, and increases budgetary pressures on government. < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial...


Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in the former, corruption has primarily taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather invested at home (hence the stereotypical, but sadly often accurate, image of African dictators having Swiss bank accounts). University of Massachusetts researchers estimated that from 1970 to 1996, capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan countries totaled $187bn, exceeding those nations' external debts. [3] (The results, expressed in retarded or suppressed development, have been modeled in theory by economist Mancur Olson.) In the case of Africa, one of the factors for this behavior was political instability, and the fact that new governments often confiscated previous government's corruptly-obtained assets. This encouraged officials to stash their wealth abroad, out of reach of any future expropriation. In contrast, corrupt administrations in Asia like Suharto's have often taken a cut on everything (requiring bribes), but otherwise provided more of the conditions for development, through infrastructure investment, law and order, etc. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In economics, rent seeking occurs when an individual, organization, or firm seeks to make money by manipulating the economic environment rather than by making a profit through trade and production of wealth. ... In brief, financial capital is money used by entreprenuers and businesses to buy what they need to make their products (or provide their services). ... Swiss banks are world-renowned for their stability, privacy and protection of clients. ... This page is about the university system across Massachusetts. ... Seen in Asian markets in the 1990s capital flight is when assets and/or money rapidly flow out of a country. ... Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. ... Professor Mancur Olson (1932 - February 19, 1998) was a leading social scientist who, at the time of his death, worked at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... Expropriation is the act of removing from control the owner of an item of property. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


Types of abuse

Bribery

Bribery requires two participants: one to give the bribe, and one to take it. In some countries the culture of corruption extends to every aspect of public life, making it extremely difficult for individuals to stay in business without resorting to bribes. Bribes may be demanded in order for an official to do something he is already paid to do. They may also be demanded in order to bypass laws and regulations. In some developing nations up to half of the population have paid bribes during the past 12 months. [2] Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ...


Graft

While bribery includes an intent to influence or be influenced by another for personal gain, which is often difficult to prove, graft only requires that the official gains something of value, not part of his official pay, when doing his work. Large "gifts" qualify as graft, and most countries have laws against it. (For example, any gift over $200 value made to the President of the United States is considered to be a gift to the Office of the Presidency and not to the President himself. The outgoing President must buy it if he wants to take it with him.) Another example of graft is a politician using his knowledge of zoning to purchase land which he knows is planned for development, before this is publicly known, and then selling it at a significant profit. This is comparable to insider trading in business. A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... Insider trading is the trading of a corporations stock or other securities (e. ...


Extortion and robbery

While bribes may be demanded in order to do something, payment may also be demanded by corrupt officials who otherwise threaten to make illegitimate use of state force in order to inflict harm. This is similar to extortion by organized crime groups. Illegitimate use of state force can also be used for outright armed robbery. This mostly occurs in unstable states which lack proper control of the military and the police. Less open forms of corruption is preferred in more stable states. Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...


Patronage

Patronage refers to favoring supporters, for example with government employment. This may be legitimate, as when a newly elected government changes the top officials in the administration in order to effectively implement its policy. It can be seen as corruption if this means that incompetent persons, as a payment for supporting the regime, are selected before more able ones. In nondemocracies many government officials are often selected for loyalty rather than ability. They may be almost exclusively selected from a particular group (for example, Sunni Arabs in Saddam Hussein's Iraq, the nomenklatura in the Soviet Union, or the Junkers in Imperial Germany) that support the regime in return for such favors. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic &#1587;&#1606;&#1617;&#1577;) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The nomenklatura were a small, élite subset of the general population in the Soviet Union who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of the Soviet Union: in government, industry, agriculture, education, etc. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed nobility of Prussia and Eastern Germany - lands which are often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...


Nepotism and Cronyism

Favoring relatives (nepotism) or personal friends (cronyism). This may be combined with bribery, for example demanding that a business should employ a relative of an official controlling regulations affecting the business. The most extreme example is when the entire state is inherited, as in North Korea or Syria. Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Embezzlement

Embezzlement is outright theft of entrusted funds. It is a misappropriation of property.


Kickbacks

A kickback is an official's share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. For example, suppose that a politician is in charge of choosing how to spend some public funds. He can give a contract to a company that isn't the best bidder, or allocate more than they deserve. In this case, the company benefits, and in exchange for betraying the public, the official receives a kickback payment, which is a portion of the sum the company received. This sum itself may be all or a portion of the difference between the actual (inflated) payment to the company and the (lower) market-based price that would have been paid had the bidding been competitive. Kickbacks are not limited to government officials; any situation in which people are entrusted to spend funds that do not belong to them is susceptible to this kind of corruption. Related: Bid rigging, Bidding, Anti-competitive practices A general contractor is an organization or individual that contracts with another organization or individual (the owner) for the construction of a building, road or other facility. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Procurement is the acquisition of goods or services at the best possible total cost of ownership, in the right quantity, at the right time, in the right place for the direct benefit or use of the governments, corporations, or individuals generally via, but not limited to a contract. ... Anti-competitive practices are business or government practices that prevent and/or reduce competition in a market. ...


Unholy Alliance

An unholy alliance is a coalition among seemingly antagonistic groups, especially if one is religious, for ad hoc or hidden gain. Like patronage, unholy alliances are not necessarily illegal, but unlike patronage, by its deceptive nature and often great financial resources, an unholy alliance can be much more dangerous to the public interest. An early, well-known use was by Theodore Roosevelt (TR): Antagonistic Bending and straightening of the arm requires antagonistic muscle movement. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... Public interest is a term used to denote political movements and organizations that are in the public interest&#8212;supporting general public and civic causes, in opposition of private and corporate ones (particularistic goals). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...

"To destroy this invisible Government, to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day." - 1912 Progressive Party Platform, attributed to TR[3] and quoted again in his autobiography[4] where he connects Trusts and monopolies (sugar interests, Standard Oil, etc.) to Woodrow Wilson, Howard Taft, and consequently both major political parties.

After the breakup of Standard Oil, TR lost the election, and oligopolies of the few biggest commodities corporations continued otherwise undeterred by the mutually beneficial indifference of both major political parties. In 1935, retired Marine Major General Smedley Butler described how this unholy alliance influenced U.S. foreign policy and how his job abroad had been to be a "muscle man for big business." In 1944, Old Right journalist John T. Flynn described how this unholy alliance uses religion to sell its agenda abroad to the American public: This article needs cleanup. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Progressive Party 1912 (United States) was a political party created by a split in the Republicans Party in the 1912 election. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... This article is about the economic term. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857&#8211;March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... An oligopoly is a market form in which a market is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881–June 21, 1940), nicknamed The Fighting Quaker and Old Gimlet Eye, was a Major General in the U.S. Marine Corps and, at the time of his death, the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881–June 21, 1940), nicknamed The Fighting Quaker and Old Gimlet Eye, was a Major General in the U.S. Marine Corps and, at the time of his death, the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. ... In the United States, the Old Right, also called the Paleoconservatives are a faction of American conservatives who both opposed New Deal domestic programs and were also isolationists opposing entry into World War II. Many were associated with the Republicans of the interwar years led by Robert Taft, but some... John T. Flynn John Thomas Flynn (October 25, 1882-1964) was a U.S. journalist. ...

"The enemy aggressor is always pursuing a course of larceny, murder, rapine and barbarism. We are always moving forward with high mission, a destiny imposed by the Deity to regenerate our victims while incidentally capturing their markets, to civilise savage and senile and paranoid peoples while blundering accidentally into their oil wells.[5]

A reference to this unholy alliance today is: This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supermajor, Oil major and Seven Sisters (oil companies) (Discuss) Big Oil is a term used to describe the individual and collective economic power of the largest oil and gasoline manufacturers, and their perceived influence on politics, particularly in...

Phillips, Kevin (2006) American Theocracy: The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century, Viking Press.

Other unholy alliances are the subjects of these books: Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Kevin Phillips (born November 30, 1940) is an American writer and commentator, largely on politics, economics, and history. ... American Theocracy: The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil, and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century (ISBN 0-670-03486-X) is the latest work of political commentary by American political writer Kevin Phillips. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supermajor, Oil major and Seven Sisters (oil companies) (Discuss) Big Oil is a term used to describe the individual and collective economic power of the largest oil and gasoline manufacturers, and their perceived influence on politics, particularly in... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ...

  • Unholy Alliance: Radical Islam and the American Left, a book by David Horowitz
  • Unholy Alliance, a book by David Yallop about the international drug trade and resultant political corruption
  • Unholy alliance: religion and atrocity in our time, a book by Marc H. Ellis
  • Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement With the Occult, a book by Peter Levenda

Still others are found in "Bootleggers and Baptists"[6] and Dixie Mafia. For other persons named David Horowitz, see David Horowitz (disambiguation). ... David Anthony Yallop (born 1937 London) is a British author who writes chiefly about unsolved crimes. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The drug trade is a worldwide black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Professor Ellis at Baylor University. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Conditions favorable for corruption

Some argue that the following conditions are favorable for corruption:

  • Information deficits
    • Lack of government transparency.
    • Lacking freedom of information legislation. The Indian Right to Information Act 2005 has "already engendered mass movements in the country that is bringing the lethargic, often corrupt bureaucracy to its knees and changing power equations completely." [4]
    • Contempt for or negligence of exercising freedom of speech and freedom of the press.
    • Weak accounting practices, including lack of timely financial management.
    • Lack of measurement of corruption. For example, using regular surveys of households and businesses in order to quantify the degree of perception of corruption in different parts of a nation or in different government institutions may increase awareness of corruption and create pressure to combat it. This will also enable an evaluation of the officials who are fighting corruption and the methods used.
    • Tax havens which tax their own citizens and companies but not those from other nations and refuse to disclose information necessary for foreign taxation. This enables large scale political corruption in the foreign nations.[7]
  • Lacking control over and accountability of the government.
    • Democracy absent or dysfunctional. See illiberal democracy.
    • Lacking civic society and non-governmental organizations which monitor the government.
    • An individual voter may have a rational ignorance regarding politics, especially in nationwide elections, since each vote has little weight.
    • Weak rule of law.
    • Weak legal profession.
    • Weak judicial independence.
    • Lacking protection of whistleblowers.
    • Lack of benchmarking, that is continual detailed evaluation of procedures and comparison to others who do similar things, in the same government or others, in particular comparison to those who do the best work. The Peruvian organization Ciudadanos al Dia has started to measure and compare transparency, costs, and efficiency in different government departments in Peru. It annually awards the best practices which has received widespread media attention. This has created competition among government agencies in order to improve. [5]
  • Opportunities and incentives
    • Large, unsupervised public investments, combined with complex or arbitrary regulations and a lack of oversight.
    • Sale of state-owned property and privatization.
    • Poorly-paid government officials.
    • Long-time work in the same position may create relationships inside and outside the government which encourage and help conceal corruption and favoritism. Rotating government officials to different positions and geographic areas may help prevent this.
    • Costly political campaigns, with expenses exceeding normal sources of political funding.
    • Less interaction with officials reduces the opportunities for corruption. For example, using the Internet for sending in required information, like applications and tax forms, and then processing this with automated computer systems. This may also speed up the processing and reduce unintentional human errors. See e-Government.
    • A windfall from exporting abundant natural resources may encourage corruption. See the resource curse. [6]
  • Social conditions
    • Self-interested closed cliques and "old boy networks".
    • Family-, and clan-centered social structure, with a tradition of nepotism being acceptable.
    • A gift economy, such as the Chinese guanxi or the Soviet blat system, emerges in a Communist centrally planned economy.
    • In societies where personal integrity is rated as less important than other characteristics (by contrast, in societies such as 18th and 19th Century England, 20th Century Japan and post-war western Germany, where society showed almost obsessive regard for "honor" and personal integrity, corruption was less frequently seen)[citation needed]
    • Lacking literacy and education among the population.

In the physical sciences, specifically in optics, a transparent physical object is one that can be seen through. ... Over seventy countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation. ... The Right to Information Act 2005 (Act No. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... A tax haven is a place where certain taxes are levied at a low rate or not at all. ... Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... Civil society or civil institutions refers to the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations or institutions which form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system). ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Rational ignorance is a term most often found in economics, particularly public choice theory, but also used in other disciplines which study rationality and choice, including philosophy (epistemology) and game theory. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Judicial independence is the doctrine that decisions of the judiciary should be impartial and not subject to influence from the other branches of government or from private or political interests. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Whistleblower Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... Benchmarking (also best practice benchmarking or process benchmarking) is a process used in management and particularly strategic management, in which organizations evaluate various aspects of their processes in relation to best practice, usually within their own sector. ... A political campaign is an effort to reach a certain political goal. ... The term (in all its uses) is generally agreed to derive from electronic government which introduces the notion and practicalities of electronic technology into the various dimensions and ramifications of government. ... The resource curse or paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth than countries without these natural resources. ... An old boy network or society can refer to social and business associations among former pupils of top male-only public schools (independent secondary schools) in the United Kingdom, such as Eton, Harrow, Winchester and Charterhouse, private schools in Canada, and, to a lesser degree, to university students (notably Oxbridge... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A gift economy is an economic system in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future quid pro quo. ... Guanxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: gÅ«anxi ), describes the basic dynamic in personalised networks of influence. ... Blat (Russian: , blat) is a term which appeared in the Soviet Union to denote the use of informal agreements, Party contacts, or black market deals to achieve results or get ahead. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners, who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce, and how they are to be priced and allocated. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...

Size of public sector

It is a controversial issue whether the size of the public sector per se results in corruption. Extensive and diverse public spending is, in itself, inherently at risk of cronyism, kickbacks and embezzlement. Complicated regulations and arbitrary, unsupervised official conduct exacerbate the problem. This is one argument for privatization and deregulation. Opponents of privatization see the argument as ideological. The argument that corruption necessarily follows from the opportunity is weakened by the existence of countries with low to non-existent corruption but large public sectors, like the Nordic countries. However, these countries score high on the Ease of Doing Business Index, due to good and often simple regulations, and have rule of law firmly established. Therefore, due to their lack of corruption in the first place, they can run large public sectors without inducing political corruption. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ...


Privatization, as in the sale of government-owned property, is particularly at the risk of cronyism. Privatizations in Russia and Latin America were accompanied by large scale corruption during the sale of the state owned companies. Those with political connections unfairly gained large wealth, which has discredited privatization in these regions. While media have reported widely the grand corruption that accompanied the sales, studies have argued that in addition to increased operating efficiency, daily petty corruption is, or would be, larger without privatization, and that corruption is more prevalent in non-privatized sectors. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that extralegal and unofficial activities are more prevalent in countries that privatized less.[8]


Governmental corruption

If the highest echelons of the governments also take advantage from corruption or embezzlement from the state's treasury, it is sometimes referred with the neologism "Kleptocracy". Members of the government can take advantage of the natural resources (e.g. diamonds and oil in a few prominent cases) or state-owned productive industries. A number of corrupt governments have enriched themselves via foreign aid, which is often spent on showy buildings and armaments. A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


A corrupt dictatorship typically results in many years of general hardship and suffering for the vast majority of citizens as civil society and the rule of law disintegrate. In addition, corrupt dictators routinely ignore economic and social problems in their quest to amass ever more wealth and power. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


The classic case of a corrupt, exploitive dictator often given is the regime of Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko, who ruled the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which he renamed Zaire) from 1965 to 1997. It is said that usage of the term kleptocracy gained popularity largely in response to a need to accurately describe Mobutu's regime. Another classic case is Nigeria, espeicially under the rule of General Sani Abacha who was de facto president of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. he is reputed to have stolen some US$3-4 billion. He and his relatives are often mentioned in Nigerian 419 letter scams claiming to offer vast fortunes for 'help' in laundering his stolen 'fortunes', which in reality turn out not to exist.[9] Mobutu Sese Seko Nkuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga (October 14, 1930 – September 7, 1997), known commonly as Mobutu, or Mobutu Sese Seko, born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, was the President of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) for 32 years (1965–1997), in which he rose to power... Sani Abacha General Sani Abacha (Kano, 20 September 1943 – Abuja, 8 June 1998) was a Nigerian politician and military leader. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... An advance-fee fraud is a confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance relatively small sums of money in the hope of realizing a much larger gain. ...


More recently, articles in various financial periodicals, most notably Forbes magazine, have pointed to Fidel Castro, ruler of the Republic of Cuba since 1959, of amassing a personal fortune worth US$900 million. [7] Opponents of his regime claim that he has used money amassed through weapons sales, narcotics, international loans and confiscation of private property to enrich himself and his political cronies who hold his dictatorship together, and that the $900 million published by Forbes is merely a portion of his assets, although that needs to be proven. [8] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Campaign contributions

In the political arena, it is difficult to prove corruption, but impossible to prove its absence. For this reason, there are often unproved rumors about many politicians, sometimes part of a smear campaign. Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This page is about a political tactic. ...


Politicians are placed in apparently compromising positions because of their need to solicit financial contributions for their campaign finance. If they then appear to be acting in the interests of those parties that funded them, this gives rise to talk of political corruption. Supporters may argue that this is coincidental. Cynics wonder why these organizations fund politicians at all, if they get nothing for their money. Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ...


Laws regulating campaign finance in the United States require that all contributions and their use should be publicly disclosed. Many companies, especially larger ones, fund both the Democratic and Republican parties. Certain countries, such as France, ban altogether the corporate funding of political parties. Because of the possible circumvention of this ban with respect to the funding of political campaigns, France also imposes maximum spending caps on campaigning; candidates that have exceeded those limits, or that have handed misleading accounting reports, risk having their candidacy ruled invalid, or even be prevented from running in future elections. In addition, the government funds political parties according to their successes in elections. In some countries, political parties are run solely off subscriptions (membership fees). Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels. ... The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ...


Even legal measures such as these have been argued to be legalized corruption, in that they often favor the political status quo. Minor parties and independents often argue that efforts to rein in the influence of contributions do little more than protect the major parties with guaranteed public funding while constraining the possibility of private funding by outsiders. In these instances, officials are legally taking money from the public coffers for their election campaigns to guarantee that they will continue to hold their influential and often well-paid positions.


Measuring corruption

Measuring corruption - in the statistical sense - is naturally not a straight-forward matter, since the participants are generally not forthcoming about it. Transparency International, a leading anti-corruption NGO, provides three measures, updated annually: a Corruption Perceptions Index (based on experts' opinions of how corrupt different countries are); a Global Corruption Barometer (based on a survey of general public attitudes toward and experience of corruption); and a Bribe Payers Survey, looking at the willingness of foreign firms to pay bribes. The World Bank collects a range of data on corruption, including a set of Governance Indicators. For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... NGO redirects here. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as...


The ten countries perceived to be least corrupt, according to the 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index, are Finland, Iceland, New Zealand, Denmark, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, Australia, and The Netherlands. Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


According to the same survey, the nine countries perceived to be most corrupt are Haiti, Indonesia, Myanmar, Iraq, Guinea, Sudan, DR Congo, Chad, and Bangladesh.


In the US, based on public corruption convictions, Mississippi, North Dakota and Louisiana were the three most corrupt states. Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Iowa had the least amount of corruption. The most populous states, California and Texas, are ranked in the middle, California ranking 25th and Texas in 29th. [9] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Forms or aspects of corruption

Crony capitalism is a pejorative term describing an allegedly capitalist economy in which success in business depends on an extremely close relationship between the businessman and the state institutions of politics and government, rather than by the espoused equitable concepts of the free market, open competition, and economic liberalism. ...

Good governance

Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... In the physical sciences, specifically in optics, a transparent physical object is one that can be seen through. ... Accountability is a concept in ethics with several meanings. ... Comitology is the study of comity: the informal and voluntary recognition by courts of one jurisdiction of the laws and judicial decisions of another. ... Due diligence is a term used for a number of concepts involving either the performance of an investigation of a business or person, or the performance of an act with a certain standard of care. ... 2005 World Map of the Corruption Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among businesses, public officials and politicians. ...

Theoretical aspects

In economics, the principal-agent problem treats the difficulties that arise under conditions of incomplete and asymmetric information when a principal hires an agent. ... The phenomenon of rent-seeking was first identified in connection with monopolies by Gordon Tullock, in a paper in 1967. ... A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ...

Anti-corruption authorities and measures

Several places have organisations called the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). ... The United Nations Convention against Corruption was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly by resolution 58/4 of 31 October 2003. ... The Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC) was adopted by the member countries of the Organization of American States on 29 March 1996; it came into force on 6 March 1997. ... The Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP) is an effort by the Liberian government and the international community, via the International Contact Group on Liberia (ICGL) to reshape the fundamentally broken system of governance that contributed to 23 years of conflict in Liberia. ...

Examples of corruption

This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... The Hired Truck Program is a scandal-plagued program in the city of Chicago that involved hiring private trucks to do city work. ... In the 1980s and 1990s there were in the Paris region (ÃŽle-de-France) multiple instances of alleged and proved political corruption cases, as well as cases of abuse of public money and resources. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... Bettino Craxi, viewed by many as the symbol of Tangentopoli, leader of the Italian Socialist Party, is greeted by a salvo of coins as a sign of loathing by protesters contesting him. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The sponsorship scandal, AdScam, or Sponsorgate, is an ongoing scandal that came as a result of a Canadian federal government sponsorship program in the province of Quebec and involving the Liberal Party of Canada (mostly its Quebec branch), which was in power since 1993 up to January 2006. ... The PMU 18 scandal is a multi-million dollar political corruption scandal that involved accusations of embezzlement, bribery, nepotism, and gambling at the Vietnamese Ministry of Transport (Bá»™ Giao thông Vận tải, GTVT) at the beginning of 2006. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Politics of the United Kingdom. ... // AFRC : Armed Forces Revolutionary Council CDR : Committee for the Defence of the Revolution CHRAJ : Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice CPP : Convention People’s Party CVC : Citizens Vetting Committee DFID : Department for International Development GACC : Ghana Anti-Corruption Coalition GII : Ghana Integrity Initiative IMF : International Monetary Fund NDC : National...

Corruption in fiction

Mr. ... The year 1939 in film involved some significant events. ... Henry Adams Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 – March 27, 1918) was an American historian, journalist and novelist. ... See also: 1879 in literature, other events of 1880, 1881 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Carl Hiaasen (IPA pronunciation: ) (born March 12, 1953) is an American journalist and novelist. ... Carl Hiaasens novel Sick Puppy (1999) is regarded by some to be perfect entertainment and food for thought. ... See also: 1998 in literature, other events of 1999, 2000 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Motoko Kusanagi from the manga Ghost in the Shell. ...

References

  1. ^ African corruption 'on the wane', 10 July 2007, BBC News
  2. ^ How common is bribe-paying?. “...a relatively high proportion of families in a group of Central Eastern European, African, and Latin American countries paid a bribe in the previous twelve months.”
  3. ^ O'Toole, Patricia, "The War of 1912," TIME in Partneship with CNN, Jun. 25, 2006.
  4. ^ Roosevelt, Theodore. An Autobiography: XV. The Peace of Righteousness, Appendix B, NEW YORK: MACMILLAN, 1913.
  5. ^ Flynn, John T. (1944) As We Go Marching.
  6. ^ Bruce Yandle, "Bootleggers and Baptists: The Education of a Regulatory Economist." Regulation 7, no. 3 (1983): 12.
  7. ^ Western bankers and lawyers 'rob Africa of $150bn every year
  8. ^ Privatization in Competitive Sectors: The Record to Date. Sunita Kikeri and John Nellis. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2860, June 2002. [1] Privatization and Corruption. David Martimort and Stéphane Straub. [2]
  9. ^ Who wants to be a millionaire? - An online collection of Nigerian scam mails

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...

Further reading

  • Alexandra Wrage (2007) Bribery and Extortion: Undermining Business, Governments and Security
  • Axel Dreher, Christos Kotsogiannis, Steve McCorriston (2004), Corruption Around the World: Evidence from a Structural Model.
  • Kimberly Ann Elliott, ed, Corruption and the Global Economy (1997)
  • Edward L. Glaeser and Claudia Goldin, eds, Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History U. of Chicago Press, 2006. 386 pp. ISBN 0-226-29957-0.
  • Arnold J. Heidenheimer, Michael Johnston and Victor T. LeVine (eds), Political Corruption: A Handbook (1989) 1017 pages.
  • Michael Johnston. Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy (2005)
  • Johann Graf Lambsdorff (2007), The Institutional Economics of Corruption and Reform: Theory, Evidence and Policy Cambridge University Press

External links

News

  • IPS Inter Press Service - News on corruption from around the world
  • Development Gateway

International organizations and research

  • Anti-Corruption Resource Centre (U4) - Online research reports and extensive resources on anti-corruption in a development context.
  • Corruption and Emergency Relief (ODI) - Online research reports and extensive resources on corruption risks in a humanitarian context from the Overseas Development Institute.
  • C2 Principles - a framework developed by researchers of Wharton School to reduce global corruption.
  • United Nations Convention against Corruption at Law-Ref.org - fully indexed and crosslinked with other documents
  • OECD: Corruption
  • World Bank anti-corruption page
  • The World Bank's Private Sector Development Blog on Corruption
  • World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators Worldwide ratings of country performances on six governance dimensions from 1996 to present.
  • Corruption Literature Review World Bank Literature Review.
  • UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Has sub-section dealing with corruption worldwide.
  • The Development Gateway's virtual library and online community on anti-corruption and good governance
  • Transparency International
    • Tools against corruption
    • Global Corruption Report
  • UNICORN: A Global Trade Union Anti-corruption Network, based at Cardiff University
  • Internet Center For Corruption Research
  • Global Integrity Report - Extensive analysis of openness and accountability of governments by Global Integrity, which grew out of the Center for Public Integrity.
  • Tool to analyze anti-corruption and institutional reform
  • Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center - an academic research center devoted to studying transnational crime and corruption
  • BRIBEline - report bribe demands securely and anonymously
  • TRACE - a non-profit membership organization providing anti-bribery compliance tools
  • Business Anti-Corruption Portal Country and sectorspecific information on corruption
  • Anti-corruption Gateway
  • Corruption and Tax Revenue Generating Capacity Draft Paper (IMF)

Largest UK think tank and research institute on international development. ... The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is a business school at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. The school was founded by Joseph Wharton, who also was one of the founders of Swarthmore College (founded in 1864), in 1881 as the first collegiate business school in the United States. ... The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ... Global Integrity is an independent, nonprofit organization tracking governance and corruption trends around the world using local teams of researchers and journalists to monitor openness and accountability. ... The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit news organization dedicated to producing investigative reporting on public officials, government policy and its effects[1]. // Located in Washington, DC, USA, the Center for Public Integrity produces reports aimed to provide transparent and insightful reporting. ... Transnational crime is a term used by some elements of law enforcement. ...

Regional and national organisations and research

  • Corner House: UK and anti-corruption
  • Latin Business Chronicle: Latin American Corruption
  • Chicago Crime Commission Public Corruption Hotline
  • Judicial Watch
  • The Sam Adams Alliance


  Results from FactBites:
 
SED-IDPM-PoliticalCorruption-Nov-2005 (1443 words)
Political corruption is a key concern at the current time, particularly because of the impasse within the technologies of governance intervention more generally.
The aim is to re-interrogate the meaning of political corruption by analysing it within two particular contexts in which arbitrary behaviour is concentrated: within social processes of state sponsored 'market building' and within donor-financed interventions, although these contexts are not themselves mutually exclusive.
In particular, the conference will aim to understand the relationship between political corruption and nation-state practices in Africa and Asia, since it is within the context of new state formations and within development projects which seek to underwrite and expand states and markets that opportunities for systemic corrupt practices are particularly apparent.
Corruption and political financing in Italy, Donatella della Porta (8540 words)
Those engaging in corruption may in fact be seeking to obtain not a specific benefit, but a generic protection for their entrepreneurial activities and for their exchange relations with the public administration and its corrupt agents.
Political protection is not supported, as in the case of the state and criminal organizations, by the credible threat of violence, and may correspondingly be less effective.
Although corruption was in fact justified by the politicians involved as a "necessity" to meet the costs of politics, corruption itself introduced inflationary elements in the political system, with a never-ending increase in the amount of money "needed" by the system.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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