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Encyclopedia > Political correctness
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General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
 · Religious persecution · Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment · Ethnocracy Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Ethnocracy is a form of government where all offices are held by a certain ethnic group purposefully and the other ethnic groups are subdued and sometimes killed by the state because of their race or cultural differences. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Test Act · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
Reverse discrimination · Eugenics
Racialism For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Discrimination Portal Image File history File links Portal. ...

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Political correctness (adjectivally, politically correct; both forms commonly abbreviated to PC) is a term used to describe language, ideas, policies, or behavior seen as seeking to minimize offense to racial, cultural, or other identity groups. Conversely, the term politically incorrect is used to refer to language or ideas that may cause offense or that are unconstrained by orthodoxy.


The term itself and its usage are controversial. The term "political correctness" is used almost exclusively in a pejorative sense,[1][2] while "politically incorrect" is commonly used as an implicitly positive self-description, as in the series of "Politically Incorrect Guides", produced by conservative publisher Regnery.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... The Politically Incorrect Guide book series by Regnery Publishing presents counter-arguments to commonly held ideas in a politically incorrect manner. ... Regnery Publishing is an American publisher that specializes in conservative books. ...


Some commentators have argued that the term "political correctness" is a straw man invented by conservatives in the 1990s in order to challenge progressive social change, especially with respect to issues of race, religion and gender.[1][4] Ruth Perry traces the term back to Mao's Little Red Book. According to Perry, the term was later adopted by the radical left in the 1960s. In the 1990s, because of the term's association with radical politics and communist censorship, it was used by the political right in the United States to discredit the political left, including liberals and Democrats.[2] A straw man argument is a logical fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponents position. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ...

Contents

History

In the United States

The earliest citation is not politically correct, in the U.S. Supreme Court decision Chisholm v. Georgia (1793), denoting the statement to which it refers is literally incorrect, owing to the U.S.'s political status as then understood.[5] The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Holding Article III, Section 2s grant of federal jurisdiction over suits between a State and Citizens of another State abrogated the States sovereign immunity recognized at common law, thus allowing a private individual to hale a State into federal court. ...


In Marxism-Leninism

In Marxist-Leninist vocabulary, the term described the appropriate "party line", the "correct line". [6] A similar term was used in the People's Republic of China. [2][7][8] Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... In politics, the line or the party line is an idiom for a political party or social movements canon agenda, as well as specific ideological elements specific to the organizations partisanship. ...


In the U.S. New Left

Some U.S. New Left proponents adopted its usage. One 1970 example [2] is in Toni Cade Bambara's essay The Black Woman: "a man cannot be politically correct and a [male] chauvinist too", illustrating its usage in gender and identity politics, rather than solely about general political orthodoxy. The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Toni Cade Bambara (March 25, 1939-December 9, 1995) was an American author, social activist, and college professor. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ...


Yet, soon afterwards, the New Left re-appropriated the term political correctness as satirical self-criticism; per Debra Shultz: "Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left, feminists, and progressives ... used their term politically correct ironically, as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts".[9][1][2] Hence the phrase's popular usage in English [2] and Bobby London's usage in the underground comic book Merton of the Movement, while the alternative term, ideologically sound, followed a like lexical path, appearing in Bart Dickon's satirical comic strips. Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... Bobby London (1950 - ) is an underground comix and mainstream comics artist. ... Bart Dickon is a character created by artist and writer Borin Van Loon. ...


In typical left-wing usage, Ellen Willis says: "in the early '80s, when feminists used the term political correctness it was used to refer sarcastically to the anti-pornography movement's efforts to define a 'feminist sexuality' ".[10] Ellen Willis is best known as the first pop music critic for the New Yorker, working there during the 1960s. ... Feminists redirects here. ... A sign outside an Adult store. ...


In conservative rhetoric

In the 1990s, after the Cold War, this obscure term became part of conservative social and political challenges to curriculum expansion and progressive teaching methods in American universities and high schools (D'Souza 1991; Berman 1992; Schultz 1993; Messer Davidow 1993, 1994; Scatamburlo 1998). In 1991, in a commencement address at the University of Michigan, U.S. President George H. W. Bush spoke against a "movement" that would "declare certain topics off-limits, certain expressions off-limits, even certain gestures off-limits".[11] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


Use world wide

The phrase "politically correct" is popular in other countries, including Scandinavian countries (politiskt korrekt=pk), Portugal, Spain, and Latin America (políticamente correcto), New Zealand[12], France (politiquement correct), Germany (politisch korrekt), The Netherlands (politiek correct), Italy (politicamente corretto) and Russia (политкорректность, политкорректный). Although the dominant usage is pejorative, a few writers use political correctness to describe inclusive language or civility, and thus praise language that they see as politically correct.[13] For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined. ... Shortcut: WP:civ Part of Wikipedia:Policies and guidelines Civility is a rule here on Wikipedia. ...


Explanations

As a linguistic concept

According to Andrews[14], using "inclusive" and "neutral" language is based upon the idea that "language represents thought, and may even control thought"; per the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, a language's grammatical categories shape the speaker's ideas and actions,[15] although Andrews says that moderate conceptions of the relation between language and thought are sufficient to support the "reasonable deduction" of "cultural change via linguistic change". In linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ...


Other cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics works indicate that word-choices have significant "framing effects" on the perceptions, memories, and attitudes of speakers and listeners.[16], [17] The relevant empirical question is whether or not sexist language promotes sexism, i.e. sexist thought and action. Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined. ...


In some cases, what critics call political correctness, its advocates defend as the usage of inoffensive language whose goal is multi-fold:

  1. The rights, opportunities, and freedoms of certain people are restricted because they are reduced to a stereotype.
  2. Stereotyping largely is implicit, unconscious, and facilitated by the availability of pejorative labels and terms.
  3. Rendering the labels and terms socially unacceptable, people then must consciously think about how they describe someone unlike themselves.
  4. When labelling is a conscious activity, the described person's individual merits become apparent, rather than his or her stereotype.


A further complication is that terms chosen by an identity group, as acceptable descriptors of themselves, then pass into common usage, including usage by the very people whose racism and sexism, et cetera, the new terms mean to supersede. The new terms are thus devalued, and another set of words must be coined, giving rise to lengthy progressions such as Negro, Coloured, Black, African-American and so on. (See Euphemism treadmill.) For other uses, see Stereotype (disambiguation). ... A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces. ...


As engineered term

Some commentators, primarily on the Left, argue that the term "political correctness" was re-engineered by American conservatives after 1980 as a way to reframe political arguments in the United States. According to Hutton: American conservatism is a constellation of political ideologies within the United States under the blanket heading of conservative. ...

"Political correctness is one of the brilliant tools that the American Right developed in the mid-1980s as part of its demolition of American liberalism....What the sharpest thinkers on the American Right saw quickly was that by declaring war on the cultural manifestations of liberalism - by levelling the charge of political correctness against its exponents - they could discredit the whole political project."[18]

Such commentators say that there never was a "Political Correctness movement" in the United States, and that many who use the term are attempting to distract attention from substantive debates over discrimination and unequal treatment based on race, class, and gender (Messer-Davidow 1993, 1994; Schultz 1993; Lauter 1995; Scatamburlo 1998; Glassner 1999). Similarly, Polly Toynbee has argued that "the phrase is an empty rightwing smear designed only to elevate its user".[19] Polly Toynbee (born Mary Louisa Toynbee on December 27, 1946) is a journalist and writer in the United Kingdom, and has been a columnist for The Guardian newspaper since 1998. ...


As "Cultural Marxism"

Some critics, primarily on the Right, claim that political correctness is a Marxist-inspired effort aimed at undermining Western values. Peter Hitchens wrote in his book The Abolition of Britain, "What Americans describe with the casual phrase ... political correctness is the most intolerant system of thought to dominate the British Isles since the Reformation." Lind and Buchanan have characterized PC as a technique originated by the Frankfurt School. According to Lind and Buchanan, the work of the Frankfurt School aimed at undermining Western values by influencing popular culture through Cultural Marxism.[20][21] Buchanan says in his book The Death of the West: "Political Correctness is Cultural Marxism, a regime to punish dissent and to stigmatize social heresy as the Inquisition punished religious heresy. Its trademark is intolerance."(p. 89). Cultural Marxism is a form of Marxism that adds an analysis of the role of the media, art, theatre, film and other cultural institutions in a society, often with an added emphasis on race and gender in addition to class. ... Peter Hitchens Peter Jonathan Hitchens (born 28 October 1951 in Sliema, Malta) is a British journalist, author and broadcaster. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Patrick Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), usually known as Pat Buchanan, is an American conservative journalist and a well known television political commentator. ... For related articles, see Critical theory and Critical theory (Frankfurt School) Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist critical theory, social research, and philosophy. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... Cultural Marxism is a form of Marxism that adds an analysis of the role of the media, art, theatre, film and other cultural institutions in a society, often with an added emphasis on race and gender in addition to class. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Criticism

General

Critics argue that political correctness is censorship and endangers free speech by limiting what is considered acceptable public discourse, especially in university and the political forums. University of Pennsylvania professor Alan Charles Kors and lawyer Harvey A. Silverglate, connect political correctness to Marxist philosopher Herbert Marcuse, particularly his claim that liberal ideas of free speech were, in fact, repressive, viewing this "Marcusean logic" as the base of speech codes formulated in American universities.[22] For other uses, see Censor. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient Alan Kors. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ...


Others critics say that politically correct terms are awkward, euphemisms for truer, original, stark language, comparing them to George Orwell's Newspeak.[23] Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ...


Camille Paglia, a self-described "libertarian Democrat," argues that political correctness gives more power to the Left's enemies and alienates the masses against feminism.[24] Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947 in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, author and teacher. ...


Some critics of political correctness claim that it marginalizes certain words, phrases, actions or attitudes through the instrumentation of public disesteem.[25][26]


Some conservative critics of political correctness, argue that it is a form of coercion rooted in the assumption that in a political context, power refers to the dominion of some men over others, or the human control of human life; by this argument, ultimately, it means force or compulsion.[27] This argument holds that correctness in this context is subjective, and corresponds to the sponsored view of the government, minority, or special interest group that these conservative critics oppose. They claim that by silencing contradiction, their opponents entrench their views as orthodox, and eventually cause it to be accepted as true, as freedom of thought requires the ability to choose between more than one viewpoint.[28][29] Some conservatives refer to political correctness as "The Scourge of Our Times."[30] For other uses, see Coercion (disambiguation). ...


Critics of political correctness have been accused of showing the same sensitivity to choice of words they claim to be opposing, and of perceiving a political agenda where none exists.[31] For example, a number of news outlets claimed that a school altered the nursery rhyme "Baa Baa Black Sheep" to read "Baa Baa Rainbow Sheep."[32] In fact, the nursery, run by Parents and Children Together (Pact), simply had the kids "turn the song into an action rhyme. ... They sing happy, sad, bouncing, hopping, pink, blue, black and white sheep etc."[33] The spurious claim about the nursery rhyme was widely circulated and later amplified into a suggestion that similar bans applied to the terms "black coffee" and "blackboard."[34] According to Private Eye magazine, similar stories, all without factual basis, have run in the British press since first appearing in the Sun in 1986.[31] Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio...


Political correctness and science

Opponents of mainstream scientific views on evolution, global warming, passive smoking, AIDS and other issues have claimed that political correctness is responsible for the failure of their views to get a fair hearing. Thus Ted Steele, an associate university professor of biology, says, in his book, Lamarck's Signature[35]: "We now stand on the threshold of what could be an exciting new era of genetic research. ... However, the 'politically correct' thought agendas of the neo-Darwinists of the 1990's are ideologically opposed to the idea of 'Lamarckian feedback' just as the church was opposed to the idea of evolution based on natural selection in the 1850's![citation needed] This article is about evolution in biology. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation of smoke from tobacco products. ... The AIDS reappraisal movement or AIDS dissident movement, pejoratively referred to as AIDS denialism, is a loosely connected group of activists, journalists, scientists, and HIV-positive persons who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Prof. ...


Tom Bethell's The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science is a comprehensive presentation of the viewpoint that mainstream science is dominated by politically correct thinking. Bethell rejects mainstream views on evolution and global warming and supports AIDS reappraisal.[36] Tom Bethell (born 1936) is an journalist specializing in economic issues, known for his support of the market economy, political conservatism, and unorthodox science. ... The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science was the third book in the Politically Incorrect Guides series published by Regnery Publishing after the Guides to American History and Islam. ... The AIDS reappraisal movement or AIDS dissident movement, pejoratively referred to as AIDS denialism, is a loosely connected group of activists, journalists, scientists, and HIV-positive persons who dispute the scientific consensus that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...


Right wing political correctness

Allegations of political correctness, in the sense of an enforced orthodoxy, have been directed against the political right.


During the run-up to the invasion of Iraq, several weeks after their Grammy success the country band the Dixie Chicks performed in concert in London on March 10, 2003, at the Shepherd's Bush Empire theatre. During this concert, the band gave a monologue to introduce their song Travelin' Soldier, during which Natalie Maines, a Texas native, was quoted by The Guardian as saying, "Just so you know, [...] we're ashamed that the President of the United States is from Texas." Though this is the official circulation of the comment, the full text of the statement Natalie Maines made was as follows: “Just so you know, we’re on the good side with y’all. We do not want this war, this violence, and we’re ashamed that the President of the United States is from Texas.” [2] The Dixie Chicks are a country/rock music trio from the United States comprising Emily Robison, Martie Maguire and Natalie Maines. ... Natalie Louise Maines Pasdar (born October 14, 1974) is an American singer and songwriter who achieved success as the lead vocalist for the female country music band Dixie Chicks. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


The resulting backlash against the band was described by columnist Don Williams as an example of exacting a price for expressing views the right considered politically incorrect. Williams wrote "the ugliest form of political correctness occurs whenever there's a war on. Then you'd better watch what you say." Williams noted that Ann Coulter and Bill O'Reilly called it treason. [37]


In 2004, then Australian Labor leader Mark Latham described conservative calls for "civility" as "The New Political Correctness" [3]. Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ...


Other examples include attempts to rename French fries as Freedom Fries and to boycott French wine in retaliation for France's decision to not support the U.S. invasion of Iraq, and the terms "Islamofascist murderer" and "homicide bomber" to describe the insurgency and suicide bombers in Iraq.[citation needed] French fried potatoes, commonly known as French fries or fries (North America) or chips (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and Commonwealth) are pieces of potato that have been chopped into batons and deep fried. ... Wikinews has related news: Capitol Hill fries and toast French again Freedom fries was a short-lived[1] name used by some in the United States for French fries, as a result of anti-French sentiment in the United States. ... French gastronomy France is one of the oldest wine-producing regions of Europe. ... “Insurrection” redirects here. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


Satirical use

The use of political language modification has a history in comedy and satire. Two of the earlier and famous examples are 1992's Politically Correct Manifesto by Saul Jerushalmy and Rens Zbignieuw X and 1994's Politically Correct Bedtime Stories by James Finn Garner, in which traditional fairy tales are rewritten from an exaggerated PC viewpoint. Other examples include Bill Maher's former television program, which was entitled Politically Incorrect and George Carlin's "Euphemisms" routine. The Politically Correct Scrapbook also further satirises political correctness. Also seen on [4], a Christian website, there is a politically correct Christmas story. [5] Comedy Central's controversial animated show South Park regularily mocks political correctness in a satirical fashion. Categories: Possible copyright violations ... James Finn Garner is the author of He was born in Detroit, Michigan and was raised in Dearborn, Michigan. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... William Maher, Jr. ... Politically Incorrect was a late-night, half-hour political talk show hosted by Bill Maher that ran from 1993 to 2002. ... George Denis Patrick Carlin[15] (born May 12, 1937) is a Grammy-winning American stand-up comedian, actor, and author. ... Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... This article is about the TV series. ...


In response to the "Freedom Fries" incident, it was suggested that the Fama-French model used in corporate finance might be renamed the "Fama-Freedom" model [38] Eugene F. Fama. ... Domestic credit to private sector in 2005 Corporate finance is an area of finance dealing with the financial decisions corporations make and the tools and analysis used to make these decisions. ...


See Also

For other uses, see Censor. ... Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding public acknowledgment or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Kotobagari (言葉狩り, lit. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined, as opposed to more traditional language forms, which may use male or female... The orthodox spellings of common words are often altered to make a political point, particularly in informal writing on the Internet, but also in some serious political writing that opposes the status quo. ... The expression pensée unique (French for single thought) describes the claimed supremacy of neoliberalism as an ideology. ... People first language is a linguistic concept related to political correctness which has been proposed by several organizations representing disabled people. ... // Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // A basic definition of speech code by sociologist Basil Bernstein is, ...a coding principle is a rule governing what to say and how to say it in a particular context (Miller, 2005). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Dixie Chicks are a country/rock music trio from the United States comprising Emily Robison, Martie Maguire and Natalie Maines. ... Wikinews has related news: Capitol Hill fries and toast French again Freedom fries was a short-lived[1] name used by some in the United States for French fries, as a result of anti-French sentiment in the United States. ... One World Government redirects here. ... The 1993 water buffalo incident concerned a Penn student who was charged with violating Penns racial harassment policy for shouting Shut up, you water buffalo from his dorm window to a crowd of noisy, mostly-black sorority sisters. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Schultz, Debra L. (1993). To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the “Political Correctness” Debates in Higher Education. New York: National Council for Research on Women.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Ruth Perry, (1992), "A short history of the term 'politically correct' " in Beyond PC: Toward a Politics of Understanding by Aufderheide, Patricia 1992
  3. ^ Regnery. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
  4. ^ Messer-Davidow 1993, 1994; Lauter 1995; Scatamburlo 1998; Glassner 1999.
  5. ^ Chisholm v State of GA, 2 US 419 (1793) Findlaw.com - Accessed February 6, 2007. "The states, rather than the People, for whose sakes the States exist, are frequently the objects which attract and arrest our principal attention[...]. Sentiments and expressions of this inaccurate kind prevail in our common, even in our convivial, language. Is a toast asked? 'The United States', instead of the 'People of the United States', is the toast given. This is not politically correct."
  6. ^ Marxism and Form. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  7. ^ Chang-tu Hu, International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft / Revue Internationale de l'Education, Vol. 10, No. 1. (1964), pp. 12-21.
  8. ^ Susan Biele Alitto, Comparative Education Review, Vol. 13, No. 1. (Feb., 1969), pp. 43-59.
  9. ^ Schultz citing Perry, 1992, P. 16
  10. ^ Ellen Willis, "Toward a Feminist Revolution", in No More Nice Girls: Countercultural Essays, Wesleyan University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-8195-5250-X, p. 19.
  11. ^ Remarks at the University of Michigan Commencement Ceremony in Ann Arbor, May 4, 1991. George Bush Presidential Library.
  12. ^ mapp. "Political Correctness - Next Steps", Friday, 9 December 2005. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. (english) 
  13. ^ Teaching Politically Correct Language.
  14. ^ Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming, Edna Andrews, American Speech, Vol. 71, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 389-404.
  15. ^ Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Attitudes Toward Sexist/Nonsexist Language Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, March, 2000 by Janet B. Parks, Mary Ann Roberton [1]
  16. ^ Loftus, E. and Palmer, J. 1974. Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13, pp.585-9
  17. ^ Kahneman, D. and Amos Tversky. 1981. The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science, 211, pp.453-458
  18. ^ Hutton W, "Words really are important, Mr Blunkett" The Observer, Sunday December 16, 2001 - Accessed February 6, 2007.
  19. ^ Toynbee P, "Religion must be removed from all functions of state", The Guardian, Sunday December 12, 2001 - Accessed February 6, 2007.
  20. ^ William S. Lind states Political Correctness is a form of cultural marxism
  21. ^ Buchanan interview on Fox News
  22. ^ Kors AC and Silvergate H, "Codes of silence - who's silencing free speech on campus -- and why" Reason Magazine (online), November 1998 - Accessed February 6, 2007.
  23. ^ Schmidt M. "The Orwellian Language of Big Government" NTUF Policy Paper 152 Accessed February 3, 2007.
  24. ^ Camille Paglia says it best-- Accessed February 2, 2007. "My message to the media is: Wake up! The silencing of authentic debate among feminists just helps the rise of the far right. When the media get locked in their Northeastern ghetto and become slaves of the feminist establishment and fanatical special interests, the American audience ends up looking to conservative voices for common sense. As a libertarian Democrat, I protest against this self-defeating tyranny of political correctness."
  25. ^ "Beyond political correctness." HPR online (the online site of the Harvard political review), Posted March 6, 2006 - Accessed February 6, 2007.
  26. ^ Young C. "Under the radar - political correctness never died." Reason Online July 2004 - Accessed February 6, 2007. "On campuses across America, the censorship of speech and ideas in the name of sensitivity continues unabated."
  27. ^ Bailyn B. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. p. 55-56. Cambridge: The Harvard University Press, 1967,1992. ISBN 0-674-44302-0. "The essence of what they meant by power was perhaps best revealed inadvertently by John Adams as he groped for words in drafting his Dissertation on the Canon and Feudal Law. Twice choosing and then rejecting the word "power," he finally selected as the specification of the thought he had in mind "dominion," and in this association of words the whole generation concurred. "Power" to them meant the dominion of some men over others, the human control of human life: ultimately force, compulsion."
  28. ^ Strauss L. Persecution and the Art of Writing. p. 23. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1952. ISBN 0-226-77711-1. "They have not been convinced by compulsion, for compulsion does not produce conviction. It merely paves the way for conviction by silencing contradiction. What is called freedom of thought in a large number of cases amounts to — and even for all practical purposes consists of — the ability to choose between two or more different views presented by the small minority of people who are public speakers or writers. If this choice is prevented, the only kind of intellectual independence of which many people are capable is destroyed, and that is the only freedom of thought which is of political importance."
  29. ^ Mansfield HC "The cost of free speech." The Weekly Standard. October 3, 2005 - Accessed February 6, 2007. "For lively exchange you need balance, as it is easy for a dominant majority to be unruffled by dissent when it is only from a token few."
  30. ^ Political Correctness: The Scourge of Our Times - Agustin Blazquez with the collaboration of Jaums Sutton
  31. ^ a b Obsolete: Baa Baa Rainbow Bollocks.. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  32. ^ Blair, Alexandra. "Why black sheep are barred and Humpty can't be cracked", The Times, 2006-03-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-05. 
  33. ^ BBC NEWS. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  34. ^ Teen Ink - Bah, Bah, Rainbow Sheep. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.
  35. ^ Robert V. Blanden; Steele, Edward David; Lindley, Robyn A. (1999). Lamarck's signature: how retrogenes are changing Darwin's natural selection paradigm. Reading, Mass: Perseus Books. ISBN 0-7382-0171-5. 
  36. ^ Bethell, Tom. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Science. Washington, D.C: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-031-X. 
  37. ^ Don Williams Insights - Dixie Chicks Were Right. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.
  38. ^ "Fama-French" Model Renamed "Fama-Freedom" Model - GSB News, Chicago Business. Retrieved on 2007-11-09.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ellen Willis is best known as the first pop music critic for the New Yorker, working there during the 1960s. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Aufderheide, Patricia. (ed.). 1992. Beyond P.C.: Toward a Politics of Understanding. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press.
  • Berman, Paul. (ed.). 1992. Debating P.C.: The Controversy Over Political Correctness on College Campuses. New York, New York: Dell Publishing.
  • Gottfried, Paul E., After Liberalism: Mass Democracy in the Managerial State, 1999. ISBN 0-691-05983-7
  • Jay, Martin., The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923-1950, University of California Press, New Ed edition (March 5, 1996). ISBN 0-520-20423-9
  • Switzer, Jacqueline Vaughn. Disabled Rights: American Disability Policy and the Fight for Equality. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

Against

Dinesh DSouza (born April 25, 1961 in Bombay, India) is an author currently serving as the Robert and Karen Rishwain Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. ... Henry N. Beard (born probably in 1945) is an American humorist, one of the founders of the National Lampoon and the author of several best-selling books. ... Christopher Cerf (born August 19, 1941) is an author, composer-lyricist, and record and television producer. ... David E. Bernstein is a Professor at the George Mason University School of Law in Arlington, Virginia, where he has been teaching since 1995. ... William S. Lind is an American expert on military affairs and a pundit on cultural conservatism. ... Nat Hentoff (born June 10, 1925) is an American civil libertarian, free speech absolutist, pro-life advocate, anti-death penalty advocate, jazz critic, historian, biographer and anecdotist, and columnist for the Village Voice, Legal Times, Washington Times, The Progressive, Editor & Publisher, Free Inquiry and Jewish World Review. ... Diane Ravitch is an author, a professor of Education at New York University (NYU), and a historian of education who sits on the board of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. ... Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. ... The Campaign Against Political Correctness Logo [1] A British based campaign against political correctness. ...

Skeptical

  • Ellen Messer-Davidow. 1993. "Manufacturing the Attack on Liberalized Higher Education." Social Text, Fall, pp. 40–80.
  • Ellen Messer-Davidow. 1994. "Who (Ac)Counts and How." MMLA (The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association), vol. 27, no. 1, Spring, pp. 26–41.
  • Scatamburlo, Valerie L. 1998. Soldiers of Misfortune: The New Right's Culture War and the Politics of Political Correctness. Counterpoints series, Vol. 25. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Debra L. Schultz. 1993. To Reclaim a Legacy of Diversity: Analyzing the "Political Correctness" Debates in Higher Education. New York: National Council for Research on Women.
  • P. Lauter. 1995. "'Political correctness' and the attack on American colleges." In M. Bérubé & C. Nelson, Higher education under fire: Politics, economics, and the crisis in the humanities. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear New York: Basic Books, 1999, ISBN 0-465-01489-5 / ISBN 0-465-01490-9
  • Wilson, John. 1995. The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on High Education. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press.

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

External links

  • Politically Correct or Not A humorous holiday-themed quiz that pokes at the issue of being PC during the holidays.
  • Politically correct and proud of it Observer Special Report by Will Hutton
  • Possible origins of the term at www.linguist.org
  • Global Language Monitor list of the Top Ten Politically (In)Correct Terms of 2006
  • "Shortcuts" by Thomas Jones, discusses the term "political correctness" in British discourse, London Review of Books, December 1, 2005
  • A list of examples cited by the Daily Mail of political correctness in the UK
The London Review of Books (or LRB) is a twice-monthly British literary magazine. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Political correctness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2727 words)
The modern concept of political correctness arose in the 1970s-80s; at this time, it was becoming socially acceptable in the West for women and non-Caucasians to pursue lifestyles that had previously been held (nearly) exclusively by Caucasian men, such as being a major manager in a large corporation.
Criticism of political correctness is often associated with the claim that the Left has lost touch with the working class and has instead turned toward such things as postmodernism and post-structuralism, which are seen as incomprehensible to the general public, or has replaced their former emphasis on social class with multiculturalism and identity politics.
Politically Correct Fairy Tales, by John Hawkins, is another example [5] as is The Politically Correct Scrapbook by John and Laura Midgley.
Political correctness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1872 words)
Political correctness is the alteration of language said to redress real or alleged unjust discrimination or to avoid offense.
Political correctness may also be exhibited by the refusal to discuss particular traits of an ethnic or religious minority.
Use of the terms PC and politically correct declined in the late 1990s, and it is now mostly seen in comedy or as a political slur with questionable meaning.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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