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Encyclopedia > Political campaign

A political campaign is an organized effort which to influence the decision making process within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns, wherein representatives are chosen or referenda are decided. Political campaigns also include organized efforts to alter policy within any institution. Electioneering is a song by Radiohead, from the bands 1997 album OK Computer. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ... In the past, political campaigns were conducted using traditional methods of personal contact, such as television and radio media purchasing, print advertising and direct mail. ... Opposition research often referred to as oppo is the section of an election campaign designed to investigate the life and record of the opposing candidate. ... Political consulting is the business which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns, primarily in the United States. ... In politics, campaign advertising is the use of paid media (newspapers, radio, television, etc. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Canvassing is the systematic contacting of individuals in a target group, often in a particular geographic area. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An election promise is a promise made to the public by a politician who is trying to win an election. ... Get out the vote, sometimes GOTV, is a term used to describe two categories of political activity, both aimed at increasing the number of votes cast in one or more elections. ... Lawn signs placed near a polling place in the U.S., July 2004 Lawn signs are one of the most visible features of an election campaign in some countries. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Negative campaigning is having too much doodoo in your underpants. ... An attack ad in election terms is an advertisement whose message is meant as an attack against another candidate or political party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A push poll is a political campaign technique in which an individual or organization attempts to influence or alter the view of respondents under the guise of conducting a poll. ... A smear campaign or smear tactics are deliberate attempts by an individual or group to malign another individual or groups reputation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Candidate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... The staff of political campaigns are the people who get paid to formulate and implement the strategy needed to win an election. ... Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of two or more individuals. ...


Politics is as old as humankind and is not limited to democratic or governmental institutions. Some examples of political campaigns are: the effort to execute or banish Socrates from Athens in the 5th century BCE, the uprising of petty nobility against John of England in the 13th century, or the 2005 push to remove Michael Eisner from the helm of The Walt Disney Company. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... This page is about the ancient Greek philosopher. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the King of England. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... “Disney” redirects here. ...

Contents

Campaign elements

Any political campaign is made up of three elements. The modern mnemonic is message, money, and machine.


Message

The message is a concise statement saying why voters should pick a candidate. Simple examples might include:

  • "John Doe is a business man, not a politician. His background in finance means he can bring fiscal discipline to state government."
  • "As our society faces a rapid upswing in violent crime and an ever worsening education system, we need leaders who will keep our streets safe and restore accountability to our schools. John Doe is that leader."
  • "Over the past four years, John Doe has missed over fifty City Council meetings. How can you lead if you don't show up? Jane Doe won't turn a blind eye to the government."

The message is one of the most important aspects of any political campaign. The habit of modern Western media outlets (especially radio and television) of taking short excerpts from speeches has resulted in the creation of the term "soundbite". The name John Doe is generally used in the United States as a placeholder name for a male party in a legal action or legal discussion whose true identity is unknown. ... The phrase turn a blind eye is attributed to Admiral Horatio Nelson. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In a modern political campaign, the message must be carefully crafted before it is spread. Major campaigns will spend hundreds of thousands of dollars on opinion polls and focus groups in order to figure out what message is needed to reach a majority on Election Day. Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. ... A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. ...


Money

Main article: Campaign finance

Fundraising techniques include having the candidate call or meet with large donors, sending direct mail pleas to small donors, and courting interest groups who could end up spending millions on the race if it is significant to their interests. Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns. ...


Machine

Finally, 'machine' represents human capital, the foot soldiers loyal to the cause, the true believers who will carry the run by volunteer activists. Successful campaigns usually require a campaign manager and some staff members who make strategic and tactical decisions while volunteers and interns canvass door-to-door and make phone calls. A poltical campaigner (or political activist) is someone (generally not a politician) involved in politicial campaigning, that is, lobbying the government and politicians on political issues (such as the environment) and encouraging other citizens to do the same. ...


Large modern campaigns use all three of the above components to create a successful strategy for victory.


Techniques

See also: Campaign advertising In politics, campaign advertising is the use of paid media (newspapers, radio, television, etc. ...

Democrat John Edwards makes a campaign speech in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 2007.

A campaign team (which may be as small as one inspired individual, or a heavily-resourced group of professionals) must consider how to communicate the message of the campaign, recruit volunteers, and raise money. Campaign advertising draws on techniques from commercial advertising and propaganda. The avenues available to political campaigns when distributing their messages is limited by the law, available resources, and the imagination of the campaigns' participants. These avenues include: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2588 × 1725 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2588 × 1725 pixel, file size: 2 MB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Johnny Reid John Edwards[1] (born June 10, 1953), is an American politician who was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 2004 and a one-term U.S. Senator from North Carolina. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...

  • The public media (in US parlance 'free media' or 'earned media') may run the story that someone is trying to get elected or to do something about such and such
  • The paid media which consists of paid advertisements on TV, the radio, in newspapers, on billboards and, increasingly, the Internet
  • Holding protests, rallies and other similar public events (if enough people can be persuaded to come)
  • Holding mass meetings with speakers
  • Using strategy to win a campaign
  • Writing directly to members of the public (either via a professional marketing firm or, particularly on a small scale, by volunteers)
Greeting babies - a traditional campaign activity
  • Communicating face-to-face with members of the public, either at events, in the street ("mainstreeting"), or on the doorstep
  • By cold-calling members of the public over the phone
  • By distributing leaflets or selling newspapers
  • Through websites, online communities, and solicited or unsolicited bulk email eg. [1]
  • Through a new technique known as Microtargeting that helps identify and target small demographic slices of voters
  • Through a whistlestop tour - a series of brief appearances in several small towns
  • Hampering the ability of political competitors to campaign, by such techniques as counter-rallies, picketing of rival parties’ meetings, or overwhelming rival candidates’ offices with mischievous phone calls (most political parties in representative democracies publicly distance themselves from such disruptive and morale-affecting tactics, with the exception of those parties self-identifying as activist [2])
  • Organizing political house parties
  • Coattail effect, or using endorsements of other celebrated party members to boost support. (IE an endorsement from a president for a member of the same party)

These methods are often combined into a formal strategy known as the campaign plan. The plan takes account of a campaign's goal, message, target audience, and resources in order to lay out a blueprint for victory. Earned Media Until recently, political campaigns used the term free media to refer to media coverage that appears as news rather than as advertising (paid media). Now the term earned media is commonly used to describe newspaper articles, TV news stories, web news, letters to the editor, op-ed pieces... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 606 KB) Jack Layton and Gilles Duceppe greet a young constituent at the Fête nationale du Québec, June 24, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 606 KB) Jack Layton and Gilles Duceppe greet a young constituent at the Fête nationale du Québec, June 24, 2006. ... Microtargeting is a method used by United States Republican and Democratic political parties and candidates to track individual voters and identify potential supporters. ... For the original railroad term see whistle stop. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... A political house party is a party held in a private home for the purpose of supporting a particular candidate, political party, or ballot measure, or to share information and opinions about an upcoming election. ... The tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election. ...


The campaign will typically seek to identify supporters at the same time as getting its message across. These identified supporters are then sent additional information requesting their active support. They are asked to "join" the campaign by donating money, doing volunteer work, writing letters to the media, voting in a particular way, and generally assisting the cause.


Ongoing campaigns can become entrenched as institutions, charities, or political parties. Conversely, existing organizations may use campaigns to remain active, or to advance interests.


Modern election campaigns in the US

Main article: Elections in the United States Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and...


Types of elections

The United States is unusual in that there are dozens of different types of elections and political offices available, including everything from the sewer commission to the President of the United States. Elections happen every year on many different dates in many different areas of the country. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


At the local level, some offices (e.g., school board, town council, etc.) may be officially non-partisan, with candidates of the same political party challenging each other and in many cases without any campaign references to political parties. Other offices (e.g., county treasurer, county district attorney, county sheriff) may be filled in partisan manners with parties endorsing like-minded candidates and then working on their behalf.


All state and national elections are partisan (except judicial elections in some states).


Process of campaigning

President Richard Nixon campaigns in 1972 by "working the crowd" and shaking hands with supporters.

Compared with the relatively short political campaigns of other democracies such as the United Kingdom, major campaigns in the United States can be marathons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Campaigns start anywhere from several months to several years before election day. The first part of any campaign for a candidate is deciding to run. Prospective candidates will often speak with family, friends, professional associates, elected officials, community leaders, and the leaders of political parties before deciding to run. Candidates are often recruited by political parties and interest groups interested in electing like-minded politicians. During this period, people considering running for office will consider their ability to put together the money, organization, and public image needed to get elected. Many campaigns for major office do not progress past this point as people often do not feel confident in their ability to win. More than one country has a day called Election Day. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. ...


Once a person decides to run, they will make a public announcement. This announcement could consist of anything from a simple press release to concerned media outlets to a major media event followed by a speaking tour. It is often well-known to many people that a candidate will run prior to an announcement being made. Campaigns will often be announced and then only officially "kicked off" months after active campaigning has begun. Being coy about whether a candidacy is planned is often a deliberate strategy by a prospective candidate, either to "test the waters" or to keep the media's attention.


One of the most important aspects of the major American political campaign is the ability to raise large sums of money, especially early on in the race. Political insiders and donors often judge candidates based on their ability to raise money. Not raising enough money early on can lead to problems later as donors are not willing to give funds to candidates they perceive to be losing, a perception based on their poor fundraising performance.


Also during this period, candidates travel around the area they are running in and meet with voters; speaking to them in large crowds, small groups, or even one-on-one. This allows voters to get a better picture of who a candidate is than that which they read about in the paper or see on television. Campaigns sometimes launch expensive media campaigns during this time to introduce the candidate to voters, although most wait until closer to election day.


Campaigns often dispatch volunteers into local communities to meet with voters and persuade people to support the candidate. The volunteers are also responsible for identifying supporters, recruiting them as volunteers or registering them to vote if they are not already registered. The identification of supporters will be useful later as campaigns remind voters to cast their votes.


Late in the campaign, campaigns will launch expensive television, radio, and direct mail campaigns aimed at persuading voters to support the candidate. Campaigns will also intensify their grassroots campaigns, coordinating their volunteers in a full court effort to win votes.


Voting in the United States often starts weeks before election day as mail-in ballots are a commonly used voting method. Campaigns will often run two persuasion programs, one aimed at mail-in voters and one aimed at the more traditional poll voters.


Campaigns for minor office may be relatively simple and inexpensive - talking to local newspapers, giving out campaign signs, and greeting people in the local square.


Political consultants

Main article: Political consulting

Political campaigns in the United States are not merely a civic ritual and occasion for political debate, but a multi-billion dollar industry, dominated by professional political consultants using sophisticated campaign management tools, to an extent far greater than elsewhere in the world. Though the quadrennial presidential election attracts the most attention, the United States has a huge number of elected offices and there is wide variation between different states, counties, and municipalities on which offices are elected and under what procedures. Moreover, unlike democratic politics in much of the rest of the world, the US has relatively weak parties. While parties play a significant role in fundraising and occasionally in drafting people to run, campaigns are ultimately controlled by the individual candidates themselves. Political consulting is the business which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns, primarily in the United States. ... Political consulting is the business which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns, primarily in the United States. ... In the past, political campaigns were conducted using traditional methods of personal contact, such as television and radio media purchasing, print advertising and direct mail. ... United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day (January 20th of the year after the election). ...


Other issues and criticisms

Cost of campaign advertising

American political campaigns have become heavily reliant on broadcast media and direct mail advertising (typically designed and purchased through specialized consultants). Though virtually all campaign media are sometimes used at all levels (even candidates for local office have been known to purchase cable TV ads), smaller, lower-budget campaigns are typically more focused on direct mail, low-cost advertising (such as lawn signs), and direct voter contact. This reliance on expensive advertising is a leading factor behind the rise in the cost of running for office in the United States. This rising cost is considered by some to discourage those without well-monied connections, or money themselves, from running for office. Note: broadcasting is also the old term for hand sowing. ... Direct marketing is a form of marketing that attempts to send its messages directly to consumers, often without the use of intervening media. ... Lawn signs placed near a polling place in the U.S., July 2004 Lawn signs are one of the most visible features of an election campaign in some countries. ...


Independent expenditures

Money is raised and spent not only by candidate's campaign, but also by party committees, political action committees, and other groups (in the 2004 election cycle, much controversy has focused on a new category of organization, 527 groups). This is sometimes done through independent expenditures made in support or opposition of specific candidates but without any candidate's cooperation or approval. The lack of an overt connection between a candidate and third party groups allows one side of a campaign to attack the other side while avoiding criticism for going negative. A memorable example are the Swift Boat Veterans who criticized John Kerry in the United States presidential election, 2004, and who were condemned by Republican Senator John McCain.[1] In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... A 527 group is a type of tax-exempt organization named after a section of the United States tax code, created primarily to influence the nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates for public office. ... In elections in the United States, an independent expenditure is a political activity intended to assist or oppose a specific candidate for office which is made without their cooperation, approval, or direct knowledge. ... Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, formerly known as the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth (SBVT), is an organization of American Swift boat veterans and former prisoners of war of the Vietnam War, formed during the 2004 presidential election campaign. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Presidential election results map. ... “McCain” redirects here. ...


Future developments

Many political players and commentators agree that American political campaigns are currently undergoing a period of change, due to changing campaign-finance laws, increased use of the internet (which has become a valuable fundraising tool), and the apparently declining effectiveness of television advertising.[citation needed]


History

A whistle stop train tour in Keyser, West Virginia, in 1948. From left to right: President Harry S. Truman at the microphone, Congressional candidate Harley Orrin Staggers, and vice presidential candidate Alben W. Barkley.

Political campaigns have existed as long as there have been informed citizens to campaign amongst. Often mass campaigns are started by the less privileged or anti-establishment viewpoints (as against more powerful interests whose first resort is lobbying). The phenomenon of political campaigns are tightly tied to special interest groups and political parties. The first 'modern' campaign is thought to be William Gladstone's Midlothian campaign in the 1880s, although there may be earlier recognisably modern examples from the 19th century. Image File history File links Staggers-truman1948. ... Image File history File links Staggers-truman1948. ... President Harry S. Truman at the mic, left Harley O. Staggers & Alben W. Barkley. ... Keyser is a city in and the county seat of Mineral CountyGR6, West Virginia, United States. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... President Harry S. Truman at the mic, left Harley O. Staggers & Alben W. Barkley. ... Alben William Barkley (November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives and the United States Senate from Kentucky, and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... This article is about the political effort. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... “Political Parties” redirects here. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ... The Midlothian campaign was a series of foreign policy speeches given by William Gladstone. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ...


Democratic societies have regular election campaigns, but political campaigning can occur on particular issues even in non-democracies so long as freedom of expression is allowed. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


American election campaigns in the 19th century created the first mass-base political parties and invented many of the techniques of mass campaigning.[citation needed] In the 1790-1820s, the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party battled it out in the so-called "First Party System".
In the 19th century, the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1793 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1820s. ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... The First Party System is the term political scientists and historians give to the political system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. ...


Alternatives to campaigning

Not all democratic elections involve political campaigning. Indeed, some democratic elections specifically rule out campaigning on the grounds that campaigning may compromise the democratic character of the elections (Abizadeh 2005), perhaps because of campaigns' susceptibility to the influence of money, or to the influence of special interest groups.


Sources

World

  • Abizadeh, Arash. "Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections." World Order 37.1 (2005): 7-49.
  • Barnes, S. H., and M. Kaase Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies.Sage, 1979.
  • Blewett, Neal. The Peers, the Parties and the People: The General Elections of 1910. London: Macmillan, 1972.
  • Hix, S. The Political System of the European Union. St. Martin's Press, 1999.
  • Katz, Richard S., and P. Mair (eds.), How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies. Sage Publications, 1994.
  • Katz, Richard S., and Peter Mair, "Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party," Party Politics, Vol. 1, No. 1, 5-28 (1995) DOI: 10.1177/1354068895001001001 online abstract
  • LaPalombara, Joseph and Myron Wiener (eds.), Political Parties and Political Development. Princeton University Press, 1966.
  • Panebianco, A. Political Parties: Organization and Power. Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • Paquette, Laure. Campaign Strategy. New York: Nova, 2006.
  • Poguntke, Thomas, and Paul Webb, eds. The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. Oxford University Press. 2005 online
  • Ware, Alan. Citizens, Parties and the State: A Reappraisal. Princeton University Press, 1987.
  • Webb, Paul, David Farrell, and Ian Holliday, Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies Oxford University Press, 2002 online

USA

  • Robert J. Dinkin. Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practice. Westport: Greenwood, 1989.
  • John Gerring, Party Ideologies in America, 1828-1996. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Lewis L. Gould, Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans. NY: Random House, 2003.
  • Gary C. Jacobson. The Politics of Congressional Elections (5th Edition) NY: Longman, 2000.
  • Richard Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.
  • L. Sandy Meisel, Political Parties and Elections in the United States: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1991.
  • Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., ed. History of American Presidential Elections. 4 vols. New York: Chelsea House, 1971.
  • James A. Thurber, Campaigns and Elections American Style. NY Westview Press; 2nd edition, 2004.
  • Kirsten A. Foot and Steven M. Schneider, Web Campaigning. The MIT Press, 2006.

References

  1. ^ Jim Rassmann (August 10, 2004). Shame on the Swift Boat Veterans for Bush. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.

The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Techniques and traditions
General topics
Examples

Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Canvassing is the systematic contacting of individuals in a target group, often in a particular geographic area. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An election promise is a promise made to the public by a politician who is trying to win an election. ... A husting, or the hustings, was originally a physical platform from which representatives presented their views or cast votes before a parliamentary or other election body. ... Lawn signs placed near a polling place in the U.S., July 2004 Lawn signs are one of the most visible features of an election campaign in some countries. ... Microtargeting is a method used by United States Republican and Democratic political parties and candidates to track individual voters and identify potential supporters. ... The staff of political campaigns are the people who get paid to formulate and implement the strategy needed to win an election. ... Look up Votebank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Civics is the science of comparative government and means of administering public trusts—the theory of governance as applied to state institutions. ... This article is about the political effort. ... In the 19th century, the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
political campaign - definition of political campaign in Encyclopedia (1701 words)
One early example of a political campaign might be the campaign to execute or banish Socrates from Athens in the 5th century BC.
Campaigning on specific issues is related to lobbying and propaganda but is distinguished from the first by the involvement of mass action and the second by the fact that it is limited in scope and acts within the constitutional system.
Modern election campaigns in the US Political campaigns in the United States are not merely a civic ritual and occasion for political debate, but a multi-billion industry, dominated by professional political consultants using sophisticated campaign management tools, to an extent far greater than elsewhere in the world.
Political campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2960 words)
Politics is as old as humankind and is not limited to democratic or governmental institutions.
Some examples of political campaigns are: the effort to execute or banish Socrates from Athens in the 5th century BCE, the uprising of petty nobility against John of England in the 13th century, or the recent push to remove Michael Eisner from the helm of The Walt Disney Company.
Political campaigns in the United States are not merely a civic ritual and occasion for political debate, but a multi-billion dollar industry, dominated by professional political consultants using sophisticated campaign management tools, to an extent far greater than elsewhere in the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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