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Encyclopedia > Political assassination
Homicide
Murder
Felony murder
Consensual homicide
Negligent homicide
Vehicular homicide
Honour killing
Assassination
Ritual murder
Proxy murder
Torture murder
Murder-suicide
Spree killer
Child murder
Lynching
Lust murder
Mass murder
Serial killer
Human sacrifice
List of murdered people
Manslaughter
In English law
Non-criminal homicide
Justifiable homicide
Capital punishment
Other types of homicide
Infanticide
Fratricide
Sororicide
Parricide
Patricide
Mariticide
Matricide
Uxoricide
Filicide
Regicide
Genocide
Democide
Deicide
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Assassination is the deliberate killing of an important person, usually a political figure or other strategically important individual. An assassin or the assassin's employer usually has an ideological or political agenda, and regards the target as an obstacle to furthering his agenda. Other motivations may be money, as in the case of a contract killing, revenge, or acts of espionage at the request of a government. Etymology: Latin homicidium, from homo- human being + caedere- to cut, kill Homicide is the intentional or negligent killing of another human being by one or more persons. ... The felony murder rule is a legal doctrine according to which anyone who commits, or is found to be involved in, a serious crime (a felony), during which any person dies, is guilty of murder. ... Consensual homicide refers to a killing in which the victim wants to die. ... Negligent homicide is a charge brought against persons, who by inaction, allow others under their care to die. ... Vehicular homicide is in most places a criminal act involving the killing of a life by hitting it with a vehicle. ... Honour killing is most often the killing of a female, but in some cases also a male, and sometimes his/her family members, love-interests or other associates,[1][2] for supposed sexual or marital offences, typically by his/her own relatives or relatives of a purported romantic interest, with... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion. ... A proxy murder is a murder in which the murderer does so at the behest of another, acting as his or her proxy. ... Torture murder is a loosely defined legal term to describe murderers who kill their victims by slowly torturing them to death over a prolonged period of time. ... A murder suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before, or while killing himself. ... A spree killer is someone who embarks on a murderous rampage. ... The murder of children is considered a particularly abhorrent crime in most societies; they are perceived within their communities and the state at large as being vulnerable and therefore especially susceptible to abduction and murder. ... Lynch mob redirects here. ... A lust murder is a homicide in which the offender stabs, cuts, pierces, slashes, or otherwise mutilates the sexual organs or areas of the victims body. ... This article deals with mass killings which are not considered genocide. ... Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ... Human sacrifice was practiced in many ancient cultures. ... See also: List of assassinated persons, List of people who became famous only in death, List of famous people responsible for a death Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W... For a discussion of the law in other countries, see manslaughter In the English law of homicide, manslaughter is a less serious offence than murder with the the law differentiating between levels of fault based on the mens rea (Latin for a guilty mind). Manslaughter may be either: Voluntary where... The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law stands on the dividing line between an excuse and an exculpation. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning: brother and cide meaning to kill) is the act of a person killing his or her brother. ... Sororicide is the act of killing ones own sister. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patricide. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Parricide. ... Mariticide (not to be confused with matricide); from the Latin maritus (married) & cidium (killing), literally means the murder of ones married partner, but has become most associated with the murder of a husband by his wife. ... Matricide is the act of killing ones mother. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Filicide is the deliberate act of a parent killing his or her own son or daughter. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Look up Genocide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Democide is a term created by political scientist R.J. Rummel in order to create a broader concept than the legal definition of genocide. ... Deicide is an English word meaning the killing of (a) god or the killing of a divine being. It is ultimately derived from dei-, the combining forms of the Latin noun deus (god), and the stem -cida, from the verb caedere (to cut down). Often the word is used to... Assassin may refer to: Hashshashin, the historical Muslim sect of Alamut An assassin, a murderer who is politically motivated Sometimes a hitman, a murderer who is motivated by money, is called an assassin Assassin (rap crew), a French rap crew Assassin (character class), a character class found in many role... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Economics offers various definitions for money, though it is now commonly defined by the functions attached to any good or token that functions in trade as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account. ... Hitman redirects here. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ...


Some governments use the euphemism targeted killing as the name for the controversial strategy to save their citizens' lives whereby anticipated acts of terrorism are prevented by assassinating a person deemed to be related to those acts. Assassination itself, along with terms such as terrorist and freedom fighter, is often considered to be a loaded term. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established organization that is thought to be oppressive. ... A language construct, such as a word or a question, is said to be loaded if it carries meaning or implications beyond its strict definition (its denotation). ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Hashshashin

The term 'Assassin' is thought to be derived from its connections to the Hashshashin, a militant religious sect of Ismaili Muslims, thought to be active in the Middle East in the 8th to 14th centuries. This mystic secret society killed members of the Abbasid elite for political or religious motivations. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of Shīʿa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... A secret society is an organization that requires its members to conceal certain activities—such as rites of initiation—from outsiders. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


It was said that they were drugged during their murders, often with materials such as hashish. The name assassin is derived from either hasishin for the supposed influence of the drugs, and disregard for their own lives in the process, or hassansin for their leader, Hassan-i-Sabah. The above however relies heavily on second-hand information from crusader-authored histories which have been traditionally very unreliable for information about native cultures. Confiscated hashish from the United States Drug Enforcement Administration. ... Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah Hassan-i Sabbah (Persian: حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124) also known as The Old Man of the Mountain, was an Iranian Ismāīlī Nizarī missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. ...


Today, it is known that hashishinnya was an offensive term used to depict this cult by its Muslim and Mongolian detractors; the extreme zeal and cold preparation to murder makes it unlikely they ever used drugs. As far as is known they only used daggers, rarely survived their attacks, even when successful (unlike in many tales, where they are silent, invisible killers) and it seems that they killed only five Westerners during the whole of the Crusades.


Definition problems

According to The American Heritage Dictionary, to assassinate is: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ...

"...to murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons."[1]

Unlike some topics, such as terrorism, wherein there is a substantial grey area and often bitter controversy between which specific instances qualify or even what standards should be used, the "common sense" classification of assassination stated at the outset of this article seems to stand with few objections. Gray Area n. ... Look up Common sense in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There are however a few problems regarding motivation - for instance, should a murder be considered an assassination only if the victim is a political leader or public figure hostile to the agenda of the killer, or should the term include killings where the primary motivation is to attract attention to his cause or for purely personal reasons, and the target itself is of secondary importance?

Aftermath of the assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia.
Aftermath of the assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia.
Assassination of Japanese politician Inejiro Asanuma, caught on camera.
Assassination of Japanese politician Inejiro Asanuma, caught on camera.

Notable instances in which this definitional problem has come into effect include the attempt on the life of United States President Ronald Reagan by John Hinckley, who was determined subsequently to have serious psychological problems and publicly stated his intent was to get the attention of actress Jodie Foster rather than make any political statement. The killing of former Beatle John Lennon posed a similar problem — despite Lennon's outspokenness on many liberal political issues, his killer does not seem to have been more than an unstable fan. The use of the term "assassination" to describe Lennon's murder is a matter of some additional debate, since Lennon was primarily an entertainer, not a political figure, and it could be argued that describing his killing as an assassination is no more appropriate than, for example, using the term to describe the murders of singers Selena Quintanilla or Marvin Gaye. The issue is further complicated by the fact that although Lennon was likely as outspoken politically as Reagan (and certainly as famous), Reagan was an elected official at the time, possibly requiring different criteria for Lennon's case. Image File history File links King_Alexander_assasination_corected_aspect_contract_and_sharpness. ... Image File history File links King_Alexander_assasination_corected_aspect_contract_and_sharpness. ... King Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbian Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић, Latin: Kralj Aleksandar I KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević) (Cetinje, Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević was the first king of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–34) and before... Image File history File links Death_of_Inejiro_Asanuma. ... Image File history File links Death_of_Inejiro_Asanuma. ... The assassination of Inejiro Asanuma. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. ... Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director, and producer. ... The Beatles were a highly influential English rock n roll band from Liverpool. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Much Music in Toronto The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... Selena Selena Quintanilla Perez (April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995) was a Mexican-American singer who is considered to be one of the most popular and influential Hispanic music icons of all time. ... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay, Jr. ...


One can take one of three positions (note that this consideration is of necessity strictly based upon language, not law):

  • that the killing of someone only for political, moral, or ideological reasons constitutes an assassination (hence neither Reagan nor Lennon were the victims of assassins' attacks, while Ford was),
  • that the killing of someone serving in politics or public office counts (thus Reagan's and Ford's attackers were would-be assassins, while Lennon's killer was not),
  • or that anyone with a significant level of political involvement would be an assassination victim in the event of their murder (in which case all three instances would be assassinations or attempts).

For the purposes of this article, the first, most conservative definition will predominate, although it is likely that the second is the most popular. The third is generally considered to be too general in application.


Use in history

Ancient history

Some would argue that assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, dating back to the earliest governments of the world. It gained special importance where societies moved beyond a point where direct military force to gain power or remove an opponent became considered too crude. Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ...


Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, as well as Gaius Julius Caesar can be noted as famous examples. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Shia Imams. The practice was also well-known in ancient China like Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin Shi Huang. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Gaius Julius Caesar[1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... The history of China is detailed by historical records dating as far back as 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qín Shǐ Huáng; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE, and then the first emperor of a unified China...


In the Middle Ages, regicide was extremely rare, but with the Renaissance the idea of tyrannomachy (the killing of a King when his rule becomes tyrannical) re-emerged and gained recognition. Rulers like Henry III and Henry IV of France fell to it. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... For other uses, see Renaissance (disambiguation). ... Henry III (French: Henri III; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...

Artist's depiction of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Lincoln and assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.
Artist's depiction of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Lincoln and assassin John Wilkes Booth on the right.

Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolnassassination. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lincolnassassination. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor infamous for the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ...

Modern history

As the world moved into the present day and the stakes in political clashes of will continued to grow to a global scale, the number of assassinations concurrently multiplied. In Russia alone, five emperors were assassinated within less than 200 years - Ivan VI, Peter III, Paul I, Alexander II and Nicholas II. H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... Portrait of Peter III by an uknown artist Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian Пётр III Федорович (Pyotr III Fyodorovitch)) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Paul I of Russia by Vladimir Borovikovsky Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754–March 23, 1801) was an Emperor of Russia (1796–1801). ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born April 17, 1818 in Moscow; died March 13, 1881 in St. ... Nicholas II of Russia (May 18, 1868–July 17, 1918)[1] (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[2] and Grand Duke of Finland. ...


In the USA, President Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy died at the hands of assassins, while many other presidents survived attempts on their life. Most of these assassinations however turned out to have no more than nebulous political backgrounds, adding a new threat - the mentally deranged assassin. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881) and the second U.S. President to be assassinated (Abraham Lincoln was the first). ... William McKinley, Jr. ... For other persons named John Kennedy, see John Kennedy (disambiguation). ...


In Europe the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serb nationalist insurgents finally triggered World War I after a period of building conflicts, while World War II saw the first known use of specifically trained assassination operatives since the original Assassins. Reinhard Heydrich was killed by British-backed killers, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the US to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was en-route in an airplane. Adolf Hitler meanwhile was almost killed by his own officers, and survived numerous attempts by other individuals and organizations. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Look up Archduke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Reinhard Heydrich as SS-Gruppenführer. ... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the first four years of World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919 - 1921). ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was a failed coup détat and attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ...

Senator Ninoy Aquino, murdered by a bodyguard of Phillipine President Ferdinand Marcos.
Senator Ninoy Aquino, murdered by a bodyguard of Phillipine President Ferdinand Marcos.

Image File history File links Summary Ninoy Aquino, Ferdinand Marcos top political nemesis, was shot dead by an alleged assassin in 1983, who was later killed by military escorts of Aquino. ... Image File history File links Summary Ninoy Aquino, Ferdinand Marcos top political nemesis, was shot dead by an alleged assassin in 1983, who was later killed by military escorts of Aquino. ... Benigno Ninoy Simeon Aquino Jr. ... Motto: Maka-Diyos, Makatao, Makakalikasan, at Makabansa (English: For God, People, Nature, and Country) Anthem: Lupang Hinirang (Chosen Land) Capital Manila Largest city Quezon City Filipino and English* Government Unitary presidential republic  - President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo  - Vice President Noli de Castro Independence from Spain and the U.S.   - Declared June... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth president of the Philippines, serving from 1965 to 1986. ...

Cold War and beyond

The Cold War saw a dramatic increase in the number of political assassinations, likely due in large part to the ideological polarization of most of the First and Second worlds, whose adherents were more than willing to both justify and finance such killings. The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... A map of countries often considered to have made up the Second World from the 1950s through the 1980s. ...


During the Kennedy era Fidel Castro narrowly escaped death on several occasions at the hands of the CIA, some allege that Salvador Allende of Chile was another - successful - example of such US tactics. At the same time, the KGB made creative use of assassination to deal with high-profile defectors and Israel's Mossad used them to eliminate Palestinian guerrillas and politicians. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Salvador Isabelino del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his removal from power and death on September 11, 1973. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, often referred to as Mossad, meaning The Institute) is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Most major powers were not long in repudiating Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smoke screen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel and other nations accused of still regularly engaging in such operations.


During the 1991 Gulf War, the United States also struck many of Iraq’s most important command bunkers with bunker-busting bombs in hopes of killing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. (Redirected from 1991 Gulf War) See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... A bunker buster bomb is designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; April 28, 1937[2] – December 30, 2006[3]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003. ...


Since the rise of al-Qaeda and similar organizations, who themselves often engage in assassination tactics, both the US administrations of Clinton and Bush have backed 'targeted killings', mostly directed against terrorist leaders like Osama bin Laden and opponents like Mullah Omar. Most of these attempts were undertaken with remote-controlled missiles and similar tactics, often using remote surveillance for the decision where and when to strike as well. One of the most well-known examples of War on Terrorism assassinations carried out by the United States was the killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Sheik Abd-Al-Rahman, both as a result of two guided bombs on a safehouse outside of Baghdad. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957 [1]), most commonly known as Osama bin Laden is a militant Islamist and one of the founders of al-Qaeda. ... Mohammed Omar also known as Mullah Mohammad Omar (Arabic: ملا محمد عمر) or simply Mullah Omar, born at Singesar, 1959, is the reclusive leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan and was Afghanistans de facto head of state from 1996 to 2001. ... Wikinews has news related to: Abu Musab al-Zarqawi killed in airstrike Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (Arabic: ‎, ) (October 20, 1966 – June 7, 2006) led Al-Qaeda in Iraq until his death in June 2006. ...

See also War on Terrorism

Combatants Participants in Operations: United States United Kingdom Turkey South Korea Australia Canada Israel Spain Portugal Pakistan Afghanistan New Zealand Italy Netherlands Denmark France Germany Norway Slovakia Romania Philippines Poland Ukraine Georgia Jordan Saudi Arabia NATO New Iraqi Army and others Targets of Operations: al-Qaeda Taliban Baathist Iraq...

Further reasons

As military doctrine

Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused - Sun Tzu argued for such in The Art of War, as did Machiavelli in The Prince. In medieval times, an army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war. However, in modern warfare a soldier's mindset is generally considered to surround ideals far more than specific leaders, while command structures are more flexible in replacing officer losses. Theoretically, while the death of a soldier's leader definitely has a detrimental effect on morale, the cause for which they fight usually strong enough to continue. There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader. Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation) A modern edition of The Art of War translated into English by Samuel B. Griffith. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was a political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. ...


Worst, there is a high chance such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" the leader and morally support his cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins), increasing their charisma posthumously and rallying others to an enemy cause. The death in battle of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, while not an assassination, led directly to the Roman Catholic defeat at Lützen as the infuriated Swedes rallied behind their fallen leader. Such an effect can be extremely detrimental, but it might be argued that when faced with a particularly brilliant leader, there is no choice but hope for a more mediocre and less charismatic successor (one might use the example of the many attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War, the American shooting down of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto during World War II, or arguably Henry IV of France). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Battle of Lützen Conflict Thirty Years War Date November 16, 1632 Place Near Lützen, southwest of Leipzig, Germany Result Protestant strategic victory The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Alcibiades Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (also Alkibiades) (Greek: Αλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης)¹ (c. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles Cleon Nicias Alcibiades Archidamus II Brasidas Lysander For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War (431 BC–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict fought between Athens and its... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) during the first four years of World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919 - 1921). ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ...


There are a number of examples from World War II, the last major total war, which show how assassination can be used as an effective military tool both at a tactical and strategic level. The American's perception that Skorzeny's commandos were trying to assassinate Eisenhower during the Battle of the Bulge shows that military assassination, or the threat of it, if well timed can be a very effective tactical move. In an interview with the New York Times Skorzeny denied that he had ever intended to assassinate Eisenhower and could prove it. (page 155, Commando Extraordinary, by Charles Foley). There is also a mention in the same book (Page 35) of a British commando raid to "capture" German General Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (also known as "The Desert Fox"). If he had been removed from the board, then that might well have had strategic effects. The British, too, decided not to try to assassinate Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, head of the Abwehr (German military intelligence), because to do so might have improved the service. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... Otto Skorzeny Otto Skorzeny (Vienna, June 12, 1908 - Madrid, July 5, 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. He is best-known as the commando leader who rescued Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ... In military science, the term commando can refer to an individual, a military unit or a raiding style of military operation. ... This page is about Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge Combatants United States United Kingdom Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower George Patton Bernard Montgomery Walther Model Gerd von Rundstedt Adolf Hitler Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182... Operation Greif was a special operation commanded by the notorious Waffen-SS commando Otto Skorzeny during the Battle of the Bulge. ... Field Marshal Erwin Rommel Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (November 15, 1891–October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals and commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps in World War II. He is also known by his nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs). ... Wilhelm Canaris Wilhelm Franz Canaris (January 1, 1887 – April 9, 1945) was a German admiral and head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ...


Many have claimed that a successful assassination of Osama Bin Laden might have prevented the September 11 attacks. Israel uses targeted killings both for vengeance purposes and to paralyze the terrorist activities of its opponents, in a similar style as Russia has done during the wars in Chechenya. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957 [1]), most commonly known as Osama bin Laden is a militant Islamist and one of the founders of al-Qaeda. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Capital Grozny Area - total - % water 79th - 15,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 49th _ est. ...


As tool of insurgent groups

Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes.


The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919-1921 assassinated many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence. Michael Collins set up a special unit - the Squad - for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. The Squad's activities peaked with the assassination of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920. This article is about the historical army of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919-21, and the Irish Civil War 1922-23. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... Combatants Irish Republic and those who supported it, see Irish Republicanism United Kingdom, see Unionism(Ireland) Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of... The Twelve Apostles, alternatively known as the Inner Circle, or just The Squad, was the name of an Irish Republican Army unit founded by Michael Collins to counter the intelligence efforts of the British during the Irish War of Independence, principally by means of assassination. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Bloody Sunday of 1920 is a term used to describe a day of violence in Dublin on November 21st 1920, during the Irish War of Independence (1919-21), which led to the deaths of more than 30 people. ...


This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969-present). Assassination of RUC officers and politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997. The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... For the UK post-rock band, see Troubles (band). ... Motto: (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots 3, Northern Ireland Sign LanguageIrish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was name of the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... From 1969 until 1997, the Provisional Irish Republican Armyconducted an armed campaign in Northern Ireland aimed at overthrowing British rule there and creating a united Ireland. ... A prime minister (aka Gavinder Johal) is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ... The term Ulster Loyalist is used to describe militant unionists from Northern Ireland. ... An Irish nationalist is generally one who seeks (greater) independence of Ireland from Great Britain, including since 1921 the goal of a United Ireland. ...


Basque separatists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973. Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them, meaning that many needed armed police bodyguards. This article is about the Basque people. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Luís Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903 – December 20, 1973) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ...


The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. Banner of the Red Brigades The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as BR) are a militant leftist terrorist group located in Italy. ... Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction (or Red Army Fraction; also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]; in German: Rote Armee Fraktion or simply RAF), was postwar West Germanys most active and prominent left-wing terrorist...


Middle Eastern groups, such as the PLO and Hezbollah, have all engaged in assassinations, though the higher intensity of armed conflict in the region compared to western Europe means that many of their actions are either better characterized as guerrilla operations or as random attacks on civilians - especially the technique of suicide bombs. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


In the Vietnam War, assassinations were routinely carried out by communist insurgents against government officials and private individuals deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse, prior to the US intervention.[2] Later in the war, the USA engaged in the Phoenix Program to assassinate Viet Cong leaders and symphatizers. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


For money

Individually, too, people have often found reasons to arrange the deaths of others through paid intermediaries. One who kills with no political motive or group loyalty who kills only for money is known as a hitman or contract killer. Note that by the definition accepted above, while such a killer is not, strictly speaking, an assassin, if the killing is ordered and financed towards a political end, then that killing must rightly be termed an assassination, and the hitman an assassin by extension.


Entire organizations have sometimes specialized in assassination as one of their services, to be gained for the right price. Besides the original hashshashin, the ninja clans of Japan were rumored to perform assassinations - though it can be pointed out that most of what was ever known about the ninja was rumor and hearsay. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... This article refers to Japanese spies and assassins known as Ninja. For other uses, see Ninja (disambiguation) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A rumor (U.S.) or rumour (Commonwealth countries, please see American and British English spelling differences) is a piece of purportedly true information that circulates without substantiating evidence. ... Hearsay in its most general and oldest meaning is a term used in the law of evidence to describe an out of court statement offered to establish the facts asserted in that statement. ...


In the United States, Murder, Inc., an organization partnered to the Mafia, was formed for the sole purpose of performing assassinations for organized crime. In Russia, the vory (thieves), their version of the Mafia, are often known to provide assassinations for the right price, as well as engaging in it themselves for their own purposes. A professional hitman is called kliner (literally "cleaner") in Russia; he is used to clean away the target. The Finnish underworld uses the word "torpedo" for a contract killer. Murder, Inc. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


Techniques

Assassinations are usually the result of planning and preparation to create opportunity, followed by the application of the chosen means.


Ancient methods

It seems certain that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning. Is seems unlikely that substantial planning would have been involved, as the tribal groups were too small, and the connection to the leaders too close. As civilization took root, however, leaders began to have greater importance, and become more detached from the groups they ruled. This would have bought planning, subterfuge and weapons into successful assassination plans. A stabbing or stab is the penetration of the human body by a sharp or pointed object at close range. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Hercules fights the Lernaean Hydra with a club A club or cudgel is perhaps the simplest of all melee weapons. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Subterfuge can be any deceptive strategem or maneuver designed to take advantage of an opponent. ...


The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination using close-contact stabbing, quieter smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms. Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins:[citation needed] especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time. See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Suffocation redirects here, for the band, see Suffocation (band). ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Binomial name Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ...


Modern methods

With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question; it could be done from a great distance in a crowded square or even at a church, as with the Pazzi Conspiracy, for example. Additionally the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances for survival of an assassin. A ranged weapon is any weapon that launches a projectile or that is a projectile itself. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pazzi family were Tuscan nobles who had become bankers in Florence in the 14th century. ...

Egyptian president Sadat, assassinated by a group using assault rifles and grenades.
Egyptian president Sadat, assassinated by a group using assault rifles and grenades.

Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch; for an example, the Gunpowder Plot could have 'assassinated' almost a thousand people. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (795x606, 92 KB) Sadat Assassination Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (795x606, 92 KB) Sadat Assassination Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Field Marshal Mohammed Anwar Al Sadat (Arabic:محمد أنورالسادات) in (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian soldier and politician, who served as the third President of Egypt from October 15, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The AK is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... A US designed WWII-era MkIIA1 pineapple fragmentation hand grenade. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder, whether black powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ...


Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered landmines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). With heavy weapons, the rocket propelled grenade (RPG) has became a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles for assassination, as well as the innovative use of explosive devices. Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... A land mine is a type of self-contained explosive device which is placed onto or into the ground, exploding when triggered by a vehicle, a person, or an animal. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...


The sniper rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. However, sniper rifles are difficult to obtain, train with, conspicuous in size and therefore difficult to conceal and transport. Ownership or use during an assassination also attracts special attention of police and government authorities. Despite their comparative disadvantages, easy-to-acquire and hard-to-trace handguns are much more common. The M40, United States Marine Corps standard-issue sniper rifle Sniper rifle is a term most frequently applied to rifles used by military or law enforcement to ensure accurate placement of shots at greater ranges than other small arms. ... A handgun is a firearm small enough to be carried and used in one hand. ...


Assassination can also be by means of "accidental" death. This is when the target is killed in such a way that investigations will conclude an accidental death, for example slipping and drowning in a bathtub. Assassination can also imitate suicide, for example by placing the handgun used for the murder on the corpse, though this has been made more complicated by modern ballistic science and other forensic techniques. Pushing someone from a great height makes a murder hard to detect, though such an act would again require subterfuge to manipulate the person (without witnesses) into a correct situation.


A recent case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. Litvinenko, a former Soviet spy, was granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after complaining of persecution in Russia, and shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, of involvement in the assassination plot. President Putin denied any involvement. General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass (209) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ...


The German Democratic Republics internal secret service (the Stasi) was alleged to have intentionally exposed some political prisoners to high doeses of radiation, possibly intending for the victims to eventually die of cancer.[3] Anthem: Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin, in spite of status as part of an occupied city Language(s) German Government Socialist state Head of State  - 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl Head of Government  - 1990 Lothar de Maizière Historical era Cold War  - Established October 7 1949  - Final Settlement September 25... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


Preferences

It is interesting to note that even as more modern methods of killing became available, older ones were still encountered; indeed, in nations like India killings by knife or sword remain quite popular, as they do in sub-Saharan Africa (for example, with the machete). In fact, since the development of firearms each region of the world seems to have its preferred methods of contract murder; besides those mentioned, explosives are quite popular in not only the Middle East but in most of Europe as well, save Northern Europe where shootings become more common, whereas in the Americas assassinations are almost exclusively performed by gunshot. One can make various cases for any of these, including range, detectability, concealability, likelihood of kill, etc. Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe those countries of the African continent that are not considered part of North Africa. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ...


Counter-measures

Early forms

One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins is without doubt the bodyguard. He acts as a shield for the potential target, keeps lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a planned tour), and is literally supposed to put himself 'in harms way' - both by his simple presence, forming a barrier in front of the target[4] and by shielding the target during any attack. He is is also, if possible, to neutralize an attacker as fast as possible, and thus often carries weapons (where legal or possible). A bodyguard is a person or group of people who professionally protect someone (known as their principal) from personal assault, kidnapping, assassination, loss of confidential information, or other threats. ...


This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading to attempts via subterfuge, such as poison (which was answered by the food taster). Subterfuge can be any deceptive strategem or maneuver designed to take advantage of an opponent. ... A food taster is a person that eats food to be served to someone else to confirm that it is safe to eat and does not contain toxins or poisons. ...


Notable examples of bodyguards would include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman janissaries - although, in both cases, it should be noted that the protectors often became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage at their whim or eliminating threatening leaders altogether. The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties leads to assassinations such as that of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodguards in 1984. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chamberlain of Sultan Murad IV with janissaries The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Ottoman Turkish: يكيچرى (yeniçeri, meaning new soldier); in Greek: Γενίτσαροι; (Yenitsari) in Bulgarian: еничари (enichari) or яничари (yanichari); in Bosnian: Janjičari; in Serbian: Јањичари or Janjičari; in Romanian: ieniceri; in Arabic: الانكشارية) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Prime Minister of India is, in practice, the most powerful person in the government of India. ... Indira Priyadarśinī Gāndhī (Devanāgarī: इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी, IPA: ) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and again from January 14, 1980 until her assassination on October 31, 1984. ... A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ...


Modern strategies

With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs of firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down. In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...


As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence of assassins and their capabilities skyrocketed, and so did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or armored limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions rendering them virtually invulnerable to small arms fire and smaller bombs and mines. [5] Bulletproof vests also began to be used, though they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected - as such they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events if at all. An armored car ( or armoured car in British English) is one of several types of wheeled armored vehicles: a civilian bullet-proof passenger car, a military wheeled armored vehicle, or a special-purpose armored cargo vehicle for transporting valuables. ... Military armored cars A French VBL reconnaissance vehicle. ... Small arms captured in Fallujah, Iraq by the US Marine Corps in 2004 The term small arms generally describes any number of smaller infantry weapons, such as firearms that an individual soldier can carry. ... Mine can refer to a number of things: Mines are tunnels used in mining for extraction of resources. ... Man in body armor A bullet-proof vest also known as body armour is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armor to minimize injury from projectiles fired from handguns, shotguns and rifles. ...


Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restrictive;[6] potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become next-to-impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A U.S. Army soldier uses a metal detector to search for weapons and ammunition in Iraq Metal detectors use electromagnetic induction to detect metal. ... US Soldiers removing landmines. ...


Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both due to weaker security and security lapses, such as with US President John F. Kennedy or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba and possibly also Salvador Allende. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... For other persons named John Kennedy, see John Kennedy (disambiguation). ... A coup d’État (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Patrice Lumumba as the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1960 Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence... Salvador Isabelino del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his removal from power and death on September 11, 1973. ...


The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II (built following an extremist's attempt at his life). Politicians themselves often resent this need for separation - which has at times caused tragedy when they sent their bodyguards from their side for personal or publicity reasons, as US President William McKinley did during the public reception at which he was assassinated.[6] Strictly, Bulletproof glass would be glass that is capable of stopping all manner of bullets fired at it. ... Pope John Paul II on a popemobile Another popemobile, produced by Fiat Popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed motor vehicle used by the Pope during public appearances. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), born   (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from October... William McKinley, Jr. ...


Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie. A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. These persons are then made up, as well as in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations. Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein are known to have used body doubles, while Fidel Castro is believed to have used them.[7] The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Salman Rushdie (born Ahmed Salman Rushdie, on June 19, 1947, in Bombay, India) is a British-Indian essayist and author of fiction, most of which is set on the Indian subcontinent. ... A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, in order to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on their behalf. ... A cardiothoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


In the final analysis, counter-measures can never be fully effective. If the assassin or the group behind it is committed beyond reason (insanity) or without concerns for self-preservation (suicide attackers) to kill a certain person, then the task of protecting this person will be made much more difficult. Reason is a term used in philosophy and other human sciences to refer to the faculty of the human mind that creates and operates with abstract concepts. ... A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker or attackers intend to kill others and intend to die in the process (see suicide). ...


Infamous assassins

Main article: List of assassins
Assassin Date Target Comments
Jing Ke ~210 BCE Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang Failed
Marcus Junius Brutus 44 BCE Roman Dictator Gaius Julius Caesar Successful
Hassan-i-Sabah ~1100 CE Various, mostly indirect Founder of the Hashshashin sect
John Wilkes Booth 1865 CE US President Abraham Lincoln Successful
Leon Czolgosz 1901 CE US President William McKinley Successful
Gavrilo Princip 1914 CE Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria Successful
Lee Harvey Oswald 1963 CE US President John F. Kennedy Successful
James Earl Ray 1968 CE Activist Martin Luther King, Jr. Successful
Sirhan Sirhan 1968 CE US Senator Robert F. Kennedy Successful
Khalid Islambouli 1981 CE Egyptian President Anwar Sadat Successful

The following is a list of assassins with short comments on the assassination(s) that made them famous. ... Jing Ke (Chinese: 荊軻; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching Ko) was a guest residing in the estates of Dan, crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang who reigned from 221 BC to 210 BC. His story is told in the chapter... Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qín Shǐ Huáng; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE, and then the first emperor of a unified China... Marcus Junius Brutus. ... In Ancient Rome, several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Gaius (Caius) Julius (Iulius) Caesar, the most famous of which was the Dictator Julius Caesar. ... Artistic Rendering of Hassan-i-Sabbah Hassan-i Sabbah (Persian: حسن صباح) (circa 1034 - 1124) also known as The Old Man of the Mountain, was an Iranian Ismāīlī Nizarī missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... John Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) was an American actor infamous for the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Photograph of Leon Czolgosz. ... William McKinley, Jr. ... Gavrilo Princip in prison cell at Theresienstadt Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип) (pronounced (gäv´ri:lo: pri:n´tsip) (July 25, 1894 – April 28, 1918) was a Serb member of the Young Bosnia secret society who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in... Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria Image:PEN AND INK BY L. ANDRES OF FRANZ FERDINAND ARCHDUKE OF AUSTRIA.CIRCA 1914. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, responsible for the assassination of US President John F. Kennedy. ... For other persons named John Kennedy, see John Kennedy (disambiguation). ... The person who killed Martin Luther King Jr. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Sirhan Sirhan Sirhan Bishara Sirhan (born March 19, 1944) was convicted of murdering Senator Robert F. Kennedy. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Image:Sadat assassination. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ...

References

  1. ^ Assassination (from the American Heritage Dictionary)
  2. ^ Viet Cong - Pike, Douglas, The MIT Press; New Ed edition, Wednesday 16 December 1970
  3. ^ Dissidents say Stasi gave them cancer - BBC, Tuesday 25 May 25 1999
  4. ^ Lincoln - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  5. ^ How to choose the appropriate bulletproof cars (from Alpha-armouring.com website, includes examples of protection levels available)
  6. ^ a b The Need For Protection Further Demonstrated - Appendix 7, Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1964
  7. ^ It's Bin Laden ... or Is It? - Fox News, Thursday 20 December 2001

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...

See also

An assassination market is a theoretical market wherein any party can place a bet (using anonymous electronic money, and pseudonymous remailers) on the date of death of a given individual, and collect a payoff if they guess the date accurately. ... This is a list of fictional stories in which assassinations feature as an important plot element. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal strength interact and take advantage of their respective strengths and weaknesses. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... A hitman (alternately, hit man) is a hired assassin, often by organized crime. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article refers to Japanese spies and assassins known as Ninja. For other uses, see Ninja (disambiguation) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...

Related lists

The following is a list of assassins with short comments on the assassination(s) that made them famous. ... This is a list of assassinations that have failed. ... This is an incomplete list of persons who were assassinated; that is, important people who were murdered, usually for ideological or political reasons. ... This is a list of U.S. Presidential assassination attempts. ...

Further reading

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Executive Order 12333 extends the powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and directs the leaders of other US federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining // 1508 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three-year truce and cede several territories to Venice 1513... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Because of both the secrecy of secret services and the controversial nature of the issues involved, there is some difficulty in separating the definitions of secret service, secret police, intelligence agency etc. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... The Middle East Forum, a think tank, works to define and promote the interests of the United States in the Middle East. ... The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians. ... Pace University School of Law (most often referred to as Pace Law School) is located in White Plains, New York, in Westchester County, some 25 miles north of New York City. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cultural Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7079 words)
Politically, Mao formed an alliance with Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, in which he granted them day-to-day control over the country, in return for framing Peng and accusing him of being a "right opportunist".
Assassination attempts were made against Mao in Shanghai, from September 8 to September 10, 1971.
This incident was later "politically rehabilitated" in the winter of 1978, and became known as the Qingming Tiananmen Square incident (not to be confused with the Tiananmen Massacre).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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