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Encyclopedia > Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China

This article is part of the series
Politics of the PRC
Constitution
President
National People's Congress
   Standing Committee
Premier
State Council
People's Liberation Army
Central Military Commission
Law of the PRC
Supreme People's Court
Supreme People's Procuratorate
Political Parties
CPPCC
Communist Party of China
   Constitution
   General Secretary
   National Congress
   Central Committee
   Secretariat
   Politburo
      Standing Committee
Elections
See also
   Politics of Hong Kong
   Politics of Macau

The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee whose membership varies between 5 and 9 and includes the top leadership of the Communist Party of China. The inner workings of the PSC are not well known, although it is believed that decisions of the PSC are made by consensus. Formally the membership of the Committee is approved by the Central Committee. In practice, the membership of the PSC appears to be the result of negotiations among the top leadership of the Communist Party. The National Emblem of the Peoples Republic of China. ... State power within the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Party, the State, and the Army. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guojia-Zhuxi 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) of the Central Peoples Government is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: 人民解放军, Traditional Chinese: 人民解放軍, pinyin: Rénmín JiÄ›fàng JÅ«n), which includes an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear forces, serves as the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Law of the Peoples Republic of China is the legal regime of the Peoples Republic of China, incorporating the separate legal traditions and systems of Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao. ... The Supreme Peoples Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn) is the highest court in the judicial system of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Supreme Peoples Procuratorate (simplified Chinese: 最高人民检察院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín FÇŽyuàn Jiānchá Yùan) is the highest agency at the national level responsible for prosecution in the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Peoples Republic of China is in many regards a single-party state. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ZÇ’ngshÅ«jì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōnguó Gòngchǎndǎng Quánguó Dàibiǎo Dàhuì) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ... The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会书记处 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì ShÅ«jìchù) is the permanent bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China and forms a parallel structure to state organizations in the Peoples Republic... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... Elections in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China take two forms: elections for selected local government positions in selected rural villages, and elections by Communist Party peoples congresses for the national legislature: the National Peoples Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui). ... On July 1, 1997, the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) resumed its exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, ending more than 150 years of British colonial control. ... In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the Peoples Republic of China, Macau has Special Administrative Region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of one country, two systems and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. ... Pinyin (拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会 pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng Zhōngyāng WÄ›iyuánhuì) is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China between Party Congresses. ...

Contents


History

Although the PSC has existed since the beginning of the People's Republic of China, the actual power wielded by the PSC has varied wildly from period to period. During the Cultural Revolution, the PSC and the Communist Party of China were essentially powerless with actual power being in the Revolutionary Committees set up by Mao Zedong. A poster during the Cultural Revolution The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: 无产阶级文化大革命; Traditional Chinese: 無產階級文化大革命; pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wén huà dà gé mìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or simply 文革 wén gé, literally Cultural Revolution) in the Peoples Republic of China...   Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ...


After taking power in 1978, one of the goals of Deng Xiaoping was to strengthen the power of the party, a goal which he ironically undermined in 1989 when he ordered the military to intervene in the Tiananmen Protests of 1989 against the wishes of a majority of the PSC, and in which the party subsequently ousted a majority of the PSC. Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; pronounced Dung Shyao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of... The Unknown Rebel — This famous photo, taken by Associated Press photographer Jeff Widener, depicts a lone protester who single-handedly halted the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. ...


Although Jiang Zemin stepped down from this powerful committee to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao, Jiang may continue to wield significant influence. Five or six out of the nine new members of the Standing Committee, Wu Bangguo, Jia Qinglin, Zeng Qinghong, Huang Ju, Li Changchun and sometimes Wu Guanzheng are Jiang protégés. The 22-member Politburo is elected by the Party's central committee. At the 2002 16th Party Congress, the Standing Committee was expanded to include nine members. Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... Because both the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to group Chinese leaders into generations. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: ) (born March 1940, Botou, Hebei Province) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... Zeng Qinghong (曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (July 1939) became a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee during the 2002 16th Party Congress. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, py: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is a Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正) (b. ... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... (Redirected from 16th Party Congress) The delegates to the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China elected a 356-member new Party Central Committee, as well as a 121-member Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI). ...


Current members

The current members of the 16th PSC are (as of 2003): 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ...


Interestingly, all nine current members are university trained engineers. Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guojia-Zhuxi 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (Chinese: 中国共产党中央委员会总书记 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Wěiyuánhuì Zǒngshūjì) is the highest ranking official within the Communist Party of China and heads the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Bangguo Wu Bangguo (Traditional Chinese:吳邦國 , Simplified Chinese: 吴邦国, Hanyu Pinyin: Wú Bāngguó) (born July 1941) is a Chinese politician. ... The Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会, pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì) is a committee of about 150 members of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), which is convened between plenary sessions of the NPC... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... The State Council (国务院, pinyin: Guówùyuàn) of the Central Peoples Government is the chief civilian administrative body of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jia Qinglin (Simplified Chinese: 贾庆林; Traditional Chinese: 賈慶林; pinyin: ) (born March 1940, Botou, Hebei Province) is the fourth ranking member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Chairman of the Peoples Political Consultative Conference. ... The Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference (中国人民政治协商会议 Pinyin: Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi), abbreviated CPPCC, is an advisory body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zeng Qinghong (曾庆红 Pinyin: Zēng Qìnghóng) (July 1939) became a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee during the 2002 16th Party Congress. ... Huang Ju (黄菊, py: Huáng Jú) (born September 1939) is a Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Wu Guanzheng (吳官正) (b. ... Li Changchun Li Changchun (李長春) (born February 1944) is considered to be the propaganda chief of the Communist Party of China. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... Luo Gan (罗干) (b. ... Engineering is the application of science to the needs of humanity. ...


Historical makeup of the PSC

15th PSC (1997 - 2002)

  • Jiang Zemin (also General Secretary, Chinese Communist Party; President, People's Republic of China; Chairman, Central Military Commission)
  • Li Peng (also Chairman, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress)
  • Zhu Rongji (also Premier of the State Council)
  • Li Ruihuan (also Chairman, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference)
  • Hu Jintao (also Vice President, People's Republic of China; Vice Chairman, Central Military Commission)
  • Wei Jianxing (also Secretary, Central Disciplinary Inspection Commission)
  • Li Lanqing (also Executive Vice Premier)

14th PSC (1992 - 1997) Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... LÄ­ Péng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng; pronounced Lee Pung) (b. ... ZhÅ« Róngjì (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基 or often incorrectly 朱熔基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee... Lǐ Ruìhuán (李瑞环/李瑞環 1934- ) was a politician active late 20th century and early 21st century in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ... Li Lanqing (李岚清,born 1932) is a prominent Chinese politician. ...

13th PSC (1987 - 1992) Jiāng Zémín (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and... ZhÅ« Róngjì (born October 1, 1928, Simplified Chinese: 朱镕基 or often incorrectly 朱熔基; Traditional Chinese: 朱鎔基; Wade-Giles: Chu Jung-chi) was the 9th Premier of the Peoples Republic of China State Council (March 1998-March 2003), and was a Standing Committee member of the Politburo of 15th CPC Central Committee... LÄ­ Péng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng; pronounced Lee Pung) (b. ... Lǐ Ruìhuán (李瑞环/李瑞環 1934- ) was a politician active late 20th century and early 21st century in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Liu Huaqing (劉華清 pinyin liu2 hua2 qing1) was the Commander of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army Navy from 1982 through 1988, and is considered to be responsible for its modernization efforts. ... Hú Jǐntāo (born December 21, 1942) became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on November 15, 2002. ...

12th PSC (1982 - 1987) LÄ­ Péng (Simplified Chinese: 李鹏, Traditional Chinese: 李鵬, Wade-Giles: Li Peng; pronounced Lee Pung) (b. ... Hu Qili (Simplified Chinese: 胡启立; Pinyin: ) was born in Shaanxi Province, China, in October of 1929. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; Traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

11th PSC (1977 - 1982) Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; pronounced Dung Shyao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of... Chen Yun (Traditional Chinese: 陳雲, Simplified Chinese: 陈云; 1905 - April 10, 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lǐ Xiānniàn (1902–June 21, 1992) was President of the Peoples Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference until his death. ... Ye Jianying (叶剑英) (Wade-Giles:Yeh Chien-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress from 1978 to 1983. ... Zhao Ziyang (Simplified Chinese: 赵紫阳; Traditional Chinese: 趙紫陽; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chao Tzu-yang) (October 17, 1919–January 17, 2005) was a politician in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

10th PSC (1973 - 1977) Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; pronounced Dung Shyao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of... Hua Guofeng (Chinese: 华国锋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lǐ Xiānniàn (1902–June 21, 1992) was President of the Peoples Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference until his death. ... Ye Jianying (叶剑英) (Wade-Giles:Yeh Chien-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress from 1978 to 1983. ...

9th PSC (1969 - 1973)   Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Dong Biwu (Chinese: 董必武, Wade-Giles: Tung Pi-wu) (1886 - April 2, 1975) was a Chinese communist political leader during the regime of Mao Zedong. ... Kang Sheng (Chinese: 康生) (1898–December 16, 1975), Communist Party of China official, was head of the Peoples Republic of Chinas security apparatus until his death, and was subsequently accused along with the Gang of Four of being responsible for persecutions during the Cultural Revolution. ... Wang Hongwen (Chinese: 王洪文, pinyin Wáng Hóngwén, Wade-Giles: Wang Hung-wen) (1933/1935–August 3, 1992) was the youngest member of the Gang of Four. ... Ye Jianying (叶剑英) (Wade-Giles:Yeh Chien-ying) (April 28, 1897-October 22, 1986) was a Chinese Communist general and the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress from 1978 to 1983. ... Zhang Chunqiao (Simplified Chinese: 张春桥; Traditional Chinese: 張春橋; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang Chun-chiao) (1917–April 21, 2005) was a member of the Gang of Four. ... Zhu De ZhÅ« Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: YùjiÄ“ 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ...

8th PSC (1956 - 1969)   Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Chén Bódá (陈伯达) was born 1904 in Huian (China) and died September 20, 1989 in Beijing. ... Kang Sheng (Chinese: 康生) (1898–December 16, 1975), Communist Party of China official, was head of the Peoples Republic of Chinas security apparatus until his death, and was subsequently accused along with the Gang of Four of being responsible for persecutions during the Cultural Revolution. ... Lin Biao Lin Biao (Chinese: 林彪; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lin Piao) (December 5, 1907 - September 13, 1971) was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, once known as Mao Zedongs comrade-in-arms and likely successor, but later discredited as a traitor. ...

1st to 7th "De facto" PSC (pre 1956) Often known as the "Big Five".   Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Chen Yun (Traditional Chinese: 陳雲, Simplified Chinese: 陈云; 1905 - April 10, 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping   listen? (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; pronounced Dung Shyao-ping; August 22, 1904—February 19, 1997) was a revolutionary elder in the Communist Party of China (CPC) who served as the de facto ruler of the Peoples Republic of... Lin Biao Lin Biao (Chinese: 林彪; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Lin Piao) (December 5, 1907 - September 13, 1971) was a Chinese Communist military and political leader, once known as Mao Zedongs comrade-in-arms and likely successor, but later discredited as a traitor. ... Liu Shaoqi Liú Shàoqí (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhu De ZhÅ« Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: YùjiÄ“ 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Big five can mean: Big Five (Hawaii), an oligarchy of five corporations that ruled over Hawaii Big5, a character encoding method of unknown origin for Traditional Chinese characters Big Five can also refer to the five biggest commercial banks in Canada: Royal Bank of Canada, CIBC, Toronto-Dominion Bank, Bank...

  Mao Zedong? (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976; Mao Tse-tung in Wade-Giles) was the chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: 周恩来; Traditional Chinese: 周恩來; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Chinese Communist leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death. ... Chen Yun (Traditional Chinese: 陳雲, Simplified Chinese: 陈云; 1905 - April 10, 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Liu Shaoqi Liú Shàoqí (Simplified Chinese: 刘少奇 Traditional Chinese: 劉少奇 Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Zhu De ZhÅ« Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: YùjiÄ“ 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 - July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ...

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