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Encyclopedia > Polish Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War

The final borders layout settled by the war.
Date 1919–1921
Location Central and Eastern Europe
Result Peace of Riga[1]
Combatants
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic
Commanders
Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Semyon Budyonny
Joseph Stalin
Józef Piłsudski
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Strength
950,000 combatants
5,000,000 reserves
360,000 combatants
738,000 reserves
Casualties
Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000
Polish-Soviet War
Target Vistula • Bereza Kartuska • Wilno • Operation Minsk • Daugavpils • Koziatyn • Kiev • Volodarka • Mironówka • Olszanica • Żywotów • Miedwiedówka • Dziunków • Wasylkowce • Bystrzyk • Nowochwastów • Berezno • Spiczyniec • Boryspol • Zazime • Puchówka • Okuniew • Spiczyn • Lwów • Berezina • Raszyn • Nasielsk • Serock • RadzyminZadwórzeWarsawKomarówNiemen • Zboiska • 2nd Minsk

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was an armed conflict between Soviet Russia and the Second Polish Republic, two nascent states in post-World War I Europe. The war was a result of conflicting expansionist attempts — by Poland, whose statehood had just been re-established following the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century, to secure territories which she had lost at the time of partitions or earlier — and by the Soviets, who aimed at control of the same territories, which had been part of Imperial Russia until the turbulent events of the Great War. Both states claimed victory[1] in the war: the Poles claimed a successful defense of their state, while the Soviets claimed a repulse of the Polish eastward invasion of Ukraine and Belarus viewed by them as a part of foreign interventions in the Russian Civil War. Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Combatants Poland RSFSR Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski Vladimir Lenin Strength ~100,000 troops >100,000 troops Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas abandoned by the Ober-Ost garrisons, that were being... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Battle of Daugavpils (otherwise known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle of the joint Polish and Latvian Operation Winter against the Red Army. ... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength at least two regiments 11th Cavalry Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Bystrzyk happened on May 31, 1920, near the village of Bystryk near Kiev. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength 2 battalions (part of 1st Legions Infantry Regiment) 58th Rifle Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Boryspil happened on June 2, 1920, near the town of Boryspil near Kiev. ... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... Combatants Second Polish Republic Bolshevist Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Nasielsk was fought on August 14 and August 15 of 1920 between Polish and Soviet forces. ... The Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Strength ~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15) Casualties uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Italy Russia United States Serbia Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von Hötzendorf Ä°smail Enver Ferdinand I Casualties... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Italy Russia United States Serbia Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von Hötzendorf Ä°smail Enver Ferdinand I Casualties... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ...


The frontiers between Poland and Soviet Russia had not been defined in the Treaty of Versailles and were further rendered chaotic by the Russian Revolution of 1917, crumbling of the Russian, German and Austrian empires, the Russian Civil War, Central Powers' withdrawal from the eastern front, and the attempts of Ukraine and Belarus to establish their independence. Poland's Chief of State, Józef Piłsudski, realized the expediency of using the moment to expand the Polish borders as much to the east as feasible followed by the creation of the Polish-led federation (Międzymorze) of several states in the rest of East-Central Europe as a bulwark against the potential re-emergence of both German and Russian imperialism. On the other hand, Lenin saw Poland as the bridge that the Red Army would have to cross in order to assist other communist movements and help conduct other European revolutions. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners For other treaties with this name, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and the German Empire. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... Lenin redirects here. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ...


By 1919, the Polish forces had taken control over much of Western Ukraine, having won the conflict with West Ukrainian People's Republic that tried to create a Ukrainian state on territories to which both Poles and the Ukrainians laid claim. Meanwhile, the Bolsheviks began to gain the upper hand in the Russian Civil War and advance westward towards the disputed territories and by the end of 1919 a clear front had formed. Border skirmishes then escalated into open warfare following Piłsudski's major incursion further east into Ukraine (April 1920). He was met by a nearly simultaneous Red Army counterattack, initially very successful. The Soviet operation threw the Polish forces back westward all the way to the Polish capital, Warsaw. Meanwhile, western fears of Soviet troops arriving at the German frontiers increased the interest of Western powers in the war. In midsummer, the fall of Warsaw seemed certain but in mid-August the tide had turned again as the Polish forces achieved an unexpected and decisive victory at the Battle of Warsaw. In the wake of the Polish advance eastward, Soviets sued for peace and the war ended with a ceasefire in October 1920. A formal peace treaty, the Peace of Riga, was signed on 18 March 1921, dividing the disputed territories between Poland and Soviet Russia. Thus, this 1919–1920 war has largely determined the Soviet-Polish border for the period between the World Wars. Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Interallied Mission to Poland was a diplomatic mission launched by David Lloyd George on July 21, 1920, at the height of the Polish-Soviet War, weeks before the decisive Battle of Warsaw. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... An interbellum is a period between wars. ...

Contents


Names and dates of the war

The war is referred to by several names. "Polish–Soviet War" may be the most common, but is potentially confusing since "Soviet" is usually thought of as relating to the Soviet Union, which (by contrast with "Soviet Russia") did not officially come into being until December 1922. Alternative names include "Russo-Polish War[2] [or Polish-Russian War] of 1919–20/21" (to distinguish it from earlier Polish-Russian wars) and "Polish-Bolshevik War." This second term (or just "Bolshevik War" (Polish: Wojna bolszewicka)) is most common in Polish sources. In some Polish sources it has also come down as the "War of 1920" (Polish: Wojna 1920 roku), while Soviet historians often either called it the "War against White Poland" or considered it a part of the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War or of the Civil War itself. State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ...


A second controversy revolves around the starting date of the war. For example, Encyclopedia Britannica considers the Polish thrust into Ukraine as the starting point of the war,[2] while some historians — like Norman Davies[3] — give the year 1919 as the starting year of the war. Finally, the ending dates are given as either 1920 or 1921; this confusion stems from the fact that while the ceasefire was put in force in fall 1920, the official treaty ending the war was signed months later, in 1921. 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... Prof. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war, or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War. ...


While the events of 1919 can be described as a border conflict and only in early 1920 did both sides realize that they were in fact engaged in an all-out war, the conflicts that took place in 1919 are closely related to the war that began in earnest a year later. In the end, the events of 1920 were only a logical, though unforeseen, consequence of the 1919 prelude.


Prelude to the war

Main article: Causes of the Polish-Soviet War
Partitions of Poland, 1795. The colored territories show the greatest extent of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Blue (north-west) were taken by Kingdom of Prussia, green (south) by Austria-Hungary, and cyan (east) by Imperial Russia.
Partitions of Poland, 1795. The colored territories show the greatest extent of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Blue (north-west) were taken by Kingdom of Prussia, green (south) by Austria-Hungary, and cyan (east) by Imperial Russia.
Rebirth of Poland, March 1919
Rebirth of Poland, March 1919

In 1919, with the end of the First World War, the map of Central and Eastern Europe had drastically changed. As Germany's defeat rendered its plans for the creation of the Mitteleuropa puppet states obsolete, and as Russia sank into the depths of the Russian Civil War, many nations of that region saw a chance for real independence and were not prepared to easily relinquish this rare opportunity. Main article: Polish-Soviet War The situation In 1918, with the end of the First World War, the map of Central and Eastern Europe had drastically changed. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 455 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 455 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Italy Russia United States Serbia Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Nicholas II Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Reinhard Scheer Franz Josef I Conrad von Hötzendorf İsmail Enver Ferdinand I Casualties... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... Mitteleuropa (Middle-Europe) is a German term approximately equal to Central Europe. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ...


At the same time, the Russians saw these territories as rebellious Russian provinces, vital for Russian security,[4] but were unable to react swiftly, as, weakened by the World War, their Empire collapsed into the Revolution and Civil War that raged there from 1917. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ...


Meanwhile, with the success of the Greater Poland Uprising in 1918, Poland had re-established its statehood for the first time since the 1795 partition which brought 123 years of Poland being ruled by its three imperial neighbors. The country reborn as a Second Polish Republic proceeded to carve out its borders from the territories of its former partitioners, Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary. Soldiers of the Great Polish Army Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku) was a military insurrection of the Polish people in the Greater Poland region (also called the Grand Duchy of Poznań) against the German/Prussian forces. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Poland, however, was not alone in its newfound opportunities and troubles. Soon, virtually all of the newly independent neighbours began fighting over borders: Romania fought with Hungary over Transylvania, Yugoslavia with Italy over Rijeka, Poland with Czechoslovakia over Cieszyn/Těšín, with Germany over Poznań and with Ukrainians over Eastern Galicia. Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, Estonians and Latvians fought against themselves and against the Russians, who were just as divided. Spreading communist influences also added to this mix, resulting in communists revolutions in Munich, Berlin, Budapest and Košice. Winston Churchill commented on this situation: The war of giants has ended, the wars of the pygmies begin.[5] He was mostly correct; all of those engagements – with the sole exception of the Polish-Soviet war – would be shortlived border conflicts, insignificant in the greater scheme of things. Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or Transilvania; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: or Erdelj / Ердељ) is a historical region in the center of Romania. ... Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a kingdom in the Balkans which existed from the end of World War I until World War II. It occupied an area made up of the present-day states of Bosnia... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian, Reka in Slovene; Sankt Veit am Flaum in older German; R(ij)eka and Fiume both mean river) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. ... Divided city. ... PoznaÅ„ (?· i; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


The Polish-Soviet war likely happened more by accident than by design. It is unlikely that anyone in Soviet Russia or in the new Second Republic of Poland would have deliberately planned a major foreign war. Poland, its territory a major frontline of the First World War, was unstable politically and having just won a difficult conflict with Ukrainians for Eastern Galicia was already engaged in new conflicts with Germany (the Silesian Uprisings) and with Czechoslovakia, while the attention and policies of revolutionary Russia were predominantly directed at dealing with counter-revolution and with intervention by the western powers. While the first clashes between Polish and Soviet forces occurred in February 1919, it would be almost a year before both sides fully realised that they were engaged in an all-out war. Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ... Britain, France, Canada and the United States, along with other World War I Allied countries, conducted a military intervention into the Russian Civil War during the period of 1918 through 1920. ...

Poland's leader Józef Piłsudski
Poland's leader[6] Józef Piłsudski
Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.
Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin.

All began to change in late 1919, when Vladimir Lenin, leader of Russia's new communist government, inspired by the Red Army's civil-war victories over White Russian anticommunist forces and their western allies on Russian territory started to see the future of the revolution with the greater optimism. The Bolsheviks, although they still had lots of internal problems, acted on a conviction(dubious assertion) that historical processes would soon lead to rule of the proletariat in all nations, and that the withering away of national states would eventually bring about a worldwide communist community. One of the arguments for the inevitability of the coming war with Poland laid in the Bolsheviks’ avowed intent to link their revolution in Russia with an expected revolution in Germany. Poland, due to its geographical location, was the bridge that the Red Army would have to cross in order to link the two revolutions and to assist other communist movements in Western Europe.[4] As Lenin himself remarked, "That was the time when everyone in Germany, including the darkest reactionaries and monarchists, declared that the Bolsheviks would be their salvation."[citation needed] The Bolshevik government claimed to support the "self-determination" of all the non-Russian peoples of the former Russian Empire. However, they meant self-determination by workers and peasants led by native communists sent in from Moscow.[4] Lenin’s aim was to infiltrate the borderlands, set up communist governments there as well as in Poland, and reach Germany where he expected a socialist revolution to break out. He also expected revolutions elsewhere, including Italy, but the German revolution was most important to him for he believed that Soviet Russia could not survive without the support of a socialist Germany and the help of its industrial know-how to modernize Russia.[4] By the end of summer 1919 the Soviets managed to take over most of Ukraine, driving out the Ukrainian government from Kiev, and they also set up a "Lithuanian-Belorussian Republic" (Litbel) in early 1919, with its government in Vilnius. It was run by native communists sent there by Moscow and supported by Red Army units. This government made itself very unpopular due to confiscation of food and goods for the army, as well as terror.[4] It was however not until the Soviet victories in the first half of 1920 that some of the Soviet leaders would see the war as the real opportunity to spread the revolution westwards.[4][7] Jozef Pilsduski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jozef Pilsduski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Image File history File links Lenin. ... Image File history File links Lenin. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Lenin redirects here. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The term White Russian may refer to: A member of the White movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern a society, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... This article describes the November 1918 revolution in Germany. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also...


In the meantime, Polish politics were under the strong influence of Piłsudski, chief of state (naczelnik państwa).[6] Piłsudski at that time wanted to create a Polish-led[8][9][10][11] "Międzymorze Federation" comprised of an expanded Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine and other Central and East European countries now emerging out of crumbling empires after the First World War.[12] While some scholars take the proclaimed democracy, freedom and the voluntarily principles of the federation planned by Piłsudski at face value[13] others view such proclamations with scepticism pointing out that in his later life Piłsudski himself becomed increasingly disillusioned with the democracy.[14][10] Ukrainian historians view this project rather unfavourably, with Oleksandr Derhachov arguing that the federation was a project of mega-Poland where the interests of non-Poles, particularly the Ukrainians, were to be disregarded.[15] According to its originator, this new union was to become a counterweight to any potential imperialist intentions on the part of Russia or Germany. Naczelnik paÅ„stwa (Leader of the country) was the title of the Chief of State in the Second Polish Republic. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Regions of Europe Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ...


However, Piłsudski's vision was opposed not only by foreign nationalist and imperialist politics[16] but even in reborn Poland where he was opposed by Roman Dmowski, who prevailed with his view of a smaller, ethnically purer Poland, where all minorities would be Polonized.[17][18] Piłsudski, who specifically argued that "There can be no independent Poland without an independent Ukraine", may have been more interested in Ukraine being split from Russia than he was in Ukrainians' welfare.[19][20] He did not hesitate to use military force to expand the Polish borders to Galicia and Volhynia, crushing a Ukrainian attempt at self-determination in the disputed territories east of the Western Bug river, which contained a significant Polish minority,[4] mainly in cities like Lwów (Lviv), but a Ukrainian majority in the countryside. Speaking of Poland's future frontiers, Piłsudski said: "All that we can gain in the west depends on the Entente — on the extent to which it may wish to squeeze Germany," while in the east "there are doors that open and close, and it depends on who forces them open and how far."[21] In the chaos to the east the Polish forces set out to expand there as much as it was feasible. On the other hand, Poland had no intention of joining the western intervention in the Russian Civil War[4] or of conquering Russia itself.[22] Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, and immediately after and because of Lenins dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly, between Communist forces known as the Red Army and loosely allied anti-Communist forces known as the White Army. ...




Course of the war

1919

Main article: Polish-Soviet War in 1919

Main article: Polish-Soviet War // Chaos in Eastern Europe In 1918, the German Army in the east was the most powerful force in the region. ...

Chaos in Eastern Europe

Soviet propaganda poster. Text reads: "This is how the landowner's ideas end."
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Soviet propaganda poster. Text reads: "This is how the landowner's ideas end."
Polish propaganda poster showing Polish cavalry and a Bolshevik soldier with a starred cap. Text reads: "Fight the Bolshevik"
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Polish propaganda poster showing Polish cavalry and a Bolshevik soldier with a starred cap. Text reads: "Fight the Bolshevik"

In 1918 the German Army in the east, under the command of Max Hoffmann, began to retreat westwards. The areas abandoned by the Central Powers became a field of conflict among local governments created by Germany, other local governments that independently sprang up after the German withdrawal, and the Bolsheviks, who hoped to incorporate those areas into Soviet Russia. Many of those groups were fragmented, merged, divided, formed short alliances with others, and almost constantly fought. Almost all of Eastern Europe was in chaos. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznan in uniforms of 15th Poznan Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish kawaleria) can trace its origins back to the days of Mediæval mounted knights. ... Max Hoffmann Max Hoffman (one n) is the name of an Austrian-born car importer in 1950s New York - see Hoffmann for others. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ...


On November 18, 1918, Vladimir Lenin issued orders to the Western Army of the Red Army to begin movement westwards that would follow the withdrawing German troops of Oberkommando Ostfront (Ober-Ost). The basic aim of the operation was to drive through eastern and central Europe, institute Soviet governments in the newly independent countries of that region and support communist revolutions in Germany and Austria-Hungary. At the start of 1919, fighting broke out almost by accident and without any orders from the respective governments, when self-organized Polish military units in Vilnius (Wilno) clashed with Bolshevik forces of Litbel, each trying to secure the territories for its own incipient government. Eventually the more organized Soviet forces quelled most of the resistance and drove the remaining Polish forces west. On 5 January 1919, the Red Army entered Minsk almost unopposed, thus putting an end to the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic. At the same time, more and more self-defense units, mostly led by Poles, sprang up across western Belarus and Lithuania (Lithuanian and Belarusian Self-Defence).[23] A series of local skirmishes ensued between them and pro-Bolshevik groups operating in the area. The newly organized Polish Army began sending the first of their units east to assist the self-defense forces, while the Russians sent their own units west. Open conflict seemed inevitable. November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar with 43 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Western Army (Западная Армия) was created on November 15, 1918 by RSFSR with the purpose of moving westwards after the retreating German forces in order to establish Soviet governments in Belarus and Ukraine. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Poland RSFSR Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski Vladimir Lenin Strength ~100,000 troops >100,000 troops Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas abandoned by the Ober-Ost garrisons, that were being... Leopold von Bayern Ober Ost (short for Oberbefehlshabers der gesamten deutschen Streitkräfte im Osten) was a German WWI military administration governing a large part of the German-held areas of the Russian Empire. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also... V. Mickevicius- Kapsukas Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel) existed within the territories of modern Belarus and Lithuania for a brief period within 1919, before the area has been annexed to Poland. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ...


In the spring of 1919, Soviet conscription produced a Red Army of 2,300,000. However, few of these were sent west that year, as the majority of Red Army forces were engaged against the Russian White movement. In September 1919, the Polish army had 540,000 men under arms, 230,000 of these on the Soviet front. The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... A military front or battlefront is a contested armed frontier between opposing forces. ...


At the same time the Polish forces had been advancing eastwards. By 14 February, the Poles had secured positions along the line of Kobryn, Pruzhany, rivers Zalewianka and Neman. Around 14 February, the first organised Polish units made contact with the advance units of the Red Army, and a border frontline slowly began to form from Lithuania, through Belarus to Ukraine. February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kobryn (Belarusian: Ко́брынь, Ко́брын; Polish: Kobryń; Russian: Ко́брин) is a city in the Brest voblast of Belarus and the center of the Kobryn District. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near Klaipėda. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


An avalanche starts: First Polish–Soviet conflicts

The first serious armed conflict of the war took place February 14, when fighting erupted near the towns of Maniewicze and Biaroza in Belarus.[4] By late February the Soviet offensive had come to a halt. Both Polish and Soviet forces had also been engaging the Ukrainian forces, and unrest was growing in the territories of the Baltic countries (Estonian Liberation War, Latvian War of Liberation, Freedom wars of Lithuania). Further escalation of the conflict seemed inevitable. February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The Estonian Liberation War (Estonian: Vabadussõda, literally freedom war), also called the Estonian War of Independence, in 1918-1920, was Estonias struggle for independent state in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution. ... The Latvian War of Liberation, sometimes called the Latvian War of Independence (Latvian: Latvijas brÄ«vÄ«bas cīņas, literally the struggles for the freedom of Latvia, or Latvijas atbrÄ«voÅ¡anas karÅ¡, the war of the liberation of Latvia), is the term for the series of conflicts in Latvia... Freedom wars refers to the three wars Lithuania had to fight defending its independence from the opposing forces at the end of World War I. Since 1795 Lithuania was part of the Russian Empire. ...

Central and Eastern Europe in December 1919
Central and Eastern Europe in December 1919

In early March 1919, Polish units started an offensive, crossing the Neman River, taking Pinsk and reaching the outskirts of Lida. Both the Russian and Polish advances began around the same time in April, resulting in increasing numbers of troops being brought into the area. That month the Bolsheviks captured Grodno and Vilnius, but were pushed out by a Polish counteroffensive. The newly-formed Polish Army had proven to be a far more difficult opponent than the Russians had assumed. Unable to accomplish their objectives and facing strengthening offensives from the White forces, the Red Army withdrew from their positions and reorganized. Soon the Polish-Soviet War would begin in earnest. Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 451 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 451 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... Pinsk (Belarusian: , Russian: ), a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, travesed by the river Prypiać, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. ... Lida (Belarusian: Лі́да, Russian: Ли́да, Lithuanian: Lyda) is a small city located in western Belarus, approximately 70 km west of Minsk. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also...


Polish forces recaptured Vilnius on April 19, driving the Litbel government from their proclaimed capital,[4] and steadily continued advancing east. On 28 August, Polish forces for the first time used tanks and after heavy fighting captured the town of Babruysk near the Berezina River. By 2 October, Polish forces reached the Daugava river and secured the region from Desna to Daugavpils (Dyneburg). April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... V. Mickevicius- Kapsukas Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (LBSSR, Litbel) existed within the territories of modern Belarus and Lithuania for a brief period within 1919, before the area has been annexed to Poland. ... The city of Babruysk (Belarusian: Бабру́йск; Russian: Бобру́йск, Bobruisk) is located in Mahilyow voblast of Belarus on the Berezina river. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... River Daugava flowing through Riga city into the Baltic Sea The Daugava or Western Dvina (Latvian: Daugava, German Düna, Belarusan: Заходняя Дзьвіна, Russian: За́падная Двина́, Finnish Väinä) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, flowing through Russia and Belarus, and then Latvia, draining into the Gulf of Riga, an arm of... Desna () is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of the Dnieper. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, Dźwińsk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ...


Until early 1920, the Polish offensive was quite successful. Sporadic battles erupted between Polish forces and the Red Army, but the latter was preoccupied with the Russian Civil War against the White Russian counter-revolutionary forces and were slowly but steadily retreating on the entire western frontline, from Latvia in the north to Ukraine in the south. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the...


At the same time, the Russian civil war raged on. In early summer 1919, the White movement gained the initiative, and its forces under the command of Anton Denikin were marching on Moscow. Piłsudski viewed the Bolsheviks as less dangerous for Poland than their Russian civil war contenders,[24] as the White Russians were not willing to accept Poland's independence, while the Bolsheviks did proclaim the Partitions of Poland null and void. As such, by his refusal to join the attack on Lenin's struggling government, ignoring the strong pressure from the Entente, Piłsudski had likely saved the Bolshevik government in Summer–Fall 1919. He later wrote that in case of a White victory Poland could get in the east only the "ethnic border" at best (the Curzon line).[25] At the same time Lenin offered Poles territories of Minsk, Zhytomyr, Khmelnytskyi, in what was described as mini "Brest", and Polish military leader Kazimierz Sosnkowski wrote that the territorial proposals of Bolsheviks were much better than what the Poles wanted to achieve[2]. The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ... Zhytomyr (Ukrainian, Russian Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... The name, transliterated from the Ukrainian language may refer to Bohdan Khmelnytsky Khmelnytskyy, Ukraine Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi, a city in Ukraine (erroneously) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... Ka ...


Diplomatic Front, Part 1: The alliances

Polish General Listowski (left) and exiled Ukrainian leader Symon Petlura (second from left) following the Petlura's alliance with the Poles.
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Polish General Listowski (left) and exiled Ukrainian leader Symon Petlura (second from left) following the Petlura's alliance with the Poles.
Soviet Ukraine's propaganda poster issued following the Petlura-Piłsudski alliance. The Ukrainian text reads: "Corrupt Petlura has sold Ukraine to the Polish landowners. Landowners burned and plundered Ukraine. Death to landowners and Petlurovites."
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Soviet Ukraine's propaganda poster issued following the Petlura-Piłsudski alliance. The Ukrainian text reads: "Corrupt Petlura has sold Ukraine to the Polish landowners. Landowners burned and plundered Ukraine. Death to landowners and Petlurovites."

In 1919, several attempts at peace negotiations had been made by various Polish-Russian factions, but to no avail. In the meantime, Polish-Lithuanian relations worsened as Polish politicians found it hard to accept the Lithuanians' demand for complete independence and their territorial demands, especially on ceding the city of Vilnius (Wilno), Lithuania's historical capital which had nonetheless a Polish ethnic majority. Polish negotiators made progress in negotiations with the Latvian Provisional Government, and in early 1920 Polish and Latvian forces were conducting some joint operations against Russia. Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also...


The main Polish diplomatic success was the signing of an agreement with the exiled Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlura who formally represented the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic by then de-facto defeated by Bolsheviks. Petliura, along with some Ukrainian forces that fled with him to Poland, found asylum there, and controlled only a sliver of land near the Polish border.[26] In such conditions, there could not be any difficulty to convince Petlura to join the alliance with Poland despite a just settled by force bitter conflict between these two nations.[27] By concluding an agreement with Piłsudski, Petlura accepted the Polish territorial gains in Western Ukraine and the future Polish-Ukrainian border along the Zbruch River. In exchange, he was promised Polish military assistance in reinstalling his government in Kiev.[4] Following the formal restoration of Ukrainian independence, the Ukrainian republic was then supposed to subordinated its military and economy to Warsaw[27] through joining the Polish-led "Międzymorze" federation of East-Central European states, as Piłsudski wanted Ukraine to be a buffer between Poland and Russia[7] rather than seeing Ukraine again dominated by Russia right at the Polish border.[19] A separate provision in the treaty guaranteed the rights of the Polish minority within the territory of the future Ukrainian People's Republic and prohibited Petlura from concluding any international agreements against Poland.[27] The Polish government reciprocated by guaranteeing the rights of its Ukrainian minority within Poland. .[26] Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Flag of Ukrainian Peoples Republic Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Flag of Ukrainian Peoples Republic Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ...


For Piłsudski, this alliance was an important step that gave his campaign for the Międzymorze federation a legitimacy of a joint international effort, secured part of the Polish eastward border and laying a foundation for a Poland-dominated Ukrainian state between Russia and Poland.[27] For Petlura, this was the yet another chance to preserve the statehood and, at least, the formal independence of the Ukrainian heartlands, even accepting the loss of Western Ukrainian lands to Poland.[28] Yet both of them were opposed at home. Piłsudski faced stiff opposition from Dmowski's National Democrats who opposed Ukrainian independence. As many Ukrainians in general viewed a union with Poles with the great suspicion,[7][28] especially in the view of historically difficult relationships between nations, this alliance received an especially dire reception from Galicia Ukrainians whose whose state had been defeated by Poland by July 1919 and was now to be incorporated into it, viewed Petlura alliance as their betrayal.[29] So, despite from September the Poles and loyal to Petlura Ukrainians (mostly from the Dnieper region) fought together, by mid-1920, a very small (less then 2,000 Galician troops joined the Bolsheviks, out of a Galician army that once had over 50,000 soldiers)[30] part of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the force of the Western Ukrainian state defeated by Poland, joined the Reds and fought the Poles on the Bolshevik's side.[31] Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Dnieper Ukraine (Ukrainian: ), was the territory of Ukraine in the Russian Empire (Little Russia), roughly corresponding to the current territory of Ukraine, with the exceptions of Crimea (made part of Soviet Ukraine in 1954) and Galicia, which was a province of the Austrian Empire. ...


1920

Main article: Polish-Soviet War in 1920

Main article: Polish-Soviet War Soviet Forces in early 1920 Soviet forces has recently been very successful against the White Russians, defeating Denikin, and signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia. ...

Opposing forces

By early 1920, the Soviet forces had been very successful against the White armies, defeating Denikin, and signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia. The Polish front became the most important war theater and the majority of Soviet resources and forces were diverted to it. In January 1920, the Red Army began concentrating a 700,000-strong force near the Berezina River and on Belarus. In the course of 1920, almost 800,000 Red Army personnel were sent to fight in the Polish war, of whom 402,000 went to the Western front and 355,000 to the armies of the South-West front in Galicia. The Soviets had at their disposal many military depots left by German armies withdrawing from eastern Europe in 1918-19, and modern French armaments captured in great numbers from the White Russians and the Allied expeditionary forces in the Russian Civil War. With the new forces, the Soviet High Command planned a new offensive in late April/May. The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ...


Bolshevik commanders in the Red Army's coming offensive would include Mikhail Tukhachevsky (new commander of the Western Front), Leon Trotsky, the future Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, and the future founder of the Cheka secret police, Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Cheka-KGB emblem: sword and shield The Cheka (ЧК - чрезвычайная комиссия) was the first of many Soviet secret police organizations, created by decree on December 20, 1917 by Vladimir Lenin and led by Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Polish: Feliks DzierżyÅ„ski, Russian: Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский, Belarusian language Фелікс Эдмундавіч Дзяржынскі; September 11 [O.S. August 30] 1877 –July 20, 1926) was a Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names during the history of the Soviet...


The Polish Army was made up of soldiers who had formerly served in the various partitioning empires, supported by inexperienced volunteers (including 20,000 Americans) and recruits. Boris Savinkov was at the head of an army of 20,000 to 30,000 largely Russian POWs, and accompanied by Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius Logistics were very bad, relying on whatever equipment was left over from World War I and could be captured. The Polish Army employed guns made in five countries, and rifles manufactured in six, each using different ammunition. The Polish forces grew from approximately 100,000 in 1918 to over 500,000 in early 1920. On 20 August 1920, the Polish army had reached the total strength of 737,000, so there was rough numerical parity between the two armies - 950,000 on the Soviet side. Although Soviet Russia had reserves totaling 4 million soldiers, due to shortage of arms they were not at the front as Russia could only produce 100,000 rifles per month. Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian:Борис Викторович Савинков) (1879-1925) was a Russian writer and terrorist. ... Dmitry Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky Дмитрий Сергеевич Мережковский (August 14, 1865, St Petersburg-December 9, 1941, Paris) was one of the earliest and most eminent ideologues of Russian Symbolism. ... Zinaida Nikolaevna Gippius (1865 - 1945) was a Russian symbolist poet and author. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rifle is a firearm with a stock and a barrel that has a spiral groove or grooves (rifling) cut into its interior. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ...


From March 1919 Polish intelligence was aware that the Soviets had prepared for a new offensive and the Polish High Command decided to launch their own offensive before their opponents.[4] The plan for Operation Kiev was to beat the Red Army on Poland's southern flank and install a Polish-friendly Petlura government in Ukraine.[4] Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date April-June, 1920 Place Ukraine Result inconclusive The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ...


The tide turns: Operation Kiev

Polish Kiev Offensive at its height. June 1920
Polish Kiev Offensive at its height. June 1920
Polish Breguet 14 operating from Kiev airfield
A Polish cavalry charge at the Battle of Wołodarka, May 29, 1920, slows the Russian offensive. (Painting by Mikołaj Wisznicki, 1935.)
A Polish cavalry charge at the Battle of Wołodarka, May 29, 1920, slows the Russian offensive. (Painting by Mikołaj Wisznicki, 1935.)

Until April, the Polish forces had been slowly but steadily advancing eastward. The new Latvian government requested Polish help in capturing Daugavpils. This assistance was granted, the city fell after heavy fighting in January and was handed over to the Latvians, who viewed the Poles as liberators.[citation needed] By March, Polish forces had driven a wedge between Soviet forces to the north (Byelorussia) and south (Ukraine). Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Polish Air Forces Breguet 14 stationed on the Kiev airfield during the Kiev Offensive in the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920 Picture published in Polska lotnicza album, Warsaw, 1937 As such it falls under the 1926 copyright act, almost identical to the 1952 act. ... Image File history File links Polish Air Forces Breguet 14 stationed on the Kiev airfield during the Kiev Offensive in the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920 Picture published in Polska lotnicza album, Warsaw, 1937 As such it falls under the 1926 copyright act, almost identical to the 1952 act. ... The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. ... Szarża pod Wołodarką, painting by Mikołaj Wisznicki, 1935 uploaded from www. ... Szarża pod Wołodarką, painting by Mikołaj Wisznicki, 1935 uploaded from www. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ...


On April 24, Poland began its main offensive, Operation Kiev, whose stated goal was the creation of independent Ukraine[4] that would become part of Piłsudski's project of a "Międzymorze" Federation. Poland's 65,000 strong Polish forces were assisted by 15,000 Ukrainian soldiers under Symon Petlura, representing the Ukrainian People's Republic. On April 26th, in his "Call to the People of Ukraine", Piłsudski assured that "the Polish army would only stay as long as necessary until a legal Ukrainian government took control over its own territory".[citation needed] Despite this, many Ukrainians were just as anti-Polish as anti-Bolshevik,[7] and resented Polish advance,[4] which many viewed just as a variety of new occupation,[32] an armed Polish intervention into central Ukraine following the Polish-Ukrainian War, in which the short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic was defeated and absorbed by Poland[33] As such, Ukrainians also actively fought the Polish invasion in the Ukrainian formations of the Red Army.[31] On the other hand, some scholars stress the effects of the Soviet propaganda[34] on encouraging the negative sentiments of Ukrainians towards the Polish operation, stemming from the long and often troubled history of relationship between the Ruthenians (Ukrainians) and Poles. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date April-June, 1920 Place Ukraine Result inconclusive The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Flag of Ukrainian Peoples Republic Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ...


The Polish 3rd Army easily won border clashes with the Red Army in Ukraine. However, the Reds simply withdrew with minimal losses and the combined Polish-Ukrainian forces entered the abandoned Kiev on May 7, encountering only token resistance. Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ...


The Polish military thrust was soon met with Red Army counterattacks. Polish forces in the area, preparing for an offensive towards Žlobin, managed to push the Soviets back, but were unable to start their own planned offensive. In the north, Polish forces had fared much worse. The Polish 1st Army was defeated and forced to retreat, pursued by the Russian 15th Army which recaptured territories between the Western Dvina and Berezina rivers. Polish forces attempted to take advantage of the exposed flanks of the attackers but the enveloping forces failed to stop the Soviet advance. At the end of May, the front had stabilised near the small river Auta, and Soviet forces began preparing for the next push. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ...


On May 24, 1920, the Polish forces in the south were engaged for the first time by Semyon Budionny's famous 1st Cavalry Army (Konarmia). Repeated attacks by Budionny's Cossack cavalry broke the Polish-Ukrainian front on June 5. The Soviets then deployed mobile cavalry units to disrupt the Polish rearguard, targeting communications and logistics. By June 10, Polish armies were in retreat along the entire front. On June 13, the Polish army along with the Petlura's Ukrainian troops abandoned Kiev to the Red Army. May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...


String of Soviet victories

Polish fighters of the 7th Kościuszko Squadron
Polish fighters of the 7th Kościuszko Squadron
Soviet offensive successes. Early August 1920
Soviet offensive successes. Early August 1920
Polish propaganda poster. Text reads: "To Arms! Save the Fatherland! Remember well our future fate."
Enlarge
Polish propaganda poster. Text reads: "To Arms! Save the Fatherland! Remember well our future fate."

The commander of the Polish 3rd Army in Ukraine, General Edward Rydz-Śmigły, decided to break through toward the northwest. Polish forces in Ukraine managed to withdraw in orderly fashion and relatively unscathed, but were unable to support Poland's northern front and reinforce the defenses at the Auta River for the decisive battle that was soon to take place there. Image File history File linksMetadata Dywizjon_Kosciuszki. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dywizjon_Kosciuszki. ... Polish fighters of the KoÅ›ciuszko Squadron. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ...


Due to insufficient forces, Poland's 200-mile-long front was manned by a thin line of 120,000 troops backed by some 460 artillery pieces with no strategic reserves. This approach to holding ground harked back to Great War practice of "establishing a fortified line of defense." It had shown some merit on a Western Front saturated with troops, machine guns and artillery. Poland's eastern front, however, was weakly manned, supported with inadequate artillery, and had almost no fortifications. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Against the Polish line the Red Army gathered their Northwest Front led by the young General Mikhail Tukhachevski. Their numbers exceeded 108,000 infantry and 11,000 cavalry, supported by 722 artillery pieces and 2,913 machine guns. The Russians at some crucial places outnumbered the Poles four-to-one. Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military...


Tukhachevski launched his offensive July 4, along the axis Smolensk-Brest-Litovsk, crossing the Auta and Berezina. The northern 3rd Cavalry Corps of Gayk Bzhishkyan (Gay Dmitrievich Gay, Gaj-Chan) was to envelope Polish forces from the north, moving near the Lithuanian and Prussian border (both of these belonging to nations hostile to Poland). 4th, 15th and 3rd Armies were to push decisively west, supported from the south by the 16th Army and Grupa Mozyrska. For three days the outcome of the battle hung in the balance, but the Russians' numerical superiority finally became apparent. Due to the stubborn defense by Polish units, Tukhachevsky's plan to break through the front and push the defenders southwest into the Pinsk Marshes failed, but from July 7, the Polish forces were in full retreat along the entire front. July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... For a city in France, see Brest, France. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... Gayk Bzhishkyan (February 6 (February 18 (O.S.)), 1887– December 11, 1937) was a Soviet military commander of the Russian Civil War and Polish-Soviet War. ... poop poop poopy poo poop poopy poo poop Categories: | | | ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ...


Polish resistance was offered again on a line of "German trenches," a heavily fortified line of World War I field fortifications that presented a unique opportunity to stem the Russian offensive. Once again, however, the Polish troops were insufficient in number. Soviet forces selected a weakly defended part of the front and broke through. Gej-Chan forces, supported by Lithuanian forces, captured Wilno on 14 July, forcing the Poles to retreat again. In the south, in Galicia, General Semyon Budyonny's cavalry advanced far into the Polish rear, capturing Brodno and approaching Lwów and Zamość. In early July, it became clear to the Poles that the Russians' objectives were not limited to pushing their borders westwards. Poland's very independence was at stake.[citation needed] July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Zamość Voivodship (1975–1998). ...


The Russian forces relentlessly moved forward at the remarkable rate of 20 miles a day. Grodno in Belarus fell on 19 July, Brest-Litovsk fell on 1 August, Polish attempts to defend the Bug River line with 4th Army and Grupa Poleska units stopped the advance of the Red Army for only one week. After crossing the Narew River on 2 August, the units of the Russian Northwest Front were only 60 miles from Warsaw. The Brest-Litovsk fortress which was to be the headquarters of the planned Polish counteroffensive fell to the 16th Army in the first attack. The Russian Southwest Front had pushed Polish forces out of Ukraine and was closing on Zamość and Lwów, the largest city in southeastern Poland and an important industrial center, defended by the Polish 6th Army. The way to the Polish capital lay open. Polish Galicia's Lviv (Lwów) was soon besieged, and five Russian armies were approaching Warsaw. Polish politicians tried to secure peace with Moscow on any conditions but Bolsheviks refused[3]. Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Brest-Litovsk Fortress is the biggest 19th century fortresses, one of the western Russian fortresses. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ...


Polish forces in Galicia near Lviv launched a successful counteroffensive to slow the Soviets down. This had put a stop to the retreat of Polish forces on the southern front, but the worsening situation near the Polish capital of Warsaw prevented the Poles from continuing that southern counteroffensive and pushing east. After the Soviets captured Brest, the Polish offensive in the south was put on hold and all available forces moved north to take part in the coming battle for Warsaw. Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Brest is the name of several cities: City in Belarus: Brest, Belarus, formerly in Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly known as Brest-Litovsk. ...


Diplomatic Front, Part 2: The political games

With the tide turning against Poland, Piłsudski's political power had been weakened, while his opponents, including Roman Dmowski, had risen to power. However, Piłsudski did manage to regain his influence, especially over the military, almost at the last possible moment - as the Soviet forces were approaching Warsaw and the Polish political scene began to unravel in panic, with the government of Leopold Skulski resigning in early June. Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Leopold Skulski (1878-after 1939) was prime minister of Poland from 1919 to 1920. ...


Meawhile, the Soviet leadership confidence soared.[35] It would be the Soviet Union's first penetration into Europe proper, the first attempt to export the Bolshevik Revolution by force. In a telegram, Lenin exclaimed: "We must direct all our attention to preparing and strengthening the Western Front. A new slogan must be announced: 'Prepare for war against Poland'."[36] Soviet communist theorist Nicholas Bukharin, writer for the newspaper Pravda, wished for the resources to carry the campaign beyond Warsaw "right up to London and Paris".[37] General's Tukhachevsky order of the day, 2 July 1920 read: "To the West! Over the corpse of White Poland lies the road to world-wide conflagration. March on Vilno, Minsk, Warsaw!"[16] and "onward to Berlin over the corpse of Poland!"[4] Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 – March 13, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... This article describes the Soviet/Russian newspaper. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 20 Coordinates General information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population (rank) 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilnius ( (help· info), see also... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


By the order of the Soviet Communist Party, a Polish puppet government, the Tymczasowy Komitet Rewolucyjny Polski, TKRP (English: Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee or Revcom), had been formed on 28 July in Białystok to organise administration of the Polish territories captured by the Red Army.[4] The TKRP had very little support from the Polish population and recruited its supporters mostly from the ranks of Jews.[7] In addition, political intrigues between Soviet commanders grew in the face of their more and more certain victory. Eventually the lack of cooperation between the top commanders would cost them dearly in the upcoming decisive battle of Warsaw. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee (Polish: Polrevkom; Russian: ) (July-August 1920) was a Revolutionary Committee created under the patronage of the Soviet Russia with the goal to establish a Polish Soviet Socialist Republic. ... July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ...

American volunteer pilots, Merian C. Cooper and Cedric Fauntleroy, fought in the Kościuszko Squadron of the Polish Air Force.
American volunteer pilots, Merian C. Cooper and Cedric Fauntleroy, fought in the Kościuszko Squadron of the Polish Air Force.
General Józef Haller (touching the flag) and his Blue Army.
General Józef Haller (touching the flag) and his Blue Army.

Western public opinion was strongly pro-Soviet. Britain's Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, who wanted to negotiate a favourable trade agreement with the Bolsheviks[4] pressed Poland to make peace on Soviet terms and refused any assistance to Poland which would alienate the Whites in the Russian Civil War. In July 1920, Britain announced it would send huge quantities of World War One surplus military supplies to Poland, but a threatened general strike by the Trades Union Congress, who objected to British support of "White Poland", ensured that none of the weapons destined for Poland went any further than British ports. David Lloyd George had never been enthusiastic about supporting the Poles, and had been pressured by his more right-wing Cabinet members such as Lord Curzon and Winston Churchill into offering the supplies. On the 11th of July, 1920, the government of Great Britain issued a de facto ultimatum to the Soviets.[citation needed] The Soviets were ordered to stop hostilities against Poland and the Russian Army (the White Army in Southern Russia lead by Baron Wrangel), and to accept what later was called the "Curzon line" as a temporary border with Poland, until a permanent border could be established in negotiations. In case of Soviet refusal, the British threatened to assist Poland with all the means available, which, in reality, were limited by the internal political situation in the United Kingdom. On the 17th of July, the Bolsheviks refused and made a counter-offer to negotiate a peace treaty directly with Poland. The British responded by a threat to cut off the on-going trade negotiations if the Soviets conducted further offensives against Poland. These threats were ignored. Merian Cooper and Cedric Fauntleroy (Brigham Young University, Collections) This work is copyrighted. ... Merian Cooper and Cedric Fauntleroy (Brigham Young University, Collections) This work is copyrighted. ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, adventurer, movie actor, director, screenwriter and producer. ... Cedric Fauntleroy (sometimes also Cedric Faunt le Roy) was an American pilot who in 1919 volunteered to serve in the Polish Air Force during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ...


The threatened general strike was for Lloyd George a convenient excuse for backing out of his commitments. On August 6, 1920, the British Labour Party published a pamphlet stating that British workers would never take part in the war as Poland's allies, and labour unions blocked supplies to the British expeditionary force assisting Russian Whites in Arkhangelsk. French Socialists, in their newspaper L'Humanité, declared: "Not a man, not a sou, not a shell for reactionary and capitalist Poland. Long live the Russian Revolution! Long live the Workmen's International!" Poland suffered setbacks due to sabotage and delays in deliveries of war supplies, when workers in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Germany refused to transit such materials to Poland.[4] August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the main left-wing political party of the United Kingdom. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was the only French newspaper owned by a political party. ... A solidus (the Latin word for solid) was originally a gold coin issued by the Romans. ...


Lithuania's stance was mostly anti-Polish and the country eventually joined the Soviet side in the war against Poland in July 1919. Lithuania's decision was dictated by a desire to incorporate the city of Wilno (in Lithuanian, Vilnius) and the nearby areas into Lithuania and to a smaller extent by Soviet diplomatic pressure backed by the threat of the Red Army stationed on Lithuania's borders. Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ...


Polish allies were few. France, continuing her policy of countering Bolshevism, now that the Whites in Russia proper had been almost completely defeated, sent in 1919 a 400-strong small advisory group to Poland's aid. This group was comprised mostly of French officers, although it also included a few British advisers led by Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton De Wiart. The French effort was vital to improving the organization and logistics of the Polish Army, which until 1919 had used diverse manuals, organizational structures and equipment, mostly drawn from the armies of Poland's former partitioners. The French officers included a future President of France, Charles de Gaulle, who during that war won Poland's highest military decoration, the Virtuti Militari. In addition to the Allied advisors, France also facilitated in 1919 the transit to Poland from France of the "Blue Army": a force of troops, mostly of Polish origin plus some international volunteers, formerly under French command in World War I. The army was commanded by the Polish general, Józef Haller. Hungary offered to send a 30,000 cavalry corps to Poland's aid, but the Czechoslovakian government refused to allow them through; some trains with weapon supplies from Hungary did however arrive in Poland. The French Military Mission to Poland was an effort by France to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War. ... The British Military Mission to Poland was an effort by Britain to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War. ... Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, KBE, CB, CMG, DSO, (May 5, 1880 - June 5, 1963), was a British officer of Belgian and Irish descent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy. ... General Józef Haller in front of the troops Blue Army or Hallers Army are informal names for the Polish Army formed in France during the later stages of World War I. The army was created in June of 1917 as part of the Polish units allied to the... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ...


In mid-1920, the Allied Mission was expanded by some new advisers (the Interallied Mission to Poland). They included the French diplomat, Jean Jules Jusserand; Maxime Weygand, chief of staff to Marshal Ferdinand Foch, Supreme Commander of the victorious Entente; and the British diplomat, Lord Edgar Vincent D'Abernon. The newest members of the mission achieved little; indeed, the crucial Battle of Warsaw was fought and won by the Poles before the mission could return and make its report. Subsequently, for many years, the myth persisted that it was the timely arrival of Allied forces that had saved Poland, a myth in which Weygand occupied the central role.[4] Interallied Mission to Poland was a diplomatic mission launched by David Lloyd George on July 21, 1920, at the height of the Polish-Soviet War, weeks before the decisive Battle of Warsaw. ... Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (February 18, 1855 - July 18, 1932) was a French author and diplomatist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch, OM, GCB, (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier. ... Edgar Vincent DAbernon, was a French nobleman, writer and soldier. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ...


Eventually, on the 21st of February, 1921, France and Poland entered into a formal military alliance, which became an important factor during the subsequent Soviet-Polish negotiations. The term Franco-Polish Military Alliance refers to the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1939. ...


The tide turns: Miracle at the Vistula

Polish Thermopylae: Russian cavalry are stopped at the Battle of Zadwórze. (Painting by Stanisław Kaczor-Batowski, 1929. Polish Army Museum, Warsaw.)
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Polish defenses at Miłosna, near Warsaw, August 1920.
Polish soldiers displaying captured Soviet battle flags after the Battle of Warsaw.
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Polish soldiers displaying captured Soviet battle flags after the Battle of Warsaw.

On August 10, 1920, Russian Cossack units under the command of Gay Dimitrievich Gay crossed the Vistula river, planning to take Warsaw from the west while the main attack came from the east. On August 13, an initial Russian attack was repulsed. The Polish 1st Army resisted a direct assault on Warsaw as well as stopping the assault at Radzymin. Image File history File links Battle of Zadwórze, a 1929 painting by Stanisław Kaczor-Batowski donated to the Polish nation and currently in the Polish Army museum in Warsaw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Battle of Zadwórze, a 1929 painting by Stanisław Kaczor-Batowski donated to the Polish nation and currently in the Polish Army museum in Warsaw File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Combatants Greek-city states Persia Commanders Leonidas I of Sparta † Xerxes I of Persia Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians 6,000 other Greek allies 2 200,000-1,700,0001 Casualties 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians; nearly 1,500 Greeks in total Modern estimates ~ 20,000 1Herodotus claims that the... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Categories: People stubs | Armenian people | Soviet military people | Exonerated Soviet death sentences ... The Vistula (Polish: Wisła) is the longest river in Poland. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Battle of Radzymin Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August 12-August 15, 1920 Place near Radzymin, Poland Result Polish victory Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ...


The Soviet commander-in-chief, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, feeling certain that all was going according to his plan, was actually falling into the trap set by Piłsudski. The Russian advance across the Vistula River in the north was advancing into an operational vacuum, as there were no sizable Polish forces in the area. On the other hand, south of Warsaw, where the fate of the war was about to be decided, Tukhachevski had left only token forces to guard the vital link between the Russian northwest and southwest fronts. Another factor that influenced the outcome of the war was the effective neutralization of Budionny's 1st Cavalry Army, much feared by Piłsudski and other Polish commanders, in the battles around Lwów. The Soviet High Command, at Tukhachevski's insistence, had ordered the 1st Cavalry Army to march north toward Warsaw and Lublin, but Budionny disobeyed the order due to a grudge between Tukhachevski and Yegorov, commander of the southwest front. Additionally, the political games of Joseph Stalin, chief political commissar of the Southwest Front, decisively influenced the disobedience of Yegorov and Budionny.[38] Stalin, seeking a personal triumph, was focused on capturing Lwów—far to the southeast of Warsaw—besieged by Bolshevik forces but still resisting their assaults. Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 12, 1937), Soviet military... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Yegorov Aleksandr Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Stalin redirects here. ... Commissar (комисса́р) was an official title used in post-revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg...


The Polish 5th Army under General Władysław Sikorski counterattacked August 14 from the area of the Modlin fortress, crossing the Wkra River. It faced the combined forces of the numerically and materially superior Soviet 3rd and 15th Armies. In one day the Soviet advance toward Warsaw and Modlin had been halted and soon turned into retreat. Sikorski's 5th Army pushed the exhausted Soviet formations away from Warsaw in a lightning operation. Polish forces advanced at a speed of thirty kilometers a day, soon destroying any Soviet hopes for completing their enveloping manoeuvre in the north. By August 16, the Polish counteroffensive had been fully joined by Marshal Piłsudski's "Reserve Army." Precisely executing his plan, the Polish force, advancing from the south, found a huge gap between the Russian fronts and exploited the weakness of the Soviet "Mozyr Group" that was supposed to protect the weak link between the Soviet fronts. The Poles continued their northward offensive with two armies following and destroying the surprised enemy. They reached the rear of Tukhachevski's forces, the majority of which were encircled by August 18. Only that same day did Tukhachevski, at his Minsk headquarters 300 miles east of Warsaw, become fully aware of the proportions of the Soviet defeat and ordered the remnants of his forces to retreat and regroup. He hoped to straighten his front line, halt the Polish attack, and regain the initiative, but the orders either arrived too late or failed to arrive at all. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounce ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Modlin Fortress (Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century fortresses in Poland. ... Wkra is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river, with a length of 249 kilometres (13th longest) and the basin area of 5,322 sq. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ...


The Soviet armies in the center of the front fell into chaos. Tukhachevski ordered a general retreat toward the Bug River, but by then he had lost contact with most of his forces near Warsaw, and all the Bolshevik plans had been thrown into disarray by communication failures. Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080...


The Bolshevik armies retreated in a disorganised fashion, entire divisions panicking and disintegrating. The Red Army's defeat was so great and so unexpected that, at the instigation of Piłsudski's detractors, the Battle of Warsaw is often referred to in Poland as the "Miracle at the Vistula." Current investigation in Poland concluded that the "Miracle at the Vistula" was caused by a big net of Polish spies within the Red Army. Piłsudski knew about all the moves by the Red Army while the Soviets were left in the dark. The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 13 to August 25, 1920 Place near Warsaw, Poland Result Decisive Polish victory The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad Wisłą) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War (also...


Budionny's defeat
Battle of Komarów, one of the greatest cavalry clashes in world history. (Painting by Wojciech Kossak.)
Battle of Komarów, one of the greatest cavalry clashes in world history. (Painting by Wojciech Kossak.)
Battle of the Niemen River, the second greatest battle of the war. (Painting by Wojciech Kossak.)
Battle of the Niemen River, the second greatest battle of the war. (Painting by Wojciech Kossak.)

On August 17, the advance of Budyonny's 1st Cavalry Army toward Lwów was halted at the Battle of Zadwórze, where a small Polish force sacrificed itself to prevent Soviet cavalry from seizing Lwów and stopping vital Polish reinforcements from moving toward Warsaw. Moving through weakly defended areas, Budyonny's cavalry reached the city of Zamość on 29 August and attempted to take it in the battle of Zamość; however, he soon had to face increasing number of Polish units diverted from the successful Warsaw counteroffensive. On August 31, Budyonny's cavalry finally broke off its siege of Lwów and attempted to come to the aid of Russian forces retreating from Warsaw. The Russian forces were intercepted and defeated by Polish cavalry at the Battle of Komarów near Zamość, the greatest cavalry battle since 1813 and one of the last cavalry battles in history. Although Budionny's Army managed to avoid encirclement, morale had plummeted. The remains of Budionny's 1st Cavalry Army retreated towards Volodymyr-Volynskyi on 6 September and was defeated shortly thereafter at the Battle of Hrubieszów. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... Wojciech Kossak, self-portrait. ... Download high resolution version (1120x704, 311 KB)Fragment of an allegorical painting Bitwa nad Niemnem (Battle of Niemen) by Wojciech Kossak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1120x704, 311 KB)Fragment of an allegorical painting Bitwa nad Niemnem (Battle of Niemen) by Wojciech Kossak This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Strength ~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15) Casualties uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. ... Wojciech Kossak, self-portrait. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Zamość is a town in southeastern Poland with 66,633 inhabitants (2004), situated in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously capital of Zamość Voivodship (1975–1998). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznan in uniforms of 15th Poznan Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish kawaleria) can trace its origins back to the days of Mediæval mounted knights. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... Volodymyr-Volynsky (Володимир-Волинський; Polish: Włodzimierz Wołyński, Russian: Vladimir Volynski) is a city in Volyn region, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ...


Tukhachevski managed to reorganize the eastward-retreating forces and in September established a new defensive line running from the Polish-Lithuanian border to the north to the area of Polesie, with the central point in the city of Grodno in Belarus. In order to break this line, the Polish Army had to fight the Battle of the Niemen River. Polish forces crossed the Niemen River and outflanked the Bolshevik forces, which were forced to retreat again. Polish forces continued to advance east on all fronts, repeating their successes from the previous year. After the early October Battle of the Szczara River, the Polish Army had reached the Ternopil-Dubno-Minsk-Drisa line. Polesie is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, mainly within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and partly also within Poland and Russia. ... Hrodna (or Grodno; Belarusian: Го́радня, Гро́дна; Grodno in Polish, Гродно in Russian, Gardinas in Lithuanian) is a city in Belarus on the Nemunas river, close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania... Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Strength ~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15) Casualties uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. ... Motto: Oblast Ternopil Oblast Mayor Bogdan Evgenovich Levkiv Area 59 kм² Population  - city  - density 221,300 (2004) 3,831 /km² Founded 1540 Latitude Longitude Area code +380 352 Car plates  ?? sister cities Municipal Website Ternopil (Ukrainian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the... Dubno (Ukrainian: Дубно) is a town in Ukraine, in Rivne Oblast, on the Ikva River. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ...


End of the war

The Bolsheviks sued for peace soon after the Battle of Warsaw, and the Poles, exhausted and constantly pressured by the Western governments and League of Nations, with the Polish army now controlling the majority of the disputed territories, were willing to negotiate. In September in Riga, the Soviets made two offers: on September 21st and 28th. The Polish delegation made a counteroffer on the 2nd of October. On the 5th, the Soviets offered amendments to the Polish offer. Poland accepted. The armistice between Poland on one side and Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Russia on the other was signed on the 12th and went into effect on the 18th of October. Long negotiations of the peace treaty ensued. The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


Aftermath

Main article: Aftermath of the Polish-Soviet War

According to the British historian A.J.P. Taylor, the Polish-Soviet War "largely determined the course of European history for the next twenty years or more. […] Unavowedly and almost unconsciously, Soviet leaders abandoned the cause of international revolution." It would be twenty years before the Bolsheviks would send their armies abroad to 'make revolution'.[7] According to an American sociologist Alexander Gella "the Polish victory had gained twenty years of independence not only for Poland, but at least for an entire central part of Europe.[39] Main article: Polish-Soviet War The Aftermath According to the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, the Polish-Bolshevik War Certainly the Bolsheviks defeat in the war prevented Poland from becoming another Soviet republic and likely saved Germany, Czechoslovakia and other nearby states from suffering a similar fate. ... For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...


However, following the peace negotiations Poland did not end up with all the territories Piłsudski had controlled in the 1920. Due to their losses in and after the Battle of Warsaw, the Soviets offered the Polish peace delegation substantial territorial concessions in the contested borderland areas, closely resembling the border between Russian Empire and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth before the first partition of 1772.[40] However, Polish resources were exhausted, Polish public opinion divided, the Polish government was pressured by the League of Nations, and most vitally, the negotiations were controlled by Dmowski's National Democrats: Piłsudski might have controlled the military, but parliament (Sejm) was controlled by Dmowski, and the peace negotiations fell into the political realm. National Democrats, like Stanisław Grabski,[40] who earlier resigned his post to protest the Polish–Ukrainian alliance[29] and now wielded much influence over the Polish negotiators, cared little for Piłsudski's Międzymorze. Besides, the National Democrats, in charge of the state,[19] had few concerns about the fate of Ukrainians, and cared little that their political opponent, Piłsudski, felt honorbound by his treaty obligations[41] that his opponents did not hesitate to scrap. National Democrats wanted only the territory which they viewed as 'ethnically or historically Polish' or possible to polonize.[17] Despite the Red Army's crushing defeat at Warsaw, and Adolf Joffe, the Russian chief negotiator, willingness to concede almost all disputed territory,[40] National Democrats ideology allowed the Soviets to regain some territories.[40] The Peace of Riga was signed on March 18, 1921, splitting the disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between Poland and Russia.[42] The treaty, which Piłsudski called an act of cowardice,[41] and for which he apologized to the Ukrainians,[4] actually violated the terms of Poland's military alliance with Ukraine, which had explicitly prohibited a separate peace;[27] Ukrainian allies of Poland suddenly found themselves interned by the Polish authorities.[42] The internment worsened relations between Poland and her Ukrainian minority, as those who supported Petliura now felt that Ukraine had been betrayed by her Polish ally; a feeling that grew stronger due to the assimilationist policies of nationalist interwar Poland towards its minorities that to a large degree inspired the growing tensions and eventual violence against Poles in the 1930s and 1940s.[43] Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Palais des Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, built between 1929 and 1938, was constructed as the Leagues headquarters. ... Endecja (from abbreviaton (ND) of its Polish name, Narodowa Demokracja (National Democrats), also known as National Movement (Ruch Narodowy)) was a Polish right-wing political movement most active from middle of the 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... StanisÅ‚aw Grabski (5 April 1871 - 6 May 1949) was a Polish politician and economist, an ideologue of endecja known for his support of the polonization policies during the time of the Second Polish Republic. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Adolf Abramovich Joffe (Адольф Абрамович Йоффе) (October 10, 1883 – November 16, 1927) was a Russian revolutionary and an associate of Leon Trotsky. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The word internment is generally used to refer to the imprisonment or confinement of people without due process of law and a trial. ... The Massacre of Poles in Volhyn was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhyn (Polish: ) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ...


The Polish military successes in the autumn of 1920 allowed Poland to capture the Wilno (Vilnius) region, where a Polish-dominated Governance Committee of Central Lithuania (Komisja Rządząca Litwy Środkowej) was formed. A plebiscite was conducted, and the Wilno Sejm voted on February 20, 1922, for incorporation into Poland. This worsened Polish-Lithuanian relations for decades to come. Repercussions of this continue (to a diminishing extent) to affect relations between the two countries. Combatants Poland Lithuania and Soviet Union Commanders Adam Nieniewski  ? Strength  ? ca. ... Territory of Central Lithuania (green) as compared with other Lithuanian claims on neighbouring countries Vilnius region (Lithuanian Vilniaus kraÅ¡tas) refers to a part of historical Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that was disputed between Poland and Lithuania between Polish-Bolshevik War and World War II. Although a part of Poland in... Map of the region, with Central Lithuania marked in Green Central Lithuania (Polish: Litwa Åšrodkowa, Lithuanian: Vidurio Lietuva or VidurinÄ— Lietuva, Belarusian: Сярэдняя Літва / Siaredniaja Litva) was a semi-independent state, created in 1920 by allegedly rebellious soldiers of the so called Lithuanian-Belarusian division of the Polish Army. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The outcome of the Polish-Soviet War, while welcomed by some Polish politicians such as the National Democrat leader Roman Dmowski — who favored a relatively small, ethnically homogeneous state — was a death blow to Piłsudski's dream of reviving the multicultural Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the form of a "Międzymorze Federation." A National Democrat Sejm deputy, Stanisław Stroński, coined the phrase, "Miracle at the Wisła" (Polish: "Cud nad Wisłą"), to underline his disapproval of Piłsudski's "Ukrainian adventure." Stroński's phrase was adopted with approval by some patriotically- or piously-minded Poles unaware of Stroński's ironic intent. The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania...

Graves of Polish soldiers fallen in the Battle of Warsaw (1920), Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw.
Graves of Polish soldiers fallen in the Battle of Warsaw (1920), Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw.

Military strategy in the Polish–Soviet War influenced Charles de Gaulle, then an instructor with the Polish Army who fought in several of the battles. He and Władysław Sikorski were the only military officers who, based on their experiences of this war, correctly predicted how the next one would be fought. Although they failed in the interbellum to convince their respective militaries to heed those lessons, early in World War II they rose to command of their armed forces in exile. The Polish-Soviet War also influenced Polish military doctrine, which for the next 20 years would place emphasis on the mobility of elite cavalry units. Download high resolution version (1248x1008, 367 KB) This image is a current featured picture candidate. ... Download high resolution version (1248x1008, 367 KB) This image is a current featured picture candidate. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... PowÄ…zki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz PowÄ…zkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounce ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... An interbellum is a period between wars. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Among the technical advances associated with the Polish-Soviet War was one that would, two decades later, affect the course of World War II. Poland's Marshal Piłsudski and his staff enjoyed a vast advantage from their military intelligence decrypting ("breaking") Red Army radio messages. These were encrypted in primitive ciphers and codes, and often involved incredible breaches of security by Soviet cipher clerks. The Polish cryptologists and commanders were thus regularly able to look over the shoulders of the Soviet commanders, including Mikhail Tukhachevski, and their superior, Leon Trotsky.[44][45][46] The bomba (plural bomby) was a special-purpose codebreaking machine designed by Polish cryptanalysts and used to crack the German Enigma machine prior to World War II. A bomba was designed to exploit an obscure but fatal weakness in the Enigma cipher. ... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Pre-19th century Leone Battista Alberti, polymath/universal genius, inventor of polyalphabetic substitution (see frequency analysis for the significance of this -- missed by most for a long time and dumbed down in the Vigenère cipher), and what may have been the first mechanical encryption aid. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Soviet Union acquired direct or indirect control of more territory than had Imperial Russia and partly fulfilled Lenin's original dream of bringing communist revolution to Germany. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... GDR redirects here. ...


Until 1989, while communists held power in a People's Republic of Poland, the Polish-Soviet War was either omitted from, or minimized in, Polish and other Soviet bloc countries' history books, or was presented so as to fit in with communist ideology.[47] The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


Controversies

A barrack for students in a Tuchola internment camp. A photo published by a Russian White immigrant paper in Poland that dubbed Tuchola a "death camp".Many Russian POWs died in Poland as a result of poor conditions and the Spanish Flu epidemic
Enlarge
A barrack for students in a Tuchola internment camp. A photo published by a Russian White immigrant paper in Poland that dubbed Tuchola a "death camp".Many Russian POWs died in Poland as a result of poor conditions and the Spanish Flu epidemic

One of the most controversial issues, one that resurfaced in the 1990s, was the situation of Soviet prisoners of war in Poland as well as the internment even of those Ukrainians that fought on the Polish side. During this war between two countries experiencing great socioeconomic difficulties, and often unable to care for their own populations, the treatment of prisoners of war was far from adequate,[48][49] with tens of thousands on both sides, in Russian and Polish camps, dying during the rampaging post-World War I Spanish flu pandemic. A Polish internment camp in Tuchola was particularly notorious for the large number of Soviet POW's deaths,[50] as the Red Cross mission sent to monitor the Russian prisoner's condition was murdered in Poland under the mysterious circumstances.[3] There were also cases of the Soviet army executing Polish POWs, when no POW facilities were available.[49] Barracks is usally used to connote a type of military housing. ... Tuchola is a town in Pomerania, northern Poland in the center of Tuchola forests. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as , , or the 1918 flu, was a pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus. ... Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland that existed during 1919-1924 housed two main categories of detainees: personnel of the Imperial Russian Army, and Russian civilians, captured by Germany during World War I; and Soviet military personnel captured during the Polish-Soviet War. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Camps for Russian prisoners and internees in Poland that existed during 1919-1924 housed two main categories of detainees: personnel of the Imperial Russian Army, and Russian civilians, captured by Germany during World War I; and Soviet military personnel captured during the Polish-Soviet War. ... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as , , or the 1918 flu, was a pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly strain of the subtype H1N1 of the species Influenza A virus. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Tuchola is a town in Pomerania, northern Poland in the center of Tuchola forests. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Both sides raised charges of other violations of the laws of war mostly to sway the governments and public opinion in Entente countries whose help in the war was crucial for Poland. Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ...


The Polish side claimed that during the Soviet retreat from Berdychiv, Kiev and Zhytomyr mass hostage-taking of civilians occurred, with hostages forced to go with the Reds all the way to the rear of the front.[51] Similar claims were made that returning to Berdychiv the Bolsheviks threw out the sick and wounded from the hospital "disregarding the lives and honor of the medical personnel"[51] and that in general the Soviet advance into Ukraine was characterized by mass killing of civilians and the burning of entire villages, especially by Budyonny's cossacks, designed to instill a sense of fear in the Ukrainian population. Behind Polish lines, the Soviet forces destroyed railroads, hanged suspected enemies on the spot, and cut telegraph wires.[52] Ultimately, in the pacification of Ukraine that began during the Soviet counteroffensive in 1920 and which would not end until 1922, the Soviets would take 10,000s of Ukrainian lives.[53] Berdychiv (Ukrainian: ; Polish language: Berdyczów; Russian: , Berdichev) is a town in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine, 44 km south of Zhytomyr. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Zhytomyr (Ukrainian, Russian Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) ( April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of...


Some first hand accounts from participants may support the claim that such behavior was found on both sides. Particularly notorious were the accounts concerning the former officer of the Imperial Russian and Bolsheviks armies, Stanisław Bułak-Bałachowicz, who switched sides in the conflict and became the General in Poland. Although Bułak-Bałachowicz is claimed to be a national hero to Belarussians in Poland for protection against Bolshevik terror, and his refusal to kill peasants on orders from Soviets[4], witness accounts claim that he was known to behave like an absolute ruler of the territories controlled by his troops, even conducting public executions[54] As one Polish officer wrote in a letter to his wife: "This is the person without ideology. The bandit and the murderer and his comrades - subordinates are just like that. They know no shame and are similar to barbarians... I witnessed throwing the cut-off heads of Bolsheviks under his feet... I drank with him all night long and in the morning he with his group and me with my regiment went to the fighting. The massacre of Bolsheviks was horrific".[51] There is evidence that the bands of Cossack "Colonel" Vadim Yakovlev were similarly cruel. He was a Don Cossack Ukrainian and Bolshevik officer who also switched to the Polish side along with his band and allegedly was a bloody marauder of villages and towns in Ukraine, Belarus, and was responsible for several anti-Jewish pogroms.[55] Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... General StanisÅ‚aw BuÅ‚ak-BaÅ‚achowicz StanisÅ‚aw BuÅ‚ak-BaÅ‚achowicz (Belarusian Станіслаў Булак-Балаховіч, Russian Станислав Булак-Балахович) (1883-1940) was a Belarusian-Polish general, veteran of World War I, Russian Civil War, Polish-Bolshevik War and Polish Defence War of 1939. ... Vadim Yakovlev was a Russian Cossack cavalry commander, in the rank of yesaul. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...


Similar to the Polish side, the Soviet government raised complaints on every occasion in diplomatic notes addressed to the Entente. One note stated that during the Soviet advance the retreating Poles, disappointed by their military misfortunes, engaged in "vengeful vandalism", as in Borisov where the Poles, following their retreat, shelled the city with artillery from another bank of the Berezina River "killing hundreds of people and leaving thousands without shelter."[51] Another joint diplomatic note issued by Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Russia to the Entente blamed the Poles for heavily damaging Kiev including its civilian and art objects, such as St. Volodymyr's Cathedral,[51] a charge the Poles denied, admitting only to the Kiev bridges destruction,[56] claimed necessary to slow the Red Army (the bridges survived multiple hostilities and conflicts prior to Polish occupation of Kiev). That particular note seems to be based on Leon Trotsky's telegraph, and Trotsky himself admitted parts of it were false.[57] Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... Belarusian: Бары́саў; Russian: Бори́сов) (population 150,700 as of 1999) is a town in Belarus situated near the Berezina River. ... Categories: Rivers of Belarus | Belarus-related stubs ... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... St. ... Kiev neighborhoods cover both banks of the Dnieper River whose distributary forms several islands as it flows through Kiev. ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


List of battles

For a chronological list of important battles of the Polish-Soviet War, see List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War. List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War by chronology: Soviet Target Vistula offensive (January-February 1919) Battle of Bereza Kartuska (February 9, 1919: the first battle of the conflict) Operation Wilno: Polish offensive to Wilno (April 1919) First Battle of Lida (April 1919) Operation Minsk: Polish offensive to Minsk...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Polish-Soviet War

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or Kansas) is an institution of higher learning located in Lawrence, Kansas. ...

References

  1. ^ a b The question of victory is not universally agreed on. Russian and Polish historians tend to assign victory to their respective countries. Outside assessments vary, mostly between calling the result a Polish victory and inconclusive. Lenin in his secret report to the IXth Conference of the Bolshevik Party on September 20, 1920, called the outcome of the war "In a word, a gigantic, unheard-of defeat" (see The Unknown Lenin, ed. Richard Pipes, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-06919-7 Document 59, Google Print, p. 106). Norman Davies called the war a "military defeat" for the Soviets (see following reference).
  2. ^ a b See for instance Russo-Polish War in Encyclopædia Britannica
    …military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland, which sought to seize Ukraine… Although there had been hostilities between the two countries during 1919, the conflict began when the Polish head of state Józef Pilsudski formed an alliance with the Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlura (April 21, 1920) and their combined forces began to overrun Ukraine, occupying Kiev on May 7.
  3. ^ a b Davies, Norman, White Eagle, Red Star: the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20, Pimlico, 2003, ISBN 0-7126-0694-7. (First edition: New York, St. Martin's Press, inc., 1972.)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u THE REBIRTH OF POLAND. University of Kansas, lecture notes by professor Anna M. Cienciala, 2004. Last accessed on 2 June 2006.
  5. ^ Adrian Hyde-Price, Germany and European Order, Manchester University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-7190-5428-1 [1]
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ a b c d e f Ronald Grigor Suny, The Soviet Experiment: Russia, the USSR, and the Successor States, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508105-6, Google Print, p.106
  8. ^ "[Pilsudski] hoped to incorporate most of the territories of the defunct [Polish-Lithuanian] Commonwealth into the future Polish state by structuring it as the Polish-led, multinational federation."
    Aviel Roshwald, "Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923", p. 37, Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 0-415-17893-2
  9. ^ "Although the Polish premier and many of his associates sincerely wanted peace, other important Polish leaders did not. Josef Pilsudski, chief of state and creator of Polish army, was foremost among the latter. Pilsudski hoped to build not merely a Polish nation state but a greater federation of peoples under the aegis of Poland which would replace Russia as the great power of Eastern Europe. Lithuania, Belorussia and Ukraine were all to be included. His plan called for a truncated and vastly reduced Russia, a plan which excluded negotiations.prior to military victory."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921, p. 59, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  10. ^ a b "Pilsudski's program for a federation of independent states centered on Poland; in opposing the imperial power of both Russia and Germany it was in many ways a throwback to the romantic Mazzinian nationalism of Young Poland in the early nineteenth century. But his slow consolidation of dictatorial power betrayed the democratic substance of those earlier visions of national revolution as the path to human liberation"
    James H. Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men, p. 432, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0471-9
  11. ^ "Pilsudski dreamed of drawing all the nations situated between Germany and Russia into an enormous federation in which Poland, by virtue of its size, would be the leader, while Dmowski wanted to see a unitary Polish state, in which other Slav peoples would become assimilated."
    Andrzej Paczkowski, The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom, p. 10, Penn State Press, 2003, ISBN 0-271-02308-2
  12. ^ Zbigniew Brzezinski in his introduction to Wacław Jędrzejewicz’s “Pilsudski A Life For Poland” wrote: Pilsudski’s vision of Poland, paradoxically, was never attained. He contributed immensely to the creation of a modern Polish state, to the preservation of Poland from the Soviet invasion, yet he failed to create the kind of multinational commonwealth, based on principles of social justice and ethnic tolerance, to which he aspired in his youth. One may wonder how relevant was his image of such a Poland in the age of nationalism.... Quoted from this website
  13. ^ Aviel Roshwald, Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923, 2001, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-415-24229-0, Google Print, p.49
  14. ^ Yohanan Cohen, Small Nations in Times of Crisis and Confrontation, SUNY Press, 1989, ISBN 0791400182 Google Books, p.65
  15. ^ "No less influential and popular than the concept of [national democrats] was the "federalist" program of Josef Pilsudski, a socialist and the most authoritative Polish politicial of the 20th century. The essence of that program was that after the ovethrowal of tsardom and the disintegration of the Russian empire, the large, strong and mighty Poland was to be created in Eastern Europe. It was the reincarnation of the Rzeczpospolita on "federative" principles. It was to include the Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. The leading role, of course, was to be given to the Polish ethnic, political, economic and cultural element. Despite the program failed to address the question on what to do if the people would not want to join into the Rzeczpospolita, the socialists declared the voluntaraly entry into the future state. So, two influential and popular Polish political doctrines in regard to Ukraine, the "incorporative" and the "federalist", even before the creation of the Polish state were based on the disregard of the rights of the Ukrainian people for self-determination and on the claims on the Ukrainian lands. Other concepts did not play a significant role"
    Oleksandr Derhachov (editor), "Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis", Chapter: "Ukraine in Polish concepts of the foreign policy", 1996, Kiev ISBN 966-543-040-8
  16. ^ a b Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. Messiah and Central European Federalist. Polonica.net article by Patryk Dole
  17. ^ a b Manfred F. Boemeke, Gerald D. Feldman, Elisabeth Glaser, The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment After 75 Years, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0-521-62132-1, Google Print, p.314
  18. ^ Roman Dmowski have been quoted saying: "Wherever we can multiply our forces and our civilizational efforts, absorbing other elements, no law can prohibit us from doing so, as such actions are our duty."
    Tomaszewski J. Kresy Wschodnie w polskiej mysli politycznej XIX i XX w.//Miedzy Polska etniczna a historyczna. Polska mysl polityczna XIX i XX wieku.—T.6.—Warszawa, 1988.—S.101. Cited through: Oleksandr Derhachov, ibid
  19. ^ a b c "The newly found Polish state cared much more about the expansion of its borders to the east and south-east ("between the seas") that about helping the agonizing [Ukrainian] state of which Petlura was a de-facto dictator. ("A Belated Idealist." Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), May 22-28, 2004. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.)
    Piłsudski is quoted to have said: "After the Polish independence we will see about Poland's size". (ibid)
  20. ^ One moth before his death Pilsudski told his aide: "My life is lost. I failed to create the free from the Russians Ukraine"
    <(Russian)(Ukrainian) Oleksa Pidlutskyi, Postati XX stolittia, (Figures of the 20th century), Kiev, 2004, ISBN 966-8290-01-1, LCCN 20-04440333. Chapter "Józef Piłsudski: The Chief who Created Himself a State" reprinted in Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Kiev, February 3 - 9, 2001, in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  21. ^ MacMillan, Margaret, Paris 1919 : Six Months That Changed the World, Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2003, ISBN 0-375-76052-0, p.212"
  22. ^ JOSEPH PILSUDSKI. Interview by Dymitr Merejkowsky, 1921. Translated fom the Russian by Harriet E Kennedy B.A. London & Edinburgh, Sampson Low, Marston & Co Ltd 1921. Piłsudski said: “Poland can have nothing to do with the restoration of old Russia. Anything rather than that – even Bolshevism”. Quoted from this site.
  23. ^ Łukowski, Grzegorz and Rafał E. Stolarski, Walka o Wilno. Z dziejów Samoobrony Litwy i Białorusi, 1918-1919 (Fight for Wilno. From the history of the Self-Defence of Lithuania and Belarus, 1918-1919), Adiutor, 1994, ISBN 83-900085-0-5
  24. ^ Peter Kenez, A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-521-31198-5, Google Print, p. 37
  25. ^ (Russian)(Ukrainian) Oleksa Pidlutskyi, Postati XX stolittia, (Figures of the 20th century), Kiev, 2004, ISBN 966-8290-01-1, LCCN 20-04440333. Chapter "Józef Piłsudski: The Chief who Created Himself a State" reprinted in Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Kiev, February 3–9, 2001, in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  26. ^ a b Watt, Richard (1979). Bitter Glory: Poland and its Fate 1918-1939. New York: Simon and Schuster, 119. ISBN 0-671-22625-8.
  27. ^ a b c d e "Although the [UNR] was unable to contribute real strength to the Polish offensive, it could offer a certain camouflage for the naked aggression involved. Warsaw had no difficulty in convincing the powerless Petliura to sign a treaty of alliance. In it he abandoned his claim of all territories [...] demanded by Pilsudki. In exchange the Poles recognized the sovereignty of the UNR on all territories which it claimed, including those within the Polish frontiers of 1772 - in other words, much of the area Poland demanded from Soviet Russia. Petlura also pledged not to conclude any international agreements against Poland and guaranteed full cultural rights to the Polish residents in Ukraine. Supplementary military and economic agreements subordinated the Ukrainian army and economy to the control of Warsaw."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921, pp. 210-211, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  28. ^ a b "In September 1919 the armies of the Ukrainian Directory in Podolia found themselves in the "death triangle". They were squeezed between the Red Russians of Lenin and Trotsky in the north-east, White Russians of Denikin in south-east and the Poles in the West. Death were looking into their eyes. And not only to the people but to the nascent Ukrainian state. Therefore, the chief ataman Petlura had no choice but to accept the union offered by Piłsudski, or, as an alternative, to capitulate to the Bolsheviks, as Volodymyr Vinnychenko or Mykhailo Hrushevsky did at the time or in a year or two. The decision was very hurtful. The Polish Szlachta was a historic enemy of the Ukrainian people. A fresh wound was bleeding, the West Ukrainian People's Republic, as the Pilsudchiks were suppressing the East Galicians at that very moment. However, Petlura agreed to peace and the union, accepting the Ukrainian-Polish border, the future Soviet-Polish one. It's also noteworthy that Piłsudski also obtained less territories than offered to him by Lenin, and, in addition, the war with immense Russia. The Dnieper Ukrainians then were abandoning their brothers, the Galicia Ukrainians, to their fate. However, Petlura wanted to use his last chance to preserve the statehood - in the union with the Poles. Attempted, however, without luck."
    Oleksa Pidlutskyi, ibid
  29. ^ a b Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10586-XGoogle Books, p.139
  30. ^ Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5809-6.
  31. ^ a b Peter Abbot. "Ukrainian Armies 1914-55", Chapter "Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 1917-21", Osprey, 2004, ISBN 1-84176-668-2
  32. ^ Tadeusz Machalski, then a captain, (the future military attache to Ankara) wrote in his diary: "Ukrainian people, who saw in their capital an alien general with the Polish army, instead of Petlura leading his own army, didn't view it as the act of liberation but as a variety of a new occupation. Therefore, the Ukrainians, instead of enthusiasm and joy, watched in gloomy silence and instead of rallying to arms to defend the freedom remained the passive spectators".
    Oleksa Pidlutskyi, ibid
  33. ^ "[I]n practice, [Pilsudski] was engaged in a process of conquest that was bitterly resisted by Lithuanians and Ukrainians (except the latter's defeat by the Bolsheviks left them with no one else to turn but Pilsudski)."
    Roshwald, Aviel (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-24229-0.
  34. ^ "The Bolsheviks had flooded the Ukraine, forcing Ataman Semyon Petlura (a Ukrainian bookkeeper turned national hero) to sign an alliance with Pilsudski, securing Lwow for Poland and possibly Pilsudski's envisioned federation. On 7 May the Polish army liberated Kiev in the intention of giving it to Petlura in a Polish-Ukrainian-Federation. On 5 June the Bolsheviks were back in Kiev. The major problem which prevented Pilsudski from securing Kiev and creating his federation was the unwillingness of the inhabitants of Ukraine, to rush to the aid of Petlura and his Ukrainian nationalist forces. Most Ukrainians had no idea what Bolshevism was and were easily manipulated by the Russians. Besides, many of the Ukrainian peasants were very simple people who still had memories of serfdom, which was imposed on them by the Polish Szlachta (Nobility). They believed Pilsudski to be another Polish Magnate, as from the 18th century. Thus, Petlura could not foster more than 30,000 troops.". Patryk Doyle, op cit.
  35. ^ At a closed meeting of the 9th Conference of the Russian Communist Party on September 22, 1920, Lenin said: "We confronted the question: whether [...] to take advantage of the enthusiasm in our army and the advantage which we enjoyed to sovietize Poland... the defensive war against imperialism was over, we won it... We could and should take advantage of the military situation to begin an offensive war... we should poke about with bayonets to see whether the socialist revolution of the proletariat had not ripened in Poland... that somewhere near Warsaw lies not [only] the center of the Polish bourgeois government and the republic of capital, but the center of the whole contemporary system of international imperialism, and that circumstances enabled us to shake that system, and to conduct politics not in Poland but in Germany and England. In this manner, in Germany and England we created a completely new zone of proletarian revolution against global imperialism... By destroying the Polish army we are destroying the Versailles Treaty on which nowadays the entire system of international relations is based.....Had Poland become Soviet....the Versailles Treaty ...and with it the whole international system arising from the victories over Germany, would have been destroyed."
    English translation quoted from Richard Pipes, RUSSIA UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK REGIME, New York, 1993, pp.181-182, with some stylistic modification in par 3, line 3, by A. M. Cienciala. This document was first published in a Russian historical periodical, Istoricheskii Arkhiv, vol. I, no. 1., Moscow,1992 and is cited through THE REBIRTH OF POLAND. University of Kansas, lecture notes by professor Anna M. Cienciala, 2004. Last accessed on 2 June 2006.
  36. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce, Red Victory: a History of the Russian Civil War, Da Capo Press, 1999, ISBN 0-306-80909-5, p.405
  37. ^ Stephen F. Cohen, Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888-1938, Oxford University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-19-502697-7, Google Print, p. 101
  38. ^ Stalin: The Man and His Era, Beacon Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8070-7005-X, Google Print, p.189
  39. ^ Aleksander Gella, Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors, SUNY Press, 1988, ISBN 0-88706-833-2, Google Print, p. 23
  40. ^ a b c d Norman Davies, God's Playground. Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Columbia University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-231-05352-5. Google Print, p.504
  41. ^ a b Norman Davies, God's Playground. Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Columbia University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-231-05352-5. Google Print, p. 399)
  42. ^ a b Snyder, op cit, Google Print, p. 140
  43. ^ Snyder, op cit, Google Books, p.144
  44. ^ (Polish) Ścieżyński, Mieczysław, [Colonel of the (Polish) General Staff], Radjotelegrafja jako źrodło wiadomości o nieprzyjacielu (Radiotelegraphy as a Source of Intelligence on the Enemy), Przemyśl, [Printing and Binding Establishment of (Military) Corps District No. X HQ], 1928, 49 pp.
  45. ^ (Polish) Paweł Wroński, "Sensacyjne odkrycie: Nie było cudu nad Wisłą" ("A Remarkable Discovery: There Was No Miracle at the Vistula"), Gazeta Wyborcza, online.
  46. ^ Jan Bury, POLISH CODEBREAKING DURING THE RUSSO-POLISH WAR OF 1919-1920, online
  47. ^ Marc Ferro, The Use and Abuse of History: Or How the Past Is Taught to Children, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-28592-5, Google Print, p.262
  48. ^ (Polish) Karpus, Zbigniew, Jeńcy i internowani rosyjscy i ukraińscy na terenie Polski w latach 1918-1924 (Russian and Ukrainian Prisoners of War and Internees in Poland, 1918-1924), Toruń 1997, ISBN 83-7174-020-4. Polish table of contents online. English translation available: Russian and Ukrainian Prisoners of War and Internees in Poland, 1918-1924, Wydawn. Adam Marszałek, 2001, ISBN 83-7174-956-2;
  49. ^ a b (Polish) Karpus, Zbigniew, Alexandrowicz Stanisław, Waldemar Rezmer, Zwycięzcy za drutami. Jeńcy polscy w niewoli (1919-1922). Dokumenty i materiały (Victors Behind Barbed Wire: Polish Prisoners of War, 1919-1922: Documents and materials), Toruń, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, 1995, ISBN 83-231-0627-4.
  50. ^ (Russian)Nezavisimaya Gazeta, "The tragedy of Polish captivity", July 16, 1998.
  51. ^ a b c d e Мельтюхов, Михаил Иванович (Mikhail Meltyukhov) (2001). Советско-польские войны. Военно-политическое противостояние 1918—1939 гг. (Soviet-Polish Wars. Political and Military standoff of 1918-1939). Moscow: Вече (Veche). ISBN 5-699-07637-9. (in Russian).
  52. ^ ‘Having burst through the front, Budyonny's cavalry would devastate the enemy's rear - burning, killing and looting as they went. These Red cavalrymen inspired an almost numbing sense of fear in their opponents [...] the very names Budyonny and Cossack terrified the Ukrainian population, and they moved into a state of nuetrality or even hostility toward Petliura and the Poles..."’
    from Richard Watt, 1979. Bitter Glory: Poland and its fate 1918-1939. New York: Simon & Shuster. ISBN 0-671-22625-8
  53. ^ Courtois, Stephane; Werth, Nicolas; Panne, Jean-Louis; Paczkowki, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis (1999). The Black Book of Communism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  54. ^ (Russian) Станислав Никодимович Булак-Балахович at modern Russian pro-White movement All-Russian military Union site.
  55. ^ Rumor of atrocities. I walk into town. Indescribable terror and despair. They tell me all about it. Privately, indoors, they’re afraid the Poles may come back. Captain Yakovev’s Cossacks were here yesterday. A pogrom. The family of David Zyz, in people’s homes, a naked, barely breathing prophet of an old man, and old woman butchered, a child with fingers chopped off, many people still breathing, stench of blood, everything turned upside down, chaos, a mother sitting over her sobered son, an old woman lying twisted up like a pretzel, four people in one hovel, filth, blood under a black beard, just lying there in their blood.
    Isaac Babel, 1920 Diary, p. 84, Yale, 2002, ISBN 0-300-09313-6
  56. ^ "Fording the Dnipro. The past, present and future of Kyiv's bridges", The Ukrainian observer, issue 193.
  57. ^ Postal Telegram No. 2886-a, footnote 1. Last accessed on 30 May 2006

Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Prof. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, with the slogan When in doubt—look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general... Prof. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Zbigniew Brzezinski Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... Yohanan Cohen (born 12-31-1917) is a Polish-Israeli zionist who came to Israel in the 1937 Aliyah. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Margaret Olwen MacMillan OC (born 1943 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a historian and professor at the University of Toronto and is also Provost of Trinity College. ... Dmitry Merezhkovsky Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky Дмитрий Сергеевич Мережковский (August 14, 1865, St Petersburg-December 9, 1941, Paris) was one of the earliest and most eminent ideologues of Russian Symbolism. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power. ... Timothy Snyder is an American historian from Yale University specializing in history of modern nationalism and history of East Europe. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ... Op cit - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Richard Pipes, Warsaw (Poland), October 20, 2004 Richard Edgar Pipes (b. ... Stephen Cohen is the foremost Russian scientist in the USA. His academic work concentrates on developments in Russia since the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 and the countrys relationship with the United States. ... Prof. ... Gods Playground is a book about history of Poland written by Norman Davies. ... Prof. ... Gods Playground is a book about history of Poland written by Norman Davies. ... Op cit - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Op cit - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Logo A cover of Gazeta Wyborcza - one of Polands biggest daily newspapers. ... Marc Ferro is a French historian specialised in the history of Russia, the USSR and cinema. ... Zbigniew Klemens Karpus (1954-) is a Polish historian. ... Nezavisimaya Gazeta is a Russian language daily newspaper, published by Izvestiya. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ...

Further reading

  • D'Abernon, Edgar Vincent, The Eighteenth Decisive Battle of the World: Warsaw, 1920, Hyperion Press, 1977, ISBN 0-88355-429-1.
  • Babel, Isaac, Конармия (original 1926), Red Cavalry , W. W. Norton & Company, 2003, ISBN 0-393-32423-0
  • Biskupski, M.B., "Paderewski, Polish Politics, and the Battle of Warsaw, 1920," Slavic Review, vol. 46, no. 3/4 (autumn–winter, 1987), pp. 503-512.
  • Fiddick, Thomas C., "The 'Miracle of the Vistula': Soviet Policy versus Red Army Strategy," The Journal of Modern History, vol. 45, no. 4 (Dec., 1973), pp. 626-643.
  • Thomas C. Fiddick, Russia's Retreat from Poland, 1920, Macmillian Press, 1990, ISBN 0-333-51940-X
  • Himmer, Robert, "Soviet Policy Toward Germany during the Russo-Polish War, 1920," Slavic Review, vol. 35, no. 4 (Dec., 1976), p. 667.
  • Jędrzejewicz, Wacław, Pilsudski: a Life for Poland, Hippocrene Books, 1982, ISBN 0-88254-633-3
  • Kahn, David, The Code-Breakers, New York, Macmillan, 1967.
  • Keenan, Jeremy, The Pole: the Heroic Life of Jozef Pilsudski, Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, 2004, ISBN 0-7156-3210-8.
  • Palij, Michael, The Ukrainian-Polish Defesnive Alliance, 1919-1921, University of Toronto, 1995, ISBN 1-895571-05-7
  • Wandycz, Piotr, "General Weygand and the Battle of Warsaw," Journal of Central European Affairs," 1960.
  • Watt, Richard M., Bitter Glory: Poland and Its Fate, 1918-1939, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1998, ISBN 0-7818-0673-9.

Edgar Vincent DAbernon, was a French nobleman, writer and soldier. ... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894 – January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... General Wacław Jędrzejewicz (Ukraine, January 29, 1893 — November 30, 1993, Cheshire, Connecticut, USA) was a Polish Army officer and diplomat and subsequently an American college professor. ... David Kahn is a US historian, journalist and writer. ...

Non-English

Polish

  • Cisek, Janusz, Sąsiedzi wobec wojny 1920 roku. Wybór dokumentów. (Neighbours Attitude Towards the War of 1920. A collection of documents. - English summary), Polish Cultural Foundation Ltd, 1990, London, ISBN 0-85065-212-X.
  • Czubiński, Antoni, Walka o granice wschodnie polski w latach 1918-1921 (Fighting for eastern borders of Poland in 1918-1921), Instytut Slaski w Opolu, Opole, 1993
  • Drozdzowski, Marian Marek (ed.), Miedzynarodowe aspekty wojny polsko-bolszewickiej, 1919-1920. Antologia tekstow historycznych (International aspects of the Polish-Bolshevic War,1919-1920. Anthology of historical texts.'), Instytut Historii PAN, 1996, ISBN 83-86417-21-8
  • Golegiewski, Grzegorz, Obrona Płocka przed bolszewikami, 18-19 sierpnia 1920 r. (Defence of Płock from the Bolshevicks, 18-19 August, 1920), NOVUM, 2004, ISBN 83-89416-43-3
  • Kawalec Tadeusz, Historia IV-ej Dywizji Strzelcow Generala Żeligowskiego w zarysie (History of 4th Rifleman Division of General Żeligowki in brief), Gryf, 1993, ISBN 83-85209-24-5
  • Konieczny, Bronisław, Moje życie w mundurze. Czasy narodzin i upadku II RP (My life in the uniform. Times of the birth and fall of the Second Polish Republic), Księgarnia Akademicka, 2005 ISBN 83-7188-693-4
  • Kopański, Tomasz Jan, 16 (39-a) Eskadra Wywiadowcza 1919-1920 (16th (39th) Scouting Escadrille 1919-1920), Wojskowy Instytut Historyczny, 1994, ISBN 83-901733-5-2
  • Kukiel, Marian, Moja wojaczka na Ukrainie. Wiosna 1920 (My fighting in Ukraine. Spring 1920), Wojskowy Instytut Historyczny, 1995, ISBN 83-85621-74-1
  • Łukowski, Grzegorz, Walka Rzeczpospolitej o kresy polnocno-wschodnie, 1918-1920. Polityka i dzialania militarne. (Rzczepolita's fight for the northern-eastern borderlands, 1918-1920. Politics and military actions.), Wydawnictwo Naukowe Universytetu Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań, 1994, ISBN 83-232-0614-7
  • Pruszyński, Mieczysław, Dramat Pilsudskiego: Wojna 1920 (The drama of Piłdsuski: War of 1920), Polska Oficyna Wydawnicza BGW, 1995, ISBN 83-7066-560-8
  • Odziemkowski, Janusz, Leksykon Wojny Polsko-Rosyjskiej 1919-1920 (Lexycon of Polish-Russian War 1919-1920), Rytm, 2004, ISBN 83-7399-096-8
  • Rozstworowski, Stanisław (ed.), Listy z wojny polsko-bolszewickiej (Letters from the Polish-Bolshevic War), Adiutor, 1995, ISBN 83-86100-11-7
  • Szczepański, Janusz, Wojna 1920 na Mazowszu i Podlasiu (War of 1920 in Mazowsze and Podlasie), Gryf, 1995, ISBN 83-86643-30-7

Antoni Czubiński (b. ... Marian W&#322;odzimierz Kukiel Marian W&#322;odzimierz Kukiel pseudonym: Marek K&#261;kol, Stach Zawierucha (b. ...

Russian

Flag of Poland Polish-Soviet War Flag of the Soviet Union

Causes • First year • Second year • Aftermath
Battles Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Main article: Polish-Soviet War // Chaos in Eastern Europe In 1918, the German Army in the east was the most powerful force in the region. ... Main article: Polish-Soviet War Soviet Forces in early 1920 Soviet forces has recently been very successful against the White Russians, defeating Denikin, and signed peace treaties with Latvia and Estonia. ... Main article: Polish-Soviet War The Aftermath According to the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, the Polish-Bolshevik War Certainly the Bolsheviks defeat in the war prevented Poland from becoming another Soviet republic and likely saved Germany, Czechoslovakia and other nearby states from suffering a similar fate. ... List of battles of the Polish-Soviet War by chronology: Soviet Target Vistula offensive (January-February 1919) Battle of Bereza Kartuska (February 9, 1919: the first battle of the conflict) Operation Wilno: Polish offensive to Wilno (April 1919) First Battle of Lida (April 1919) Operation Minsk: Polish offensive to Minsk...


 
 

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