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Encyclopedia > Polish people's referenda, 1946

People's referendum (referendum ludowe) of 1946, also know as "3 times YES" (3 razy TAK) was a referendum held in Poland on 30 June 1946 on the authority of State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) (order of 27 April 1946). It was a test of popularity of forces vying for political control of Poland after Second World War. It became the sign of things to come: the results which showed the communists didn't have a major support were rigged to show they had an overwhelming support. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining, and the last day of June. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... State National Council (Polish Krajowa Rada Narodowa, KRN) was a political body formed in the late stages of the Second World War in the Soviet Union, as a begining of new Polish government. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


The referendum comprised of three general questions:

Parties of the pro-communist "Democratic Bloc" (PPR, PPS, SD, SL) campaigned for the "3 times YES". PSL, which realised that the voting had a much higher stake – the independence and future of Poland – decided to advocate voting "no" on the first question, even through it was opposed to Senate since before the war. As PSL was a party based on peasant's support who supported the agricultural reform, it couldn't advocate voting no on the second question. Nonetheless, the opposition to the first "yes" was later used by communists to declare more liberal PSL activists as 'the traitors'. "Wolność i Niezawisłość" party argued for "no" to the first two questions, while NSZ wanted "no" for all three, viewing the "no" as a protest against the annexation of Kresy (the eastern part of Poland) by the Soviet Union. The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ... An economic system is a mechanism which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... The Odra or Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Lusatian Neisse (German Lausitzer Neiße, Polish Nysa Łużycka, Czech Lužická Nisa) is a river in the Czech Republic (54 km) and on Polish-German border (198 km), in total 252 km long. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: Oder-Neiße-Grenze; Polish: Granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... The Polish Workers Party (Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR) was a communist party in Poland from 1942 to 1948. ... Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the most important Polish political parties 1890-1948. ... Stronnictwo Demokratyczne (Democratic Party, SD) is a Polish centrist party established on April 15, 1939. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... The name Kresy (Polish for borderlands) (or more correctly Kresy Wschodnie, Eastern Borderlands) is used by Poles to refer to the eastern part of Poland in the inter-war period. ...


The official results, published on 12 July of 1946, showed that 13,160,451 were eglible for voting out of which 11,857,986 (90,1%) took part in the vote. 11,530,551 votes (97,2%) were valid. For the first question, "yes" was given by 68% voters, "no" by 32%. For the second, "yes" by 77,2%, "no" by "22,8". For the third, "yes" by 91,4%, "no" by 8,6%. July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ...

Referendum results


However, the official results were far from the actual results. Elections have been rigged by the communists and their supporters. Communists, who had already de facto control of much of the government, and were backed by army (both Polish Wojsko Ludowe and Soviet Red Army), used police (Milicja Obywatelska) and secret services (Urząd Bezpieczeństwa) to switch the real ballot boxes for false ones, stuff them with false votes, destroy the votes not in favour or simply falsify the votes. Voting in the army was done on command and without secrecy. Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Militsiya (Russian: мили́ция; Ukrainian: міліція; Romanian: MiliÅ£ia; literally Militia) was the generic name for the police in the Soviet Union and a few other Communist countries. ... SÅ‚użba BezpieczeÅ„stwa (SB, until 1956 UrzÄ…d BezpieczeÅ„stwa, UB) was the name of the communist intelligence agency and secret police in the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


In Kraków, were opposition managed to ensure the fair voting, the "no" results were: 84%, 59% and 30% for questions 1 to 3. Despite the protests of opposition, led by Stanisław Mikołajczyk, and representatives of United Kingdom and United States, the results were declared by the government as sound and fair. Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ...


The materials published after the Communists lost power in Poland in 1989 show, that the nationwide results were: for the first question, "yes" was given by 26,9% voters, "no" by 73,1%. For the second, "yes" by 42%, "no" by "58". For the third, "yes" by 66,9%, "no" by 33,1%.


PSL estimated that 3xYES was given by 15% of respondents. Secret protocols of PPR show 27%. Official results were 68%.


The referendum showed the weakness of communists and encouraged them to increase the repressions and persecution of the opposition, and discouraged them from holding any fair votes in the future. However, it should be noted that communists did have a significant support base – at least 20% of voters did support their policies without any duress.


References

  • Davies, Norman, 1982 and several reprints. God's Playground. 2 vols. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0231053533 and ISBN 0231053517
  • M.Turlejska, Zapis pierwszej dekady, 1945-1954
  • POLSKA. HISTORIA Article in Polish PWN Encyclopedia, online version. Accessed on 11 July 2005. Polish language.

 
 

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