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Encyclopedia > Polish parliamentary election, 2005
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Poland
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This article is part of the series:
Politics of
Poland
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Politics of Poland takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

Constitution
President: Lech Kaczyński

National Assembly
Sejm
Senate Flag of the President of Poland The President of the Republic of Poland plays a very important part in the Polish legal system. ... â–¶(?)(born: 18th June1949, Warsaw) is Polands president. ... The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...

Prime Minister: Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz
Council of Ministers
Ministries
Law
Supreme Court
Constitutional Tribunal
State Tribunal
Supreme Administrative Court
Supreme Chamber of Control
Attorney General
Ombudsman
Political Parties:
LPR PD PiS PO PSL SDPL SLD SRP UP
Elections
Presidential (after 1989):
1990 1995 2000 2005
Parliamentary (after 1989):
1989 1991 1993 1997 2001 2005
European Parliament:
2004
Polish referenda
Local elections
See also
Economy
Foreign relations
History
Military

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland represents the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet) and directs their work, supervises territorial self-government within the guidelines and in ways described in the Constitution and other legislation, and acts as the superior for all government administration workers (heading the public service... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician, prime minister since 31 October 2005. ... The Council of Ministers (cabinet), or Polish government, consists of ministers, heads of departments of ministerial rank, and heads of central institutions. ... // Existing ministries Ministerstwo Finansów (Ministry of Finances) Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Ministerstwo Spraw WewnÄ™trznych i Administracji (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration) Ministerstwo SprawiedliwoÅ›ci (Ministry of Justice) Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (Ministry of National Defence) Ministerstwo Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi ( Ministry of Agriculture and Rural... The Supreme Court of Poland supervises the adjudication in: General courts - these are district, voivodeship, and appeal courts. ... The Constitutional Tribunal of Poland is a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. ... The State Tribunal of Poland is the judicial body, which rules on the constitutional liability of people holding the highest offices of state. ... The Supreme Administrative Court of Poland (Polish: Naczelny SÄ…d Administracyjny) is the court of last resort in administrative cases i. ... The Supreme Chamber of Control (Polish: Najwyższa Izba Kontroli, short: NIK) is one of the oldest state institutions in Poland, created under the Second Republic on February 7, 1919, barely 3 months after the restoration of Polands independence. ... List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz ZieliÅ„ski - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam ZieliÅ„ski - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ... Political parties in Poland lists political parties in Poland. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative-nationalist opposition party within the Polish Parliament. ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish conservative political party, established in 2001, by the KaczyÅ„ski twins: Lech, the former justice minister and mayor of the capital, Warsaw, current President of Poland, and JarosÅ‚aw, who is the President of the party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej, SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Labor Union (Unia Pracy) is a Polish political party. ... Elections in Poland gives information on election and election results in Poland. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 25 (1st round), and Sunday December 9, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday November 5 (1st round), and Sunday November 19, 1990 (2n round). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on Sunday October 8. ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... Contract Sejm (Polish: ) is a term commonly applied to the Polish Parliament elected in the Polish parliamentary elections of 1989. ... Sejm election Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1991 elections | Elections in Poland | 1991 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 4 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1993 elections | Elections in Poland | 1993 in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 1997 elections | Elections in Poland ... Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Elections to the European Parliament were held in Poland on June 13, 2004. ... There have been several referenda in history of Poland. ... Poland became a full member of NATO in March 1999, and of the European Union in May 2004. ... In the first centuries of its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ...

Parliamentary elections for both houses of the Parliament of Poland were held on September 25, 2005. Thirty million voters were eligible to vote for all 460 members of the lower house, the Assembly of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej), and all 100 members of the upper house, the Senate of the Republic of Poland (Senat Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej). September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament. ...


The election resulted in a sweeping victory for two parties of the centre-right, the conservative Law and Justice (PiS) and the conservative-liberal Citizens Platform (PO). The incumbent center-left government of the Alliance of the Democratic Left (SLD) was defeated. The two victorious parties won 288 out of the 460 seats, while the SLD won only 55 seats. The PiS won 155 seats while PO won 133. PiS leader, Jarosław Kaczyński, declined the opportunity to become Prime Minister so as not to prejudice his twin brother Lech Kaczyński's chances in the Presidential race. PiS instead nominated Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz for the post. The outgoing Prime Minister, Marek Belka, lost his seat. Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish conservative political party, established in 2001, by the KaczyÅ„ski twins: Lech, the former justice minister and mayor of the capital, Warsaw, current President of Poland, and JarosÅ‚aw, who is the President of the party. ... This article deals with the libertarianism as defined in America and several other nations. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski (born June 18, 1949 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish politician, the chairman of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party. ... â–¶(?)(born: 18th June1949, Warsaw) is Polands president. ... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician, prime minister since 31 October 2005. ... This is a list of Prime Ministers of Poland. ... Marek Belka Marek Belka (b. ...


In the Senate the PiS won 49 seats and PO 34 of the 100 seats, leaving eight other parties with the remaining 17 seats. The SLD won no seats in the Senate.

Contents


Background

The Sejm is elected by proportional representation from multi-member constituencies, with seats divided among parties which gain more than five percent of the votes using the d'Hondt method. On the other hand, the Senate is elected under first-past-the-post bloc voting. This tends to cause the party or coalition which wins the elections to have a larger majority in the Senate than in the Sejm. Proportional representation (PR) is an election system which ensures a proportionally representative result of a democratic election, x% of votes should be represented by x% in the democratic institutions, parliament or congress. ... The DHondt method is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency. ...


At the 2001 elections, the SLD and UP won 216 of the 460 seats, and were able to form a government with the support of the Polish Peasant Party (PSL). The former ruling party, Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) based on the Solidarity trade union, lost all its seats. In its place several new right-wing parties emerged, such as the PO and the PiS. Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Solidarity Electoral Action (Akcja Wyborcza Solidarność, AWS) is a political party coalition in Poland. ... Solidarity (Polish Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the GdaÅ„sk Shipyards, originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ...


After 2003 a variety of factors combined to bring about a collapse of support for the government. Discontent with high unemployment, government spending cuts (especially on health, education and welfare), affairs related to privatizations was compounded by a series of corruption scandals, leading to the resignation of the Prime Minister Leszek Miller in May 2004, who was succeeded by Marek Belka. All opinion polls suggested that the governing parties would be heavily defeated at these elections and that the right-wing parties would win a large majority. With the expected downfall of the post-communists, the right-wing parties competed mainly against each other. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leszek Miller Leszek Miller (born 3 July 1946) was Prime Minister of Poland from September 2001 to May 2, 2004. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marek Belka Marek Belka (b. ...


Contestants

The parties running in this election were mainly the same as in 2001, with the addition of SDPL (a splinter group from the SLD), and the Democratic Party formed from the Freedom Union (UW) and some SLD dissidents. Both these new parties failed to win seats. Sejm election German Minority - 2 MPs Senat election Categories: Politics of Poland | 2001 elections | Elections in Poland ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia Wolności), which it legally succeeds. ... The Freedom Union (Unia Wolności, UW) was a liberal party in Poland. ...


The BBC commented on election day: "The two centre-right parties are both rooted in the anti-communist Solidarity movement but differ on issues such as the budget and taxation. Law and Justice, whose agenda includes tax breaks and state aid for the poor, has pledged to uphold traditional family and Christian values. It is suspicious of economic liberalism. The Citizens Platform strongly promotes free market forces and wants to introduce a flat 15% rate for income tax, corporation tax and VAT. It also promises to move faster on deregulation and privatisation, in order to adopt the euro as soon as possible." Corporate logo of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the national public service broadcaster of the United Kingdom (see British television). ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Solidarity (Polish Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the GdaÅ„sk Shipyards, originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... A tax exemption is an exemption to the tax law of a state or nation in which part of the taxes that would normally be collected from an individual or an organization are instead forgone. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... A family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 A family is a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups, typically affiliated by birth or marriage, or by comparable legal relationships including domestic partnership, adoption, surname and in some cases ownership (as was the case in the Roman... For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics described by classical liberal authors such as Adam Smith or the French Physiocrats. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Corporate tax refers to direct taxes charged by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. ... vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ... Deregulation is the process by which governments remove restrictions on business in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... The euro (symbol: €; banking code: EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, the Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, collectively known as the Eurozone. ...


Results

Summary of the 25 September 2005 Polish National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) (Parliament (Sejm) and Senate (Senat) election results Votes % Seats Sejm +/- Seats Senat
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, PiS) 3,185,714 27.0 155 +111 49
Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, PO) 2,849,259 24.1 133 +68 34
Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Samoobrona RP) 1,347,355 11.4 56 +3 3
Democratic Left Alliance (Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) 1,335,257 11.3 55 -161 -
League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, LPR) 940,726 8.0 34 -4 7
Polish Peasant Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, PSL) 821,656 7.0 25 -17 2
Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL)   3.9 -   -
Democratic Party (Partia Demokratyczna)   2.5 -   -
Election Committee German Minority (Komitet Wyborczy Mniejszość Niemiecka) 34,469 0.3 2    
Non-partisans         5
Total (turnout 40.6 %) 11,804,676   460   100
*Registered voters: 30,338,316
  • Votes counted: 12,255,875
  • Invalid votes: 451,199
  • Valid votes: 11,804,676

Had the two leading parties been able to form a coalition, as expected, it would have had 62.6 percent of seats in the Assembly, just short of the two-thirds supermajority required to carry out more ambitious projects, such as constitutional reform, but this was not to be (see below). The populist and isolationist Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Samoobrona) slightly improved its representation and became the third largest party ahead of the SLD, which despite losing most of its seats performed slightly better than suggested in opinion polls. It has, however, lost all its Senate seats. The League of Polish Families and the Polish Peasant Party retained their representation. The German minority in Poland is exempt from the requirement of achieving at least 5% of the total vote and retained their 2 seats. The National Assembly (Zgromadzanie Narodowe) is the name of both chambers of the Polish parliament, the Sejm and the Senate, when sitting in joint session. ... Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) (PiS) is a Polish conservative political party, established in 2001, by the Kaczyński twins: Lech, the former justice minister and mayor of the capital, Warsaw, current President of Poland, and Jarosław, who is the President of the party. ... Citizens Platform (Platforma Obywatelska, often also called Civic Platform) is a liberal conservative political party in Poland. ... Self-Defense of the Republic of Poland (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, SO or SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... Democratic Left Alliance (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative-nationalist opposition party within the Polish Parliament. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... Social Democracy of Poland (Socjaldemokracja Polska, SDPL) is a new leftist political party in Poland founded in April 2004 as a splinter group from Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (it should not be confused with a former party Socialdemocracy of the Republic of Poland - SdRP). ... The Democratic Party () is a liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia Wolności), which it legally succeeds. ... A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level or type of support which exceeds a simple majority in order to have effect. ... Populism is a political philosophy or rhetorical style that holds that the common persons interests are oppressed or hindered by the elite in society, and that the instruments of the state need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and used for the benefit and advancement of the... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Self-Defense of the Polish Republic (Polish: Samoobrona Rzeczypospolitiej Polskiej, SRP) is a political party and trade union in Poland. ... League of Polish Families (Liga Polskich Rodzin, or LPR) is a conservative-nationalist opposition party within the Polish Parliament. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ...


Distribution of vote

Map showing the geographical distribution of support for the new government coalition (click map to enlarge)
Map showing the geographical distribution of support for the new government coalition (click map to enlarge)

Although PiS and PO were the clear winners, their vote was very unevenly distributed, creating a basis for possible future conflicts. Their support is overwhelmingly concentrated in the cities, particularly Warsaw and the southern industrial areas around Kraków and Katowice, but also including Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poznań, Wrocław and Szczecin. The only urban centre not to endorse the right was Łódź. The two main parties failed to win a majority in any rural district except Rzeszów in the south. In seven rural districts they polled less the 40 percent of the vote, while in one (Chełm) they polled less than 35 percent. While no other single party polled a majority in any district, the vote shows the continuing sharp divide in Polish politics between urban voters, who are generally more socially liberal and in favour of free-market economics, and rural voters, who are more conservative both socially and economically. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x605, 28 KB) Summary Map by Adam Carr, September 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (948x605, 28 KB) Summary Map by Adam Carr, September 2005 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Voivodship Masovian Municipal government Mayor MirosÅ‚aw Kochalski (acting) Area 516,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 1,692,900 (2004) 2,400,000 3258/km² Founded City rights 13th century turn of the 13th century Latitude Longitude 52... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Katowice (pronounce: [katÉ”vʲitsÉ›], original former Polish name KÄ…towicze, Czech Katovice, German Kattowitz) is an important city of the historical region of Upper Silesia in southern Poland on the Klodnica and Rawa rivers. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta GdaÅ„ska Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 460 524 (2004) - Ranked 6th 1,100,000 (Tricity) 1761/km² Founded City rights 997 1263 Latitude Longitude 54°40N 18°60... Gdynia (pronounce: [:gdiɲia], German: Gdingen, Kashubian/Pomeranian: Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodship of Poland and an important seaport at Gdansk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... The Poznan is also a breed of horse. ... WrocÅ‚aw, ( [:vrɔʦwaf], German Breslau, Czech Vratislav, Latin Wratislavia; many Polish documents in English use the spelling Wroclaw) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 415 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 53°26N 14°34E Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Łódź (pronunciation: ), the second-largest city (population 776,297 in 2004) of Poland, lies in the centre of the country. ... Rzeszów (pronounce: [ʒεʃuv]) is a city in south-eastern Poland with a population of 164 000 (2005), granted a town charter in 1354, the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodship (since 1999), previously of Rzeszow Voivodship (1945-1998). ... CheÅ‚m (Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ...


After the elections

Negotiations between PiS and PO about forming the new government collapsed in late October, and on 1 November the PiS announced a minority government headed by Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz as the new Prime Minister. The negotiations were affected by the 9 October presidential election, where the PiS victor Lech Kaczyński is the twin brother of the PiS leader Jarosław Kaczyński; Jarosław Kaczyński had declared that he would not become the Prime Minister if his brother wins the election. The constitutional requirement to form a government within a set time period also heated up the coalition negotiations. November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (born December 20, 1959 in Gorzów Wielkopolski) is a Polish politician, prime minister since 31 October 2005. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in Leap years). ... Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ... â–¶(?)(born: 18th June1949, Warsaw) is Polands president. ... JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski (born June 18, 1949 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish politician, the chairman of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice) party. ...


A major stumbling block against forming a coalition was the PO's insistence on receiving the Interior portfolio if it was to enter a coalition government with the PiS, to prevent one party from controlling all three of the "power" ministries (Security, Justice and Interior) that control the police and security services. The PO also opposed a "tactical alliance" between the PiS and Samoobrona, who share eurosceptic and populists sentiments, although differing on economic policy. The election campaign, in which both centre-right parties competed mainly against each other rather than parties on the left, accentuated differences and created an antagonistic relationship between the two parties.


The minority government now depends on the support of the radical Samoobrona and the deeply-conservative LPR to govern, a situation which has made many of those hoping for a PiS/PO coalition uneasy.


See also

Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. ...

External links

Wikinews
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Polish parliamentary election - unofficial results

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