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Encyclopedia > Polish literature
"Babie lato" by Józef Chełmoński
Culture of Poland
Periods

Middle Ages
Renaissance
Baroque
Enlightenment
Romanticism
Positivism
Young Poland
Interbellum
World War II
Socialist Realism
Modern Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x609, 132 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1000 years of history. ... The culture of medieval Poland is closely intertwined with the activities of the Catholic Church in Poland, especially during the first centuries of the Polish states history. ... Jan Kochanowski, a leading poet and writer of Polish Renaissance, and one of the most eminent Slavic poets. ... Polish baroque started in the late 16th century. ... The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment in Poland were developed later then in the Western Europe, as Polish bourgeoisie was weaker, and szlachta (nobility) culture (Sarmatism) together with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth political system (Golden Freedoms) were in deep crisis. ... Romanticism in Poland was eventually followed with the period known as positivism in Poland. ... For other meanings of positivism, see Positivism. ... Young Poland (Polish Młoda Polska) is a modernist period in Polish art, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918. ...

Arts

Literature
Music
Theater Artists from Poland, including famous composers like Chopin or Penderecki and traditional, regionalized folk musicians, create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as poezja śpiewana and disco polo. ... The great strength of Polish dramatic theatre is the high quality of its actors. ...

Artists

Authors
Composers
Painters
Poets List of Polish language authors This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... List of Polish composers: // 15th century Mikołaj Radomski (fl. ... This is an alphabetical listing of Polish painters. ... Poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. ...


Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. The majority of Polish literature was written in the Polish language, though other languages used in Poland over the centuries (including Latin, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and German) have also contributed to Polish literary traditions. Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...

Contents

Middle Ages

The earliest monuments of Polish literature date to the Middle Ages. Most were religious tracts transcribed by local copyists from Latin works popular in western (i.e. Christian) Europe. The first substantial books were created about the 11th century, when the first scriptoria were founded on Polish soil. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A tract, is a literary work, and in current usage, usually religious in nature. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ...


The first recorded sentence in the Polish language reads: "day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai" ("let me grind, and you take a rest") and was a paraphrase of the Latin "Sine, ut ego etiam molam". The circumstances in which this phrase was written reflected the cultural conditions in early Poland. The sentence appears in the Latin chronicle Liber fundationis, the history of the Cistercian monastery in Henryków, Silesia, written between 1269 and 1273 by a German abbot, known simply as Piotr (Peter), and referred to an event almost 100 years earlier, supposedly uttered by a Bohemian settler, Bogwal ("Bogwalus Boemus"), a subject of Bolesław the Tall, when he felt compassion for his wife who "very often stood grinding by the quern-stone." [1] Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The Book of Henryków (Polish: , Latin: ) is a Latin chronicle of the Cistercian abbey in Henryków in Lower Silesia. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Prussian Silesia, 1871, outlined in yellow; Silesia at the close of the Seven Years War in 1763, outlined in cyan (areas now in the Czech Republic were Austrian-ruled at that time) Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlonsk / Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... BoÅ‚esÅ‚aw I the Tall (Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wysoki; 1127 - December 7 or 8, 1201) was Duke of Silesia, 1163 - 1172. ...


Notable works of literature from the medieval period include:


Several short Polish texts of the period were influenced heavily by western literature. These include Bogurodzica (Mother of God), a short hymn praising the Virgin Mary, which served as a national anthem, and Rozmowa mistrza Polikarpa ze śmiercią (Master Polikarp's conversation with death). The Bavarian Geographer is anonymous medieval document prepared in ca. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Gallus Anonymus (Polish: Gall Anonim) living in 11th and 12th century was the first Polish historian, author of Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum (c. ... Wincenty KadÅ‚ubek, also known as Vincent Kadlubek, Vincent Kadlubo, Vincent Kadlubko, Vincent of Cracow. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Holy Cross Sermons (Polish: Kazania Å›wiÄ™tokrzyskie), so called after the Holy Cross Monastery in Polands Holy Cross Mountains (Polish: Góry ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie) where they had originally been housed: dating from the 14th century, they are the oldest extant manuscripts of fine prose in the Polish language. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Bogurodzica Bogurodzica (The Mother of God) is the oldest Polish religious hymn. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Reign September 23, 1492 - June 17, 1501. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan DÅ‚ugosz Jan DÅ‚ugosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki of Kraków. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Davids Psalter (Polish PsaÅ‚terz Dawidów) by Jan Kochanowski, the most prominent Polish poet of the Renaissance, is one of the oldest relics of Polish literature and of the Polish language. ... Jan Łaski Jan Łaski, John Laski, Johannes Alasco, John a Lasco (b. ... Jan DÅ‚ugosz Jan DÅ‚ugosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew OleÅ›nicki of Kraków. ... Bogurodzica Bogurodzica (The Mother of God) is the oldest Polish religious hymn. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ...


In the early 1470s the first printing houses were set up in Kraków and Wrocław. Twenty years later, the first Cyrillic printing house was founded in Kraków by Eastern Orthodox Church hierarchs. Events and Trends battle of Avenches 1476 Prominent Persons Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer and mathematician A map of Europe in the 1470s. ... Wawel Hill. ... WrocÅ‚aw ( ; German: ; Czech: ; Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest Christian organization in the world (or third if one sees Protestantism as a single entity). ...


The most famous Polish works of the late medieval/early renaissance period are the Latin Missal of Bishop Ciołek and Olbracht's Gradual. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Missal, in the Roman Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ...


Renaissance

With the advent of the Renaissance, the Polish language was finally accepted on an equal footing with Latin. Polish culture and art flourished under Jagiellonian rule, and many foreign poets and writers settled in Poland, bringing with them new literary trends. Such writers included Kallimach (Filip Buonaccorsi) and Konrad Celtis. Many other Polish writers studied abroad or at the Kraków Academy, which became a melting pot for new ideas and currents. In 1488 the Nadwiślańskie Bractwo Literackie (Vistula Literary Guild), the world's first writers' club, was created at Kraków. Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... Filip Callimachus, (lat. ... Jagiellonian University (Polish: Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski, often shortened to UJ) is a university in Krakow, Poland. ... // Events February 3 - Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal lands in Mossel Bay after rounding the Cape of Good Hope, at the tip of Africa becoming the first known European to travel this far south. ...


One of the last Polish writers to use Latin as his principal vehicle of expression was Klemens Janicki (Ianicius), who became one of the most notable Latin poets of his time and was laureled by the Pope. Other writers such as Mikołaj Rej and Jan Kochanowski laid the foundations for a Polish literary language and modern Polish grammar. Poeta Laureatus Klemens Janicki, Ianicius - 1516-1543, one of most outstanding Latin poets of XVI century. ... Binomial name Laurus nobilis L. The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or just Laurel, is an evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region. ... MikoÅ‚aj Rej MikoÅ‚aj Rej or MikoÅ‚aj Rey of NagÅ‚owice, Poland (4 February 1505 - between 8 September and 5 October 1569), was one of the best known Polish poets and writers of the Renaissance. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ...


Notable Polish writers and poets active in the 16th century included: (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

Mikołaj Rej Mikołaj Rej or Mikołaj Rey of Nagłowice, Poland (4 February 1505 - between 8 September and 5 October 1569), was one of the best known Polish poets and writers of the Renaissance. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ... Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski (Andreus Fricius Modrevius) (ca. ... Poeta Laureatus Johannes Dantiscus, also Johann(es) von Höfen or Johann(es) Flachsbinder, Polish: , was born 1 October 1485 in Danzig (Gdańsk) and died 27 October 1548 in Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg) and is known as a Father of Polish Diplomacy. ... Poeta Laureatus Klemens Janicki, Ianicius - 1516-1543, one of most outstanding Latin poets of XVI century. ... Andrzej Krzycki herbu Kotwicz (1482-1537) was a Renaissance Polish writer and archbishop. ... Szymon Szymonowic, Simon Simonides (born 24 october 1558 in Lwow – died. ... Łukasz Górnicki (born 1527 in Oświęcim, died 22 July 1603 in Lipniki by Tykocin), Polish humanist, writer, secretary and chancellor of Sigismund August of Poland. ... Skargas Sermon, by Jan Matejko, 1862, oil on canvas, 224 x 397 cm. ... Poeta Laureatus Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski. ... Mikołaj Hussowski (1480–1533) was a Polish Renaissance writer. ...

Enlightenment to the present

Writers and novelists

Main article: List of Polish language authors List of Polish language authors This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Writers in chronological order of birth:

Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Noble Family Potocki Coat of Arms PiÅ‚awa Parents StanisÅ‚aw Potocki Anna Teresa OssoliÅ„ska Consorts Julia Lubomirska Konstancja Potocka Children with Julia Lubomirska Alfred Wojciech Potocki Artur Potocki with Konstancja Potocka Bernard Potocki Irena Potocka Teresa Potocka Date of Birth March 3, 1761 Place of Birth Leżajsk... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Józef Ignacy Kraszewski Józef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812-1887) was a Polish writer and novelist. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Eliza Orzeszkowa (1842-1910 ), Polish novelist, was born near Grodno, of the noble family of PawÅ‚owski. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Henryk Oszyk-Sienkiewicz Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Oszyk-Sienkiewicz (pronounce: ) (May 5, 1846 - November 15, 1916) was a Polish novelist, one of the outstanding writers of the second half of the 19th century. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Stefan Jelita-Å»eromski Stefan Å»eromski ((?); October 14, 1864 - November 20, 1925) was a Polish novelist. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw StanisÅ‚aw Reymont (May 7, 1867 – December 5, 1925) (the actual name was Rejment) was a Polish writer who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1924. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Graves of Julian Tuwim and Zofia NaÅ‚kowska in PowÄ…zki Cemetery in Warsaw Zofia NaÅ‚kowska (1884, Warsaw, Poland - 1954, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish writer. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maria DÄ…browska [] (6 October 1889 in Russów – 19 May 1965 in Warsaw) was a Polish writer. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Self portrait of Schulz Bruno Schulz (July 12, 1892 – November 19, 1942) was a Polish/Ukrainian novelist and painter, widely considered to be one of the greatest Polish prose stylists of the 20th century. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Józef Mackiewicz (April 1, 1902 - January 31, 1985) was a prominent Polish language writer and publicist. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Witold Gombrowicz (August 4, 1904, MaÅ‚oszyce, near Kielce, Poland – July 24, 1969, Vence, near Nice, France) was a Polish novelist and dramatist active from the 1930s until the end of his life. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Eugeniusz Å»ytomirski (1911–1975) a Polish poet, playwright, novelist. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... StanisÅ‚aw Lem in 1966. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tadeusz Konwicki, Warsaw (Poland), May 18, 2005 Tadeusz Konwicki (born 1926) is a Polish writer, and film director, a member of the Polish Language Council. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Janusz Andrzej Zajdel (August 15, 1938 – July 19, 1985) was a Polish science fiction author born in Warsaw. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrzej Sapkowski Andrzej Sapkowski, born June 21, 1948 in Łódź, is a Polish fantasy writer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Andrzej Stasiuk (born 25 September 1960 in Warsaw, Poland) is one of the most successful and internationally acclaimed contemporary Polish writers, journalists and literary critics. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Olga Tokarczuk (born 29 January 1962 in Sulechów near Zielona Góra, Poland) is one of the most critically acclaimed and commercially succesful Polish writers of her generation, particularly noted for the hallmark mythical tone of her writing. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Rafał A. Ziemkiewicz The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Andrzej Majewski, born in 1966 in WrocÅ‚aw, is an outstanding polish aphorist, writer, columnist and photographer. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... MasÅ‚owska (right) on a cover of Polityka weekly Dorota MasÅ‚owska [dÉ”rÉ”ta maswÉ”fska] (born 1983) is a Polish writer and journalist. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Poets

Main article: List of Polish language poets Poets who have written much of their poetry in the Polish language. ...

Biernat of Lublin (Polish: Biernat z Lublina, 1465? – after 1529) was a Polish poet, fabulist and physician. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... MikoÅ‚aj Rej MikoÅ‚aj Rej or MikoÅ‚aj Rey of NagÅ‚owice, Poland (4 February 1505 - between 8 September and 5 October 1569), was one of the best known Polish poets and writers of the Renaissance. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Jan Kochanowski Jan Kochanowski (1530 - August 22, 1584) was a Polish Renaissance poet and writer. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Poeta Laureatus Klemens Janicki, Ianicius - 1516-1543, one of most outstanding Latin poets of XVI century. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Ignacy Krasicki Ignacy Krasicki (February 3, 1735, in Galicia — March 14, 1801, in Berlin) was a Polish prince of the Roman Catholic Church, a social critic, a leading writer, and the outstanding poet of the Polish Enlightenment, hailed by contemporaries as the Prince of Poets. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Adam Mickiewicz. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Noble Family KrasiÅ„ski Coat of Arms Åšlepowron Parents Wincenty KrasiÅ„ski Maria Urszula RadziwiÅ‚Å‚. Consorts Eliza Branicka Children with Eliza Branicka Wladyslaw KrasiÅ„ski Zygmunt Jerzy Krasinski Maria Beatrix Krasinska Eliza Krasinska Date of Birth February 19, 1812 Place of Birth Paris Date of Death February 23, 1859 Place... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Categories: Literature stubs | 1821 births | 1883 deaths | Polish painters | Polish poets | Polish writers ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... BolesÅ‚aw LeÅ›mian (born BolesÅ‚aw Lesman; 1878-1937) was a Polish poet, artist and member of the Polish Academy of Literature. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jan Brzechwa, real name Jan Lesman-No!! Jan Lesmian was another polish poet !!!! (August 15, 1900 – July 2, 1966) was a Polish poet and author, mostly known for his contribution to childrens literature. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Miron BiaÅ‚oszewski (July 30, 1922 - 17 June 1983), born in Warsaw, Poland, was a Polish poet, novelist, playwright and actor. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Julian Tuwim (September 13, 1894 – December 27, 1953) was a Polish poet of Jewish descent; born in the city of Łódź in Poland, educated in Łódź and Warsaw (studied Law and Philosophy at Warsaw University). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Broniewski (December 17, 1897 - February 10, 1962) was a Polish poet and soldier. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Konstanty Ildefons GaÅ‚czyÅ„ski. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz in September 1999 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz (1911-2004), Cracow (Poland), December 1998 CzesÅ‚aw MiÅ‚osz( ); (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004) was a Polish poet and essayist. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Eugeniusz Å»ytomirski (1911–1975) a Polish poet, playwright, novelist. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... WisÅ‚awa Szymborska WisÅ‚awa Szymborska (born July 2, 1923, Bnin (now a district of Kórnik), Poland) is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Andrzej Bursa (born March 21, 1932 in Krakow, died November 15, 1957) was a Polish poet and writer. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Halina PoÅ›wiatowska (May 9, 1935, CzÄ™stochowa, Poland - October 11, 1967, Warsaw, Poland) - Polish poet and writer, one of the most important figures in modern Polish literature. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... RafaÅ‚ Wojaczek (1945-1971) was a Polish poet of the postwar generation. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... Ewa Lipska, born October 8, 1945, in Kraków, a Polish poet from the generation of the Polish New Wave. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Grazyna Miller (1957) is a poet born in Poland. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cezary GeroÅ„ (1960-1998) was a Polish poet, journalist, translator and teacher. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Andrzej Majewski, born in 1966 in WrocÅ‚aw, is an outstanding polish aphorist, writer, columnist and photographer. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...

Essayists

BolesÅ‚aw Prus BolesÅ‚aw Prus (pronounced: [bÉ”lεswaf prus]; August 20, 1847 – May 19, 1912), born Aleksander GÅ‚owacki, was a Polish journalist, short-story writer, and novelist. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... PaweÅ‚ Huelle (b. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (born March 4, 1932 in PiÅ„sk) is a popular Polish journalist, both at home and abroad. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Jerzy Pilch (born 10 August 1952 in WisÅ‚a, Poland) is one of the most important contemporary Polish writers and journalists. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

See also

This is a partial list of famous Polish, Polish-speaking/writing people, and people born in Poland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Skamander was a Polish group of experimental poets founded in 1919 by Julian Tuwim, Antoni Słonimski, Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. ... The Three Bards (Polish trzej wieszcze) are the three national poets of Polish literature. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Polish Literature (5032 words)
Of the literature of Poland before the advent of Christianity (965) very few traces indeed are extant.
At this period, too, the Jesuit Skarga, the purest embodiment of Polish patriotism in literature, preached and wrote, calling upon all Poles to save their country, though that country was then so powerful that his cry of alarm was like the voice of a prophet.
Poles had come to be ignorant of any other literature, and the pseudo-classic taste of the time, together with the glamour of Napoleon's victories, had an excessive influence upon both literature and politics, upon language and social life.
Polish literature - definition of Polish literature in Encyclopedia (52 words)
Polish literature - definition of Polish literature in Encyclopedia
Czesław Miłosz (June 30, 1911 – August 14, 2004), Nobel Prize in Literature in 1980
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