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Encyclopedia > Polish government in Exile
Polish Secret State
Kotwica
History of Poland
The authorities
Government
Administration
Parliament
Courts
Political organizations
1PPS (socialists)
2SL (agrarian party)
3SN (right-wing party)
SP (Christian democrats)
4PPR (communists)
5Bund and Hatzoar (Jewish left)
6Betar (Zionist)
ONR (right-wing)
Falanga (extreme right)
SD (centrist)
Military organizations
ZWZ
Armia Krajowa
Szare Szeregi
1MR PPR-WRN and GL WRN
2KB and BCh
3NOW and NSZ
4GL and AL
5ŻOB
6ŻZW
Others
Press and Media
Education
See also:
History of Poland (1939–1945)
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The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. The Polish Government in Exile commanded Polish armed forces operating in Poland and abroad during the war. Though largely unrecognized and without effective power after World War II, it remained in existence until the end of Communist rule in Poland in 1990, when it formally passed on its responsibilities to the new government. Polish Secret State (also known as Polish Underground State; Polish Polskie Państwo Podziemne) is a term coined by Jan Karski in his book Story of a Secret State; it is used to refer to all underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian. ... Image File history File links Flaga_PPP.svg‎ pl: Flaga Armi Krajowej en: Flag of the Armia Krajowa File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Polish contribution to World War II Armia Krajowa History of Poland (1939–1945... Main article: Polish government in exile On 1 September 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Government Delegates Office at Home (Polish Delegatura Rządu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na Kraj) was one of the agendas of the Polish Government in Exile during World War II. It was the highest authority of the Polish Secret State in occupied Poland and was headed by the Government Delegate... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Directorate of Civil Resistance (Polish Kierownictwo Walki Cywilnej, short KWC) was one of the branches of the Polish Government Delegate’s Office during World War II. Its main tasks were to maintain the morale of the Polish society, encourage the passive resistance, report German attrocities and cruelties to the... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples... Stronnictwo Ludowe (SL, Peoples Party) was a Polish political party, active from 1931 in the Second Polish Republic. ... The Polish Workers Party (Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR) was a communist party in Poland from 1942 to 1948. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... Hashomer Hatzair (or Hashomer Hatsair or HaShomer HaTzair) (Hebrew: The Young Guard or Guardian [that is] Young) is a Zionist-socialist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia (now in Poland) and was also the name of the groups political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British... The Betar Movement (ביתר, also spelled Beitar) is a youth movement founded in 1923 in Riga, Latvia, by Zionist leader Zeev Jabotinsky. ... Obóz Narodowo-Radykalny (National Radical Camp, ONR) was a Polish nationalist nazis political party, formed on May 14, 1934 mostly by the youth radicals who left the Narodowa Demokracja movement. ... Stronnictwo Demokratyczne (Democratic Party, SD) is a Polish centrist party established on April 15, 1939. ... ZwiÄ…zek Walki Zbrojnej (ZWZ; Association of Armed Struggle) was a cryptonym of the Polish Army formed in Poland after it was occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union as a resultof the Polish Defence War. ... The Armia Krajowa (Home Army) or AK functioned as the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II in German-occupied Poland, which was active in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Szare Szeregi (Polish for Grey Ranks) was a codename for the underground Polish Scouting Association (ZwiÄ…zek Harcerstwa Polskiego) during World War II. The organisation was created on September 27, 1939, in Warsaw and largely contributed to all resistance actions of the Polish Secret State and its members were among... PaÅ„stwowy Korpus BezpieczeÅ„stwa (Polish for National Security Corps, short PKB) was a Polish underground police force organized by the Armia Krajowa and Delegates Office under German occupation during World War II. It was trained as the core of the future police forces during the assumed all-national... Bataliony ChÅ‚opskie (BCh, Polish Peasants Battalions) was a Polish World War II resistance movement and partisan organisation. ... Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (English National Armed Forces, NSZ) was one of the Polish armed underground guerilla organizations, fighting Nazi German occupation in General Government. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a World War II resistance movement in Poland, organised by the Polish Workers Party. ... Armia Ludowa (AL, pronounced ; English Polish Peoples Army) was a Polish World War II resistance organisation. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Å»ydowski ZwiÄ…zek Wojskowy (Å»ZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union) was an underground organisation operating during World War II in the area of Warsaw Ghetto and fighting during Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. ... The history of Poland from 1939 through 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II. On September 1, 1939, without formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Main article: Polish government in exile On 1 September 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... This article is about the year. ...

Contents

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History

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Establishment

On September 17, 1939, the President of the Polish Republic, Ignacy Mościcki, who was then in the small town of Kosów near the southern Polish border, signed an act appointing Władysław Raczkiewicz, the Speaker of the Senate, as his successor. This was done in accordance with Article 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, adopted in April 1935, which provided as follows: September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Office Term of office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political party none (until 1892, Proletariat) Spouse Maria, née DobrzaÅ„ska Date of birth December 1, 1867 Place of birth Mierzanów, Poland Date of death October 2, 1946 Place of death Versoix... Term of Office from September 30, 1939 until June 6, 1947 Profession Lawyer Political Party none (BBWR) First Lady not married Date of Birth January 28, 1885 Place of Birth Kutaisi, Georgia Date of Death June 6, 1947 Place of Death Wales, United Kingdom WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Raczkiewicz (January 28... The April Constitution of Poland ( Polish Ustawa konstytucyjna 23 IV 1935) was the general law passed by the act of the Polish Sejm on April 23, 1935. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


"In event of war, the term of the President's office shall be extended until three months after the conclusion of peace; in such circumstances, the President of the Republic shall, by a special act promulgated in the Official Gazette, appoint his successor, in case the office should fall vacant before the conclusion of peace. Should the President's successor assume office, the term of his office shall expire at the end of three months after the conclusion of peace."


Raczkiewicz, who was already in Paris, immediately took his constitutional oath at the Polish Embassy and became President of the Republic of Poland. He then appointed General Władysław Sikorski to be Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounce ) was a Polish military and political leader. ...


Most of the Polish Navy had escaped to Britain before September 1, 1939, and tens of thousands of Polish soldiers and airmen escaped through Hungary and Romania or across the Baltic Sea to continue the fight in France and French-mandated Syria. Many Poles subsequently took part in Allied operations in Norway (Narvik), France, the Battle of Britain, the Battle of the Atlantic, North Africa (notably Tobruk), Italy (notably at Cassino and Ancona), Arnhem, Wilhelmshaven and elsewhere beside other Allied forces. Even after the fall of Poland, and before the Soviet Union's entry into the war, Poland remained the third strongest Allied belligerent, after France and Britain. (Other Polish military units, formed in the Soviet Union after Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, fought alongside, and under the command of, the Soviets.) September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... County Nordland Landscape Ofoten Municipality NO-1805 Administrative centre Narvik Mayor (2004) Olav Sigurd Alstad (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 29 2,023 km² 1,905 km² 0. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength 700+ Grew to nearly 1000 during end of the Battle. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... Tobruk or Tubruq (Arabic: طبرق; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Å¢ubruq, Tobruck ) is a town, seaport, municipality, and peninsula in eastern Libya in Northern Africa. ... Battle of Monte Cassino Conflict World War II, Italian Campaign Date January 17, 1944-May 19, 1944 Place Monte Cassino, Italy Result Allied victory The strategic position of Monte Cassino has made it the repeated scene of battles and sieges from antiquity. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of northeastern Italy, population 100,507 (2001). ... Operation Market Garden was an Allied military operation in World War II, which took place in September 1944. ... Wilhelmshaven is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ...

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Wartime history

Main article: History of Poland (1939-1945)

The Polish Government in Exile, based first in Paris and then in London, was recognized by all the Allied governments. Politically, it was a coalition of the Polish Peasant Party, the Polish Socialist Party and the National Democratic Party, although these parties maintained only a vestigial existence in the circumstances of exile. Main article: Polish government in exile On 1 September 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Polish Peasant Party (Polish: Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe) is a political party in Poland. ... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ...


When Germany attacked the Soviet Union in 1941, the Polish Government in Exile established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, despite Stalin's role in the earlier dismemberment of Poland. Hundreds of thousands of Polish soldiers who had been taken prisoner by the Soviets in eastern Poland in 1939, and many civilian Polish prisoners and deportees, were released and allowed to form military units ("Anders' Army") and evacuate to Iran and the Middle East, where they were desperately needed by the British, hard pressed by Rommel's Afrika Korps. These Polish units formed the basis for the Polish 2nd Corps, led by General Władysław Anders, which together with other, earlier-created Polish units fought alongside the Allies. This article is about the year. ... Stalin redirects here. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (November 15, 1891 – October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Polish II Corps Insignia. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ...


In April 1943 the Germans announced that they had discovered at Katyn Wood, near Smolensk, Russia, mass graves of 4,300 Polish officers who had been taken prisoner in 1939 and murdered by the Soviets. The Germans invited the International Red Cross to visit the site, and the graves were confirmed to contain the corpses of Polish officers who had been killed with Soviet weapons. The Soviet government said that the Germans had fabricated the discovery. The other Allied governments, for diplomatic reasons, formally accepted this; the Polish Government in Exile refused to do so. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Photo taken in 1943, during the Nazi German exhumations of the Polish dead from the Katyn forest sites. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the worlds largest group of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, often known simply as the Red Cross, after its original symbol. ...


Stalin then severed relations with the Polish Government in Exile. Since it was clear that it would be the Soviet Union, not the western Allies, who would liberate Poland from the Germans, this breach had fateful consequences for Poland. In an unfortunate coincidence, Sikorski, widely regarded as the most capable of the Polish exile leaders, was killed in an air crash at Gibraltar in July 1943. He was succeeded as head of the Polish Government in Exile by Stanisław Mikołajczyk. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ...


During 1943 and 1944 the Allied leaders, particularly Winston Churchill, tried to bring about a resumption of talks between Stalin and the Polish Government in Exile. But these efforts broke down over several matters. One was the massacre at Katyń (also Kalinin and Kharkiv). Another was Poland's postwar borders. Stalin insisted that the territories annexed by the Soviets in 1939, which had majority Ukrainian and Belarusian populations, should remain in Soviet hands, and that Poland should be compensated with lands to be annexed from Germany. Mikołajczyk, however, refused to compromise on the question of Poland's sovereignty over her prewar eastern territories. A third matter was Mikołajczyk's insistence that Stalin not set up a Communist government in postwar Poland. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Photo taken in 1943, during the Nazi German exhumations of the Polish dead from the Katyn forest sites. ... Kalinin refers to: Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin The city of Tver, which from 1931 to 1990 was named after Kalinin. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

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Postwar history

Main article: History of Poland (1945-1989)

In November 1944, despite his mistrust of the Soviets, Mikołajczyk resigned to return to Poland and take office in the new government established under the auspices of the Soviet occupation authorities. Many Polish exiles opposed this action, believing that this government was a façade for the establishment of Communist rule in Poland, a view that was later proven correct; after losing an election which was later shown to have been fraudulent, Mikołajczyk left Poland again in 1947. The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Meanwhile the Polish Government in Exile had maintained its existence, but the United States and the United Kingdom withdrew their recognition on July 6, 1945. The Polish Armed Forces in exile were disbanded in 1945, and most of their members, unable safely to return to Communist Poland, settled in other countries. A Polish exclave in Emsland, around Haren, Germany, existed till 1948. The London Poles had to vacate the Polish embassy on Portland Place and were left only with the president's private residence at 43 Eaton Place. The Government in Exile became largely symbolic of continued resistance to foreign occupation of Poland, while retaining some important archives from prewar Poland. Ireland, Spain and Vatican City (until 1979) were the last countries to recognize the Government in Exile. July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Emsland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Haren is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany in the district of Emsland. ...

Władysław Sikorski, first Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile
Władysław Sikorski, first Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile

In 1954, political differences led to a split in the ranks of the Government in Exile. One group, claiming to represent 80% of 500,000 anti-Communist Poles exiled since the war, was opposed to President August Zaleski's continuation in office when his seven-year term expired. It formed a Council of National Unity on July 31, 1954, and set up a Council of Three to exercise the functions of head of state, comprising Tomasz Arciszewski, General Władysław Anders, and Edward Raczyński. Only after Zaleski's death in 1972 did the two factions reunite. Sikorski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sikorski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August Zaleski (b. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council of Three (Polish Rada Trzech) was a collegial body created by the Polish Government in Exile in 1954 with prerogatives of the President of Poland. ... Tomasz Arciszewski (1877-1955) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile in London from 1944 to 1947, thus presiding over the period when the government lost the recognition of the Western Powers. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Anders Lt. ... Term of office from 1979 until 1986 Profession Lawyer Political party none Spouse Date of birth July 19, 1891 Place of birth Zakopane Date of death July 30, 1993 Place of death London Edward RaczyÅ„ski (1891-1993) was a Polish aristocrat, diplomat, politician and President of Poland in exile... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Some supporters of the Government in Exile eventually returned to Poland, such as Prime Minister Hugon Hanke in 1955 and his predecessor Stanisław Mackiewicz in 1956. The Warsaw government actively campaigned for the return of the exiles, promising decent and dignified employment and forgiveness of past transgressions. 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... StanisÅ‚aw Cat Mackiewicz (December 18, 1896 in Petersburg - February 18, 1966 in Warsaw) - Polish conservative writer, a monarchist, Member of Parliament (Sejm) 1928-1935, from BBWR faction. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite these setbacks, the Government in Exile continued in existence. When Communist rule came to an end in Poland in 1989, there was still a president and a cabinet of eight meeting every two weeks in London, commanding the loyalty of many of about 150,000 Polish veterans and their descendants living in Britain, including 35,000 in London alone. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December 1990, when Lech Wałęsa became the first post-Communist president of Poland, he received the symbols of the Polish Republic (the red presidential banner, the presidential and state seals, the presidential sashes, and the original text of the 1935 Constitution) from the last president of the Government in Exile, Ryszard Kaczorowski, thus re-establishing the continuity of the Republic and in effect retroactively recognizing the legitimacy of the Government in Exile. In 1992, military medals and other decorations awarded by the Government in Exile were officially recognized in Poland. This article is about the year. ... Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa ( ; in English often ; born September 29, 1943, Popowo, Poland) is a Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. ... Ryszard Kaczorowski Ryszard Kaczorowski (b. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

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Government and politics

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Presidents

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Term of Office from September 30, 1939 until June 6, 1947 Profession Lawyer Political Party none (BBWR) First Lady not married Date of Birth January 28, 1885 Place of Birth Kutaisi, Georgia Date of Death June 6, 1947 Place of Death Wales, United Kingdom Władysław Raczkiewicz (January 28... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... August Zaleski (b. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Stanisław Ostrowski Stanisław Ostrowski (b. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Term of office from 1979 until 1986 Profession Lawyer Political party none Spouse Date of birth July 19, 1891 Place of birth Zakopane Date of death July 30, 1993 Place of death London Edward Raczyński (1891-1993) was a Polish aristocrat, diplomat, politician and President of Poland in exile... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kazimierz Sabbat (February 27, 1913 - July 19, 1989), was a President of the Polish Government in Exile from the 8th of April, 1986 until his death, the 19th of July, 1989. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ryszard Kaczorowski Ryszard Kaczorowski (b. ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Prime ministers

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WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounce ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 180 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk StanisÅ‚aw MikoÅ‚ajczyk (1901 - 1966), Polish politician, was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile during World War II, and later Deputy Prime Minister in postwar Poland. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Tomasz Arciszewski (1877-1955) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister of the Polish government-in-exile in London from 1944 to 1947, thus presiding over the period when the government lost the recognition of the Western Powers. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... July 2 is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 182 days remaining. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Tadeusz Tomaszewski (born February 21, 1959 in Niechanowo) is a Polish politician. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... StanisÅ‚aw Cat Mackiewicz (December 18, 1896 in Petersburg - February 18, 1966 in Warsaw) - Polish conservative writer, a monarchist, Member of Parliament (Sejm) 1928-1935, from BBWR faction. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Aleksander Zawisza (1896-1977) was the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Zygmunt Muchniewski (1896–1979) was a Polish politician who headed the Christian Democracy party and was the Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile from 16 July 1970–August 1972. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Kazimierz Sabbat (February 27, 1913 - July 19, 1989), was a President of the Polish Government in Exile from the 8th of April, 1986 until his death, the 19th of July, 1989. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Franciszek Szczepanik, (August 22, 1915 – 11 October 2005, in Worcestershire) was a Polish economist and the last Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

Armed forces

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Poland: First to Fight (poster, 1939). ...

See also

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The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... The Council of Three (Polish Rada Trzech) was a collegial body created by the Polish Government in Exile in 1954 with prerogatives of the President of Poland. ... Henryk Leon Strasburger (1887-1951) was a Polish economist and politician in Danzig (today Gdańsk), a Polish delegate to the League of Nations, and also a member of the Polish government in exile during World War II. According to the New York Times, he was among the earliest and...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Polish government in exile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1457 words)
The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939.
Many Polish exiles opposed this action, believing that this government was a façade for the establishment of Communist rule in Poland, a view that was later proven correct; after losing an election which was later shown to have been fraudulent, Mikołajczyk left Poland again in 1947.
The Polish Armed Forces in exile were disbanded in 1945, and most of their members, unable safely to return to Communist Poland, settled in other countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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