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Encyclopedia > Polish Corridor

Polish Corridor (German: Polnischer Korridor; Polish: Korytarz gdański) was the term used between the World Wars to refer to the Polish territory which separated the German exclave of East Prussia from the German province of Pomerania. The area belonged to the Polish state which regained independence after World War I, as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. The "corridor" consisted of the part of Polish Pomerania along the Vistula River, forming the Pomeranian Voivodeship but excluding the Free City of Danzig. Soldiers of the Greater Polish Army The Greater Poland Uprising of 1918–1919, or Wielkopolska Uprising of 1918–1919 (Polish: powstanie wielkopolskie 1918–19 roku; German: Großpolnischer Aufstand) or Posnanian War was a military insurrection of Poles in the Greater Poland (also called the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„ or... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and... Administrative division pf Polish territories during WWII can be divided into several phases, when territories of the Second Polish Republic were administered first by the Nazi Germany (in the west) and Soviet Union (in the east), then by Nazi Germany (following Operation Barbarossa) and finally Soviet Union again. ... Left to right: General Secretary of the Communist Party Joseph Stalin, President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom . ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Territorial changes of Poland after World War II have been very extensive. ... The Treaty of Zgorzelec or the Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the German Democratic Republic concerning the demarcation of the established and existing Polish-German state border was signed in Zgorzelec, Lower Silesia, Poland on July 6, 1950 by the prime ministers Józef Cyrankiewicz of Poland and... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... The Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany on the Confirmation of the Existing Border between Them was signed on November 14, 1990. ... The Curzon Line was a demarcation line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a possible armistice line between Poland, to the west, and Soviet Russia to the east, during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–20. ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Kresy Zachodnie - (Polish: Western Borderlines) - term used by Poles, mostly in historical context, to refer to western parts of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, that after Partitions of Poland were annexed by Prussia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... Zaolzie (Czech: , Polish: , literally: Trans-Olza River Silesia) was an area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia, west of Cieszyn. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... World War I After World War I and the collapse of the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, Poland became an independent republic. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomerania. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Pomeranian Voivodeship 1919-1939 // This was a unit of administration and local government in the Republic of Poland (II Rzeczpospolita) established in 1919 after World War I from the majority of the Prussian province of West Prussia which fell to Poland. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ...

Contents

Background

Giving Poland access to the sea was one of the guarantees proposed by the United States President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points of 1918. The thirteenth of Wilson's points was: Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.[1]

Rationale

The transfer of this territory to Poland in 1920 was justified on these grounds:

  • Historical: The area had been part of the state of Poland (and later the Duchy of Pomerania) from its creation at the end of the 10th century until 1772[2] with the exception of 1309-1454 when the Teutonic Knights ruled Pomerelia. According to the Peace of Toruń (1466), this area became part of the Polish-Lithuanian union as Royal Prussia in 1466. Over 300 years later it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Partition of Poland in 1772.
  • Economic and political: It was argued that if the newly independent Polish state did not have an outlet to the Baltic Sea, it would be economically and therefore politically dependent on Germany. Since the United Kingdom and France wanted a strong Polish state as a counter-weight to Germany, they accepted this argument.

For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Pomerelia (German: ) is a historical region in northern Poland. ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina Bydgoszcz Established before 1238 City Rights 1346/1349 Government  - Mayor Konstanty Dombrowicz Area  - City 174. ... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ...

Percentage of Ethnic Composition

A Polish map showing the territory called the Polish Corridor
Percentage of the German population in the corridor at its creation in 1921.[3] The German population gradually decreased because of the right of ethnic Germans to opt for German citizenship. The names of the towns in German language are provided in parentheses.
County Population German population Percentage of population
Działdowo (Soldau) 23,290 8,187 34,5 %
Lubawa (Löbau) 59,765 4,478 7,6 %
Brodnica (Strasburg) 61,180 9,599 15,7%
Wąbrzeźno (Briesen) 47,100 14,678 31,1%
Toruń (Thorn) 79,247 16,175 20,4%
Chełmno (Kulm) 46,823 12,872 27,5%
Świecie (Schwetz) 83,138 20,178 20,3%
Grudziądz (Graudenz) 77,031 21,401 27,8%
Tczew (Dirschau) 62,905 7,854 12,5%
Wejherowo (Neustadt) 71,692 7,857 11,0%
Kartuzy (Karthaus) 64,631 5,037 7,8%
Kościerzyna (Berent) 49,935 9,290 18,6%
Starogard Gdański (Preußisch Stargard) 62,400 5,946 9,5%
Chojnice (Konitz) 71,018 13,129 18,5%
Tuchola (Tuchel) 34,445 5,660 16,4%
Sępólno Krajeńskie (Zempelburg) 27,876 13,430 48,2%

File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... DziaÅ‚dowo (German: ) is a town in north-central Poland with 20,830 inhabitants (2004). ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmian-Masurian Municipal government Rada Miasta Lubawa Mayor Edmund Antoni Standara Area 16,84 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 9 726 (2004) none -/km² Founded City rights 12th century 1250 Latitude Longitude N 53°30 E 19°45 Area code +48 89 Car plates  ? Twin towns none... Brodnica is a town in northern Poland with 27,400 inhabitants (1995). ... WÄ…brzeźno (formerly known by its German name Briesen when it was part of Prussia) is a city (14. ... Motto: Durabo (lat. ... CheÅ‚mno (older English: ; German: ) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land (Culmerland). ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bridge over Vistula River (19th century) Tczew (German: ; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Dërszewò) is a town on the Vistula river in Eastern Pomerania, Kociewie, northern Poland with 60,128 inhabitants (1 January 2005). ... Wejherowo (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Wejrowò, German: formerly Neustadt in Westpreußen), is a town in Eastern Pomerania, northern Poland, with 47,000 inhabitants (1 October 2006). ... Kartuzy (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Kartuzë; see also Cities alternative names) is a town in the Kashubia or Eastern Pomerania region, northwestern Poland, with some 16,000 inhabitants. ... KoÅ›cierzyna (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Kòscérzëna, former German: ) is a town in Kashubia in GdaÅ„sk Pomerania region, northern Poland, with some 24,000 inhabitants. ... Starogard GdaÅ„ski (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Starogarda; German Preussisch Stargard) is a town in Eastern Pomerania in north-western Poland with 50,700 inhabitants (1998). ... Chojnice is a town in northern Poland with 40,600 inhabitants (2000), near famous Tuchola Forests, Lake Charzykowskie and many other water reservoirs. ... Tuchola is a town in Pomerania, northern Poland in the center of Tuchola forests. ... SÄ™pólno KrajeÅ„skie (German: ) is a town in Poland, in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, about 63 km northwest of Bydgoszcz. ...

German viewpoint

In the post-World War I period, the primarily German-speaking seaport of Danzig (Gdańsk) became the Free City of Danzig and was placed under the protection of the League of Nations, without consulting the local populace. Taking advantage of the corridor and reducing their dependence on Danzig, the Poles built a new seaport at Gdynia. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Pomeranian Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Flag of Danzig The Free City of Danzig refers to either of two short-lived city-states which were centered on the present-day Baltic port known as GdaÅ„sk (German: Danzig). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ...


Following the creation of the Polish Corridor, the German province of East Prussia became an exclave. In 1922 the Seedienst Ostpreußen ("Sea Service East Prussia") was established by the German Ministry for Transport to have a ferry connection to East Prussia that was not dependent on the transit through Polish territory. Throughout the 1920s and especially the 1930s, according to German propaganda, German planes and buses were reported to have been shot at by Polish police and militia while passing through or flying over the Polish Republic's territory on their way to or from German East Prussia.[citation needed] East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


The creation of the corridor aroused great resentment in Germany, and all post-war German Weimar governments refused to recognize the eastern borders agreed on at Versailles. The German statesman Gustav Stresemann, for instance, known for his policy of conciliation with the Western Allies, several times declared that Germany's eastern borders would have to be revised, and refused to follow Germany's acknowledgment of its western borders in the Treaty of Locarno of 1925 with a similar declaration with respect to its eastern borders.[citation needed]. Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the Weimar Republic. ... The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of central and eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nazi Era

The Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, took power in Germany in 1933 through the Machtergreifung. Hitler at first ostentatiously pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland,[citation needed] culminating in the ten year Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact of 1934. In the coming years, Germany placed an emphasis on rearmament, as did Poland and other European powers. [4] [5] Regardless, the Nazis were able to achieve their immediate goals without provoking armed conflict; in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss and the Sudetenland after the Munich Agreement. In October 1938, Germany tried to get Poland to join the Anti-Comintern Pact. Poland refused, as the alliance was quickly becoming a sphere of influence for an increasingly powerful Germany. [6] The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945 that was known as the German Workers Party before the name was changed in 1920. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Machtergreifung is a German word meaning seizure of power. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... The German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact (German: ; Polish: [1] [2] ) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic signed on January 26, 1934. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Sudetenland (Czech and Polish: Sudety) was the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the Western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ...


Following negotiations with Hitler for the Munich Agreement, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain reported that, "He told me privately, and last night he repeated publicly, that after this Sudeten German question is settled, that is the end of Germany's territorial claims in Europe".[7] Almost immediately following the agreement, however, Hitler reneged. The Nazis increased their requests for the incorporation of the Free State of Danzig into the Reich, citing the "protection" of the German majority as a motive.[8] In November 1938, Danzig's district administrator, Albert Forster reported to the League of Nations that Hitler had told him Polish frontiers would be guaranteed if the Poles were "reasonable like the Czechs." German State Secretary Ernst von Weizsäcker reaffirmed this alleged guarantee in December 1938.[9] This article is about the British prime minister. ... Albert Forster, Gauleiter of Danzig. ... Ernst Freiherr von Weizsäcker (born May 25, 1882 in Stuttgart, died August 4, 1951 in Lindau) was a German diplomat. ...


The situation regarding the Free State of Danzig and the Polish Corridor created a number of headaches for German and Polish Customs.[10] The Germans requested the construction of an extra-territorial highway and railway through the Polish Corridor, connecting East Prussia to Danzig and Germany proper. Poland agreed on building a German highway and to allow German railway traffic.[citation needed] However, no agreement was reached concerning the Free State of Danzig. Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...


This seemed to conflict with Hitler's plans and with Poland's rejection of the Anti-Comintern Pact, his desire to either isolate or gain support against the Soviet Union.[citation needed] German newspapers in Danzig and Nazi Germany played an important role inciting nationalist sentiment; headlines buzzed about how Poland was misusing its economic rights in Danzig and German Danzigers were increasingly subjugated to the will of the Polish state.[11] At the same time, Hitler also offered Poland additional territory as an enticement, such as the possible annexation of Lithuania, the Memel Territory, Soviet Ukraine and Czech inhabited lands.[12] [13] However, Polish leaders continued to fear for the loss of their independence and a shared fate with Czechoslovakia, although they had also taken part in its partitioning. [14] Some felt that the Danzig question was inextricably tied to the problems in the Polish Corridor and any settlement regarding Danzig would be one step towards the eventual loss of Poland's access to the sea. [15] Nevertheless, Hitler's credibility outside of Germany was very low after the occupation of Czechoslovakia. Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia The Klaipėda Region (Lithuanian: ) or Memel Territory (German: ; French: ) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 when it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ...


In 1939, Nazi Germany made another attempt to renegotiate the status of Danzig; the city was to be incorporated into the Reich while the Polish section of the population was to be "evacuated" and resettled elsewhere.[16] Poland was to retain a permanent right to use the seaport and the route through the Polish Corridor was to be constructed. However, the Poles distrusted Hitler and saw the plan as a threat to Polish sovereignty, practically subordinating Poland to the Axis and the Anti-Comintern Bloc while reducing the country to a state of near-servitude. [17] [18] Additionally, Poland was backed by guarantees of support from both the United Kingdom and France in regards to Danzig. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


A revised and less favorable proposal came in the form of an ultimatum made by the Nazis in late August, after the orders had already been given to attack Poland on September 1, 1939. Nevertheless, at midnight on August 29, Joachim von Ribbentrop handed British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson a list of terms which would allegedly ensure peace in regards to Poland. Danzig was to return to Germany and there was to be a plebiscite in the Polish Corridor; all Poles who were born or settled there since 1919 would have no vote, while all Germans born but not living there would. An exchange of minority populations between the two countries was proposed. If Poland accepted these terms, Germany would agree to the British offer of an international guarantee, which would include the Soviet Union. A Polish plenipotentiary, with full powers, was to arrive in Berlin and accept these terms by noon the next day. The British Cabinet viewed the terms as "reasonable," except the demand for a Polish Plenipotentiary, which was seen as similar to Czechoslovak President Emil Hácha accepting Hitler’s terms in mid-March 1939. An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... Sir Neville Henderson Sir Neville Henderson (1882-1942) British Ambassador to Germany (1937-39) PERHAPS ONE OF the least understood personalities central to the political history of the Second World War is Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson (1882 – 1941). ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... Emil Hácha (July 12, 1872 – June 26, 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia, taking office in 1938, and the first and only State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. ...


When Ambassador Józef Lipski went to see Ribbentrop on August 30, he was presented with Hitler’s demands. However, he did not have the full power to sign and Ribbentrop ended the meeting. It was then broadcasted that Poland had rejected Germany's offer. [19] Józef Lipski (c. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, and German forces captured the corridor during the Battle of Bory Tucholskie by 5 September. Other notable battles were at Westerplatte, the Polish post office in Danzig, Oksywie, and Hel. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalev (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... The Battle of Bory Tucholskie, in July of 1944, took place in Lovrejs, between the 57th Europa Armored Brigade, and the 1st Giovanni Lee Army. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Henryk Sucharski (nominal) Franciszek Dąbrowski (de-facto) Friedrich Eberhardt (land) Gustav Kleikamp (sea) Strength 182 soldiers 25 civilians 1 M1902 gun 2 Bofors 37 mm AT guns 4 Brandt 81 mm mortars 41 MGs 3,500 soldiers 47-70 Stuka dive bombers 65 guns... The Defense of the Polish Post Office in Danzig (today Gdańsk) was one of the first battles of the Polish September Campaign, and of the World War II in Europe. ... Oksywie in early 20th century Oksywie (German: ) is a neighbourhood of the city of Gdynia. ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Battle of Hel was one of the longest battles of the Polish Defence War of 1939 in 1939. ...


Postwar era

At the 1945 Potsdam Conference following the German defeat in World War II, Poland's borders were reorganized at the insistence of the Soviet Union, which occupied the entire area. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line, including the corridor and Danzig, were put under Polish administration. East Germany recognised this border in 1953, West Germany recognised it with the Treaty of Warsaw (1970), and re-unified Germany did so in 1990 with the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin Language(s) German Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1949 – 1960 Wilhelm Pieck  - 1960 – 1973 Walter Ulbricht  - 1973 – 1976 Willi Stoph  - 1976 – 1989 Erich Honecker  - 1989 Egon Krenz  - 1989 - 1990 Manfred Gerlach Head of Government  - 1949 – 1964 Otto Grotewohl  - 1964 – 1973 Willi Stoph... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and...


Trivia

In 1933, H. G. Wells criticized the idea of the corridor in his 1933 science fiction novel The Shape of Things to Come H.G. Wells on the Polish Corridor (WikiSource). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Shape of Things to Come is a work of science fiction by H. G. Wells, published in 1933, which speculates on future events from 1933 until the year 2106. ...


References

  1. ^ The text of Woodrow's Fourteen Points Speech
  2. ^ see Kingdom of Poland (1025–1138) and Kingdom of Poland (1138–1320)
  3. ^ Richard Blanke, Orphans of Versailles: The Germans in Western Poland 1918-1939, University of Kentucky Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8131-1803-4, page 244 (Appendix B.Population of Western Poland) University Press of Kentucky 1993
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ [3]
  7. ^ [4]
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The Kingdom of Poland of the first Piasts was the Polish state in the years between the coronation of BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave in 1025 and the death of BolesÅ‚aw III the Wrymouth in 1138. ... Coat of arms Poland during the Period of Fragmentation Capital Kraków, PoznaÅ„ Language(s) Polish (spoken) Latin (written) Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1138  - Disestablished 1320 The Kingdom of Poland during period of fragmentation was the Polish state in the years between the death of BolesÅ‚aw...

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