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Encyclopedia > Polio
Poliovirus

Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Picornaviridae
Genus: Enterovirus
Species: Poliovirus

Poliomyelitis ("polio"), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. The causative agent, a virus called poliovirus (PV), enters the body orally, infecting the intestinal lining. It may proceed to the blood stream and into the central nervous system causing muscle weakness and often paralysis. Pubtjyujgykkjkjj File links The following pages link to this file: Polio Rhinovirus Enterobacteria phage T2 HTDV Reoviridae Picornaviridae Human respiratory syncytial virus Papillomavirus Wikipedia:Stub and disambiguation message example Wikipedia:Template messages/Stubs Ebola Reston Wikipedia:Stub categories Vibrio vilnificus Virus cancer link Wikipedia:Template messages/All Enterovirus Wikipedia:Template... Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Species Polio virus Coxsackie virus Echo virus The enteroviruses are a genus of (+)ssRNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The vertebrate central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is a contractile form of tissue. ...


Date: Number of cases: [1] [2] [3]


1988: 350,000


1999: 7,083


2004: 1300


2005: 649 (as of July 2005)

Contents


History

The effects of a polio infection have been known since prehistory. Egyptian paintings and carvings depict otherwise healthy people with withered limbs, walking with canes at a young age, etc. The Roman Emperor Claudius was stricken as a child and walked with a limp for the rest of his life. United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt contracted polio in 1921 and was paralyzed from the waist down as a result. The first medical report on poliomyelitis was by Jakob Heine in 1840. Karl Oskar Medin was the first to empirically study a poliomyelitis epidemic in 1890. The work of these two physicians has led to the disease being known as the Heine-Medin disease. Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history including all previous history before humans which is prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... A statue of Emperor Claudius Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus (August 1, 10 BC - October 13, 54), originally known as Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24th 41 to his death in 54. ... Order: 32nd President Vice President: John N. Garner Henry A. Wallace Harry S. Truman Term of office: March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Preceded by: Herbert Hoover Succeeded by: Harry S. Truman Date of birth: January 30, 1882 Place of birth: Hyde Park, New York Date of death: April 12... Jakob (or Jacob) Heine (April 16, 1800, Lauterbach (Black Forest) – November 12, 1879, Cannstatt) was a German orthopaedist. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Karl Oskar Medin (August 14, 1847 – December 24, 1928) was a Swedish paediatrician. ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt was confined to a wheelchair after contracting Polio in 1921
Franklin D. Roosevelt was confined to a wheelchair after contracting Polio in 1921

Download high resolution version (1206x1238, 567 KB)http://teachpol. ... Download high resolution version (1206x1238, 567 KB)http://teachpol. ...

What is polio?

Polio (infantile paralysis) is a communicable disease which is categorized as a disease of civilization. Polio spreads through human-to-human contact, usually entering the body through the mouth due to fecally contaminated water or food. The poliovirus is a small RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has three different strains and is extremely infectious. The virus invades the nervous system, and the onset of paralysis can occur in a matter of hours. While polio can strike a person at any age, over fifty percent of the cases occurred to children between the ages of three and five. The incubation period of polio, from the time of first exposure to first symptoms, ranges from three to thirty five days. In medicine, infectious disease or communicable disease is disease caused by a biological agent (e. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. ... The word incubation (from Latin incubare, to lie upon - cf. ...


Polio can spread widely before physicians detect the first signs of a polio outbreak. Surprisingly, most people infected with the poliovirus have no symptoms or outward signs of the illness and are thus never aware they have been infected. After the person is exposed to the poliovirus, the virus is expelled through faeces for several weeks and it is during this time that a polio outbreak can occur in a community. The three strains of poliovirus result in non-paralytic polio, paralytic polio, and bulbar polio. In all forms of polio, the early symptoms of infection are fatigue, fever, vomiting, headache and pain in the neck and extremities. Bulbar Polio (Bulbar Poliomyelitis ) The result of an infection of one of the three strains of the poliovirus (PV). ...


Types of polio

Non-paralytic polio

Non-paralytic polio will result in fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, and irritability. Some muscle spasms in the neck and back, with muscles generally tender to the touch.


Spinal paralytic polio

This strain of the poliovirus attacks the spinal column where it destroys the anterior horn cells which control movement of the trunk and muscle limbs. Although this strain of the poliovirus can lead to permanent paralysis, less than one in two hundred with symptoms will result in paralysis. The most common paralysis will affect the legs. Once the poliovirus invades the intestines, it is absorbed by the capillaries in the walls of the intestine and is then carried by the bloodstream throughout the body. The poliovirus attacks the spinal column and the motor neurons -- which control physical movement. It is during this period of infection that flu-like symptoms occur; however, for people who have no immunity or have not been vaccinated, the virus usually goes on to infect the entire spinal column and the brain stem. This infection affects the central nervous system (CNS) -- spreading along nerve fibers. As the virus continues to multiply in the CNS, the virus destroys motor neurons. Motor neurons do not regenerate and any affected muscles will no longer respond to CNS commands. The most common paralysis occurs to the muscles of the legs. The result is that the limb becomes floppy and lifeless -- a condition known as acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). An extreme infection of the CNS can cause extensive paralysis of the trunk and muscles of the thorax and abdomen (quadriplegia). In vertebrates, motoneurons (also called motor neurons) are efferent neurons that originate in the spinal cord and synapse with muscle fibers to facilitate muscle contraction and with muscle spindles to modify proprioceptive sensitivity. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ... Quadriplegia is caused by damage to the spinal cord at a high level (e. ...


Bulbar polio

Bulbar polio is thought to be the result of a person having no natural resistance to the polio virus, the result being that the brain stem is allowed to be attacked. The brain stem contains the motor neurons that control breathing and the cranial nerves, which signal the various muscles that control eyeball movements; the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve which innervate cheeks, tears, gums, and muscles of the face, etc; the auditory nerve which provides hearing; the glossopharyngeal nerve which in part controls swallowing and functions in the throat; tongue movement and taste; and the nerve that sends signals to the heart, intestines, respiratory (lungs) and the accessory nerve that controls upper neck movement. Thus bulbar polio could affect any or all of these functions. Bulbar Polio (Bulbar Poliomyelitis ) The result of an infection of one of the three strains of the poliovirus (PV). ... Cranial nerves are nerves which emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ...


Without respiratory support, bulbar polio usually results in death. Of those who become infected, five to ten percent will die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Death usually occurs after damage to the cranial nerve responsible for sending the signal to breathe to the lungs. Bulbar victims may also die from damage to the swallowing function; a victim can drown in their own secretions unless adequately suctioned, or given a tracheostomy to suction secretions before the liquid enters the lungs. It is difficult to have a tracheostomy and still be able to tolerate the airtight collar of an iron lung. There may also be an overwhelming invasion of the virus into other parts of the brain causing coma and death. Tracheotomy is a surgical procedure used to cut a hole in the trachea through which a small tube is inserted. ... A mannequin in a typical iron lung with the cover open. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness, which may result from a variety of conditions including intoxication (drug, alcohol or toxins), metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, etc. ...


The mortality rate of bulbar polio ranges from twenty-five to seventy-five percent, with the variable being the age of the person. To this day there are still polio survivors who must spend their entire day or most of their day in an iron lung or attached to an assistive respiratory machine to stay alive. Bulbar polio and spinal polio often coexist. They are both a subclass of paralytic polio. Paralytic polio is not necessarily permanent. One can have had paralytic polio and recover seemingly normal function.


Polio and children

Young children who contract polio are likely to suffer only mild symptoms, and as a result they may become permanently immune to the disease. Hence inhabitants of areas with better sanitation may actually be more susceptible to polio because fewer people have the disease as young children.


People who have survived polio sometimes develop additional symptoms, notably muscle weakness and extreme fatigue, decades later; these symptoms are called post-polio syndrome. Since it's possible to have a polio infection without having significant paralysis, many people who are unaware they ever had polio may now be suffering from post-polio syndrome. Post-polio syndrome (PPS) (also properly but not commonly called post-polio sequelae) is a condition that can strike polio survivors anywhere from 10 to 40 years after their recovery from polio. ...


First effective vaccine

The first effective polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk, although it was the vaccine developed by Albert Sabin that was used for mass inoculation. The first inoculations of children against polio began in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on February 23, 1954. Through mass immunization, the disease was wiped out in the Americas, although it recently has re-appeared in Haiti, where political strife and poverty have interfered with vaccination efforts. [4] Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... Jonas Salk (October 28, 1914 - June 23, 1995) is the discoverer/inventor of the eponymous Salk vaccine (see polio vaccine). ... Albert Bruce Sabin (August 26, 1906 - March 3, 1993) is a renowned Polish-American medical researcher who is best-known for having developed the hugely successful oral vaccine for Polio. ... Nickname: The Steel City Location in Pennsylvania Founded  -Incorporated 1758   County Allegheny County Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Americas (sometimes referred to as America) is the area including the land mass located between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, generally divided into North America and South America. ...


Eradication efforts

1988

In 1988, the World Health Organization passed a resolution to eradicate polio by 2000, a measure which was inspired by Rotary International's 1985 pledge to raise $120 million toward immunizing all of the world's children against the disease. The current plan calls for a stop of spreading the virus by 2005. Most remaining polio infections are located in two areas: the Indian sub-continent and Nigeria. Eradication efforts in the Indian sub-continent have met with a large measure of success. The Indian Government started the Pulse-Polio Immunization Campaign to get rid of polio. Most families allowed their children to take the vaccine. Some Muslim families refused due to false rumors that the vaccine causes impotence or infertility or both. For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Logo of Rotary International Rotary International is an organisation whose members comprise Rotary Clubs (service clubs) located all over the world. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive, carry or deliver a healthy child. ...


2003

In the Kano province in Northern Nigeria, which operates under Sharia (Muslim religious law), the immunisation campaign was suspended in September 2003 when prominent Muslim leaders said they suspected that vaccines supplied by Western donors were adulterated to reduce fertility and spread HIV as part of a US-led drive against Islam. [5] On June 30, 2004, the WHO announced that Kano had pledged to restart the campaign in early July, after a 10-month ban during which the virus spread across Nigeria and into 10 other African countries that were previously polio-free. For other uses of the word Kano see Kano (disambiguation). ... Sharia (Arabic: also Sharīah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law also known as Allahs Law. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has a related story: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining, and the last day of June. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to the rumors of sterility and the ban by Nigeria's Kano state, civil war and internal strife in the countries of Sudan and Ivory coast have complicated WHO's polio eradication goal.


2004

The World Health Organization had hoped to wipe out the disease in 2004, but the number of cases rose to 1,185 in 17 countries up from 784 in 15 countries in 2003. Asia halved its toll, but cases doubled in Africa to 1,037. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, accounted for 763 cases, followed by India with 129 and Sudan with 112. For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


2005

From Polio cases for 2005, as of week 05 July 2005 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

 649 Global cases of poliovirus: 300 Yemen (importation) 194 Nigeria (endemic) 79 Indonesia (importation) 25 Sudan (re-established transmission) 20 India (endemic) 13 Ethiopia (importation) 10 Pakistan (endemic) 3 Afghanistan (endemic) 2 Niger (endemic) 1 Angola (importation) 1 Cameroon (importation) 1 Mali (importation) 

Nigeria

"Fifty-four new polio cases were recorded in Nigeria between February and April, a drop of nearly a half from last year, according to the World Health Organisation. The infection rate is down from the 91 cases recorded between Feb. 27 and 29 April 2004, WHO said in its weekly report obtained on Thursday. The report said nine new cases were confirmed in Yobe state and Nigeria's biggest city, Lagos -- the first in the southern region where WHO said there had been no fresh infections since September. WHO said improved control in the southern states and resumed immunisation in the north, where Muslim clerics led a boycott of vaccination in late 2003, explained the drop in new infections." [6] April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sudan

"Since the beginning of 2005, the ICRC's various primary health clinics have managed to immunize more than 99,000 children under five years of age against poliomyelitis. In all, 78,654 children were immunized in Darfur (Seleia, Zalingei, Kutum and Gereida) and 20,432 in southern Sudan (Yirol and Chelkou). The first case of the polio outbreak in Sudan was detected in May 2004. Since then, health organizations have registered cases in 17 of the 26 states of the country. The Sudanese health authorities have intensified the national immunization campaign and the ICRC has provided its support, particularly in conflict-affected regions." [7]


Yemen

"More than 40 new cases of polio have been confirmed in Yemen, the World Health Organization said yesterday, more new cases than in any other nation. ... Epidemiologists expect the 63 cases confirmed thus far in Yemen, a poor country on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula, to grow to more than 100 soon." nytimes 2005/05/11


India

India recorded 4,791 cases of polio in 1994, 1,600 in 2002, 225 in 2003, and 135 in 2004. [8] "Afghanistan, India and Pakistan are on target to eradicate polio in 2005, according to international health organizations." [9] 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Pakistan

"In 2003, we had around 103 reported cases of polio, which dropped by almost 50 percent in 2004 with a total of 53 cases registered. Now, so far in 2005, a total of only five polio cases have been reported, Jeffery Bates, polio communications officer at the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) told IRIN on Thursday, the concluding day of the national polio immunisation campaign." [10] 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


Indonesia

On May 5, 2005, news reports broke that a new case of polio was diagnosed in Java, Indonesia and the virus strain was suspected to be the same as the one that caused the outbreak in Nigeria. [11] [12] May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Map of Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


Social impact

In Benin, where some families reject vaccination on religious grounds, polio victims are informally tolerated to smuggle petrol from neighbouring Nigeria. The polio survivors ride their motor tricycles to the border, with the company of a mechanic that takes care of the machine and the rider. In Nigeria, they fill whatever receptacles they can carry and ride back. In spite of the illegality of the trade and the safety risk of moving around petrol in bottles, they are tolerated by the customs officers and the Beninese society. The polio victims have in their daily trips (one or two) a means of life with more dignity than begging, and that involves them in the community life instead of being outcasts. These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the DEA. Smuggling is illegal transport, in particular across a border. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... A tricycle is a three-wheeled vehicle. ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... Outcast is an action/adventure computer game by French developer Appeal, released in 1999 by publisher Infogrames. ...


Scandals

There were two proposed vaccines introduced before Jonas Salk's vaccine in 1953. In 1935 Maurice Brody, a research assistant at New York University, claimed to have discovered a vaccine procured from ground up monkey spinal cords. He tested the vaccine on himself and several of his assistants. He gave the vaccine to three thousand children and many had developed allergic reactions, but no immunity to polio. Other researchers could not replicate his experiment. Jonas Salk (October 28, 1914 - June 23, 1995) is the discoverer/inventor of the eponymous Salk vaccine (see polio vaccine). ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ...


John Kolmer also claimed to have developed a vaccine, and not only was that false, but it proved to be fatal to many children.


The Simian Virus known as SV40 was also present in many polio vaccines from 1954 to 1962. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have taken the lead in responding to questions on SV40 and polio vaccine. CDC states that SV40 markers have been found in certain types of human cancers, but it has not been determined if SV40 plays any role in these cancers. A recent report published by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that “the evidence is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship between SV40 containing polio vaccines and cancer.” There is a need for further research to answer questions that have been raised concerning this possible relationship. SV40 is an abbreviation for Simian vacuolating virus 40 or Simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. ...


More detailed information on SV40 and the polio vaccine can be found at the CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nip/vacsafe/concerns/cancer/default.htm.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Poliomyelitis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2267 words)
Polio (infantile paralysis) is a communicable disease which is categorized as a disease of civilization.
On May 5, 2005, news reports broke that a new case of polio was diagnosed in Java, Indonesia and the virus strain was suspected to be the same as the one that caused the outbreak in Nigeria.
The polio victims have in their daily trips (one or two) a means of life with more dignity than begging, and that involves them in the community life instead of being outcasts.
Polio Facts (882 words)
Polio is diagnosed by a blood test or culture.
Polio is most common in infants and young children, but complications occur most often in older persons.
Wild polio is naturally circulating polio that is not caused by the oral polio vaccine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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