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Encyclopedia > Police brutality
January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police

Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. The term may also be used to apply to such behavior when used by prison officers. Widespread, systematic police brutality exists in many countries, even those which prosecute it.[1] Brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which include false arrest, intimidation, racial profiling, political repression, surveillance abuse, sexual abuse, and police corruption. Image File history File links 1919_Battle_of_George_Square_-_David_Kirkwood_on_the_ground_after_being_struck_by_police_batons. ... Image File history File links 1919_Battle_of_George_Square_-_David_Kirkwood_on_the_ground_after_being_struck_by_police_batons. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... David Kirkwood, 1st Baron Kirkwood, PC (1872 - April 16, 1955) was a socialist from the East End of Glasgow, Scotland, viewed as a leading figure of the Red Clydeside era. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... A Correction officer is a person charged with the responsibility of the supervision of prisoners in a prison or jail. ... Police misconduct refers to brutality, corruption or other objectionable actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. ... False arrest is a common law tort, where a plaintiff alleges he or she was held in custody without reasonable cause or an order issued by a court of appropriate jurisdiction. ... Intimidation is generally used in the meaning of criminal threatening. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... “Bad Touch” redirects here. ... Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct sometimes involving political corruption, and generally designed to gain a financial or political benefit for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. ...

Contents

History

Throughout history, efforts to police societies have been marred by brutality to some degree. In the ancient world, policing entities actively cultivated an atmosphere of terror, and abusive treatment was meted out in the quest for subjugation and control. For example, the New Testament records many incidents in which Roman guards inflicted unwarranted violence on members of the growing Christian minority. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Military of ancient Rome (known to the Romans as the militia) relates to the combined military forces of Ancient Rome from the founding of the city of Rome to the end of the Western Roman Empire. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity...


In the English-speaking world, most modern police departments were first established in the nineteenth century, and in the early days cases of police brutality were frequent. In her book Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City, researcher Marilynn S. Johnson describes "the routine bludgeoning of citizens by patrolmen armed with nightsticks or blackjacks.".[2] Large-scale incidents of brutality were often associated with labor unrest, such as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, the Pullman Strike of 1894, the Lawrence textile strike of 1912, the Ludlow massacre of 1914, the Steel strike of 1919, and the Hanapepe massacre of 1922. Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, as well as by federal troops. ... Pullman Strike began on May 11, 1894. ... Massachusetts militiamen with fixed bayonets surround a parade of peaceful strikers Flyer distributed in Lawrence, September 1912 The Lawrence textile strike was a strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World. ... Ludlow massacre monument The Ludlow massacre was the death of about 20 people during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914. ... The Steel Strike of 1919 was an attempt by the weakened Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers (the AA) to organize the American steel industry in the wake of World War I. The strike was a failure. ... On September 9, 1924, toward the end of a long, drawn-out strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kauai, Hawaii, local police shot dead sixteen strikers in what came to be known later as the Hanapepe Massacre. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

March 7 1965: Alabama police attack Selma-to-Montgomery Marchers (Federal Bureau of Investigation photograph)
March 3, 1991: Rodney King beaten by LAPD officers
April 21 2001: Police fire CS gas at protesters during the Quebec City Summit of the Americas. The Commission for Public Complaints against the RCMP later concluded the use of tear gas against demonstrators at the summit constituted "excessive and unjustified force."

In the United States, the passage of the Volstead Act (popularly known as the National Prohibition Act) in 1919 had a long-term negative impact on policing practices. By the mid-1920's, crime was growing dramatically in response to the demand for illegal alcohol. Undermanned and with limited resources, many law enforcement agencies stepped up the use of unlawful practices. By the time of the Hoover administration (1929-1932), the issue had risen to national concern and a National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement (popularly known as the Wickersham Commission) was formed to look into the situation.[3] The resulting "Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement" (1931) concluded that "[t]he third degree--that is, the use of physical brutality, or other forms of cruelty, to obtain involuntary confessions or admissions--is widespread."[4] In the years following the report, landmark legal judgements such as Brown v. Mississippi helped to cement a legal obligation to respect the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.[5] Bloody Sunday (1965) - Alabama police attack Obtained from http://www. ... Bloody Sunday (1965) - Alabama police attack Obtained from http://www. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Rodney King Rodney Glen King (born April 2, 1965 in Sacramento, California) is an African-American taxi driver who was beaten by officers of the LAPD (Ofc. ... The Los Angeles Police Department (usually known as the LAPD) is the police department of the City of Los Angeles, California. ... Image File history File links Ftaapolice. ... Image File history File links Ftaapolice. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on the weekend of April 20, 2001, was a round of negotiations regarding a proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas. ... The Volstead Act is the popular name for the National Prohibition Act (1919). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874–October 20, 1964) is best known as being the 31st (1929-1933) President of the United States. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wickersham Commission was established in May of 1929 when President Herbert Hoover appointed George W. Wickersham (1858-1936) to head the National Committee on Law Observation and Enforcement, popularly called the Wickersham Commission. ... The Wickersham report was a product of the 1928 presidential campaign of Herbert Hoover, while supporting the eighteenth amendment, Hoover realized that prohibition was not working, it led to bootlegging and the development of organized crime. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Third degree has these meanings: In police interrogation, originally torture, then colloquially an intensive rough interrogation to extract information or a confession- the term Third Degree being an ironic reference to the Masonic ritual which involves a (symbolic) severe interrogation and beating. ... Brown v. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ...


In the 1960s, the African-American Civil Rights Movement had to overcome numerous incidents of police brutality in its struggle for justice and racial equality, notably during the Birmingham campaign of 1963-64 and during the Selma to Montgomery marches of 1965. Media coverage of the brutality sparked national outrage, and public sympathy for the movement grew rapidly as a result. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech given front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The African-American Civil Rights Movement refers to a set of noted events and reform movements in the United States... The Albany movement proved to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


During the Vietnam War, anti-war demonstrations were sometimes quelled through the use of billy-clubs and CS gas, commonly known as tear gas. The most notorious of these assaults took place during the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The actions of the police were later described as a "police riot" in the Walker Report to the US National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.[6] Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Police riot is a pejorative term that became increasingly more common through the late 20th century, implying the wrongful, disproportionate, unlawful and illegitimate use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. ... The National [Advisory] Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (NCCPV) was formed, in 1968, by US President Lyndon B. Johnson. ...


As was the case with Prohibition during the 1920's and 1930's, the "War on Drugs" initiated by President Richard M. Nixon in 1969 has been marked by increased police misconduct. Critics contend that a "holy war" mentality[7] has helped to nurture a "new militarized style of policing" where "confrontation has replaced investigation.".[8] The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Police misconduct refers to brutality, corruption or other objectionable actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. ... Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ...


In the United States, race and police brutality continue to be closely linked, and the phenomenon has sparked a string of race riots over the years. Especially notable among these incidents was the uprising caused by the arrest and beating of Rodney King on March 3, 1991 by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department. The atmosphere was particularly volatile because the brutality had been videotaped by a bystander and widely broadcast afterwards. When the four law enforcement officers charged with assault and other charges were acquitted, the 1992 Los Angeles Riots broke out. A race riot is any riot which occurs due to real or perceived inequality or oppression between members of different races. ... Rodney King Rodney Glen King (born April 2, 1965 in Sacramento, California) is an African-American taxi driver who was beaten by officers of the LAPD (Ofc. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... For other uses, see Los Angeles riots (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, police brutality has often flared at global summits where protesters have sought to challenge the legitimacy of various institutions of economic globalization such as the WTO, the World Bank, the IMF, the G8, and international trade regimes such as the NAFTA and the FTAA. Crowd control efforts at these events are often characterized by the use of "less-than-lethal" means of force, such as CS gas, Plastic bullets, Tasers, and police dogs. “WTO” redirects here. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ... Crowd control is controlling a crowd who are not a riot and not a demonstration. ... Related Compounds Related compounds SDBS Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The plastic bullet is the name given to a type of nonlethal projectile fired from a specialised gun, used in riot control. ... Summary An electroshock gun or stun gun, is a weapon used for subduing a person by administering an electric shock. ... Police dog getting ready to search a vehicle for drugs A policemans dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. ...


Numerous human rights observers have raised concerns about increased police brutality in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. An extensive report prepared for the United Nations Human Rights Committee tabled in 2006 states that in the United States, the "War on Terror" has "created a generalized climate of impunity for law enforcement officers, and contributed to the erosion of what few accountability mechanisms exist for civilian control over law enforcement agencies. As a result, police brutality and abuse persist unabated and undeterred across the country."[9] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ...


Incidence

An extensive U.S. Department of Justice report on police use of force released in 2001 indicates that in 1999, "approximately 422,000 people 16 years old and older were estimated to have had contact with police in which force or the threat of force was used." [10] Another Department of Justice report issued in 2006 shows that out of 26,556 citizen complaints about excessive use of police force among large U.S. agencies (representing 5% of agencies and 59% of officers) in 2002, about 2000 were sustained.[11] The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


However, other studies have shown that most police brutality goes unreported. In 1982, the federal government funded a "Police Services Study" in which over 12,000 randomly selected citizens were interviewed in three metropolitan areas. The study found that 13 percent of those surveyed had been victims of police brutality the previous year. Yet only 30 percent of those who acknowledged such brutality filed formal complaints.[12] A 1998 Human Rights Watch report stated that in all 14 precincts which it examined, the process of filing a complaint was "unnecessarily difficult and often intimidating."[13] Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Police brutality is often associated with the phenomenon of racial profiling. Differences in race, religion, politics, and socioeconomic status between police and the citizenry can contribute to the creation of a relationship in which some police officers may view the population (or a particular subset thereof) as generally deserving punishment while these portions of the population view the police as oppressors. In addition, there is a perception that victims of police brutality often belong to relatively powerless groups, such as minorities, the young, and the poor.[14] Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ...


Recent Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch reports confirm that prison guard brutality is especially rife within the U.S. A 2006 Human Rights Watch watch report entitled "Cruel and Degrading: The Use of Dogs for Cell Extractions in U.S. Prisons" revealed that five state prison systems permit the use of aggressive, unmuzzled dogs to terrify and even attack prisoners as part of cell removal procedures.[15] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


The Amnesty International 2007 report on human rights also documents widespread police misconduct in many other countries.[1] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


Causes

In dealing largely with disorderly elements of the society, some people working in law enforcement may gradually develop an attitude or sense of authority over society, particularly under traditional reaction-based policing models; in some cases the police believe that they are above the law.[16]


However the "bad apple paradigm" is considered to be often used as an "easy way out". A broad RCMP-commissioned report on the causes of misconduct in policing calls it "a simplistic explanation that permits the organization and senior management to blame corruption on individuals and individual faults – behavioural, psychological, background factors, and so on, rather than addressing systemic factors."[17] The report goes on to discuss the systemic factors, which include

  • pressures to conform to certain aspects of "police culture", such as the Blue Code of Silence which can "sustain an oppositional criminal subculture protecting the interests of police who violate the law"[18] and a "'we-they' perspective in which outsiders are viewed with suspicion or distrust"[17];
  • command and control structures with a rigid hierarchical foundation ("results indicate that the more rigid the hierarchy, the lower the scores on a measure of ethical decision-making" concludes one study reviewed in the report);[19] and
  • deficiencies in internal accountability mechanisms (including internal investigation processes).[17]

Some members of the public may in fact perceive the use of force by police as excessive even when the force used is not only reasonable, but is also appropriate under the circumstances. Police use of force is kept in check in many jurisdictions by the issuance of a use of force continuum.[20] A use of force continuum sets levels of force considered appropriate in direct response to a subject's behavior. This power is granted by the civil government, with limits set out in statutory law as well as common law. The Blue Code of Silence is an unwritten code of honor among police officers in which reporting another officers errors, misconduct, or crimes is regarded as a betrayal. ... A use of force continuum is a standard that law enforcement officials (such as police officers or prison officers) with guidelines as to how much force may be used in a given situation. ... Statutory law is written law (as opposed to oral or customary law) set down by a legislature or other governing authority such as the executive branch of government in response to a perceived need to clarify the functioning of government, improve civil order, answer a public need, to codify existing... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Investigation

In the United States, investigation of cases of police brutality has often been left to internal police commissions and/or district attorneys (DAs). Internal police commissions have often been criticized for a lack of accountability and for bias favoring officers, as they frequently declare upon review that the officer(s) acted within the department's rules, or according to their training. For instance, a study focussing on the Chicago Police Department which was conducted in April 2007 found that out of more than 10,000 complaints of police abuse that were filed between 2002 and 2004, only 19 resulted in meaningful disciplinary action. The study charges that the police department’s oversight body allows officers with "criminal tendencies to operate with impunity," and argues that the Chicago Police Department should not be allowed to police itself.[21] A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, under the jurisdiction of the mayor of Chicago. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, under the jurisdiction of the mayor of Chicago. ...


The ability of district attorneys to investigate police brutality has also been called into question, as DAs depend on help from police departments to bring cases to trial. It was only in the 1990s that serious efforts began to be made to transcend the difficulties of dealing with systemic patterns of misconduct in police departments.


Beyond police departments and DAs, other mechanisms of government oversight have gradually evolved. The Rodney King case triggered the creation of the Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, informally known as the Christopher Commission, in 1991. The commission, mandated to investigate the practices of the LAPD, uncovered disturbing patterns of misconduct and abuse, but the reforms it recommended were put on hold. Meanwhile, media reports revealed a frustration in dealing with systemic abuse in other jurisdictions as well, such as New York and Pittsburgh. Selwyn Raab of the New York Times wrote about how the "Blue Code of Silence among police officers helped to conceal even the most outrageous examples of misconduct."[22] Rodney King Rodney Glen King (born April 2, 1965 in Sacramento, California) is an African-American taxi driver who was beaten by officers of the LAPD (Ofc. ... The Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, informally known as the Christopher Commission, was formed in July 1991, in the wake of the Rodney King beating, by then-mayor of Los Angeles Tom Bradley. ... The Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, informally known as the Christopher Commission, was formed in July 1991, in the wake of the Rodney King beating, by then-mayor of Los Angeles Tom Bradley. ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Blue Code of Silence is an unwritten code of honor among police officers in which reporting another officers errors, misconduct, or crimes is regarded as a betrayal. ...


It was within this climate that the police misconduct provision of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 was created, authorizing the Attorney General to "file lawsuits seeking court orders to reform police departments engaging in a pattern or practice of violating citizens' federal rights."[23] As of January 31 2003, the Department of Justice has used this provision to negotiate reforms in eleven jurisdictions across the U.S. (Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, Steubenville Police Department, New Jersey State Police, Los Angeles Police Department, District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department, Highland Park Police Department, Cincinnati Police Department, Columbus Police Department, Buffalo Police Department, Mount Prospect Police Department, and the Montgomery County Police Department).[24] The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) is a piece of legislation, sponsored by Rep. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... Steubenville is a city located in Jefferson County, Ohio. ... The New Jersey State Police is the state police force for the state of New Jersey. ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... ... Highland Park is the name of several places in the United States of America: Highland Park, Florida Highland Park, Illinois Highland Park, Michigan Highland Park, New Jersey Highland Park, Pennsylvania Highland Park, Texas Highland Park, Los Angeles, California Highland Park, New York, New York, a neighborhood in Brooklyn Highland Park... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... The Columbus Police Department (officially the Columbus Division of Police) is the main policing unit for the city of Columbus, Ohio. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Mount Prospect is a village located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Montgomery County is the name of 18 counties in the United States of America. ...


In the United Kingdom, an independent organization known as the Independent Police Complaints Commission investigates reports of police misconduct. They automatically investigate any deaths caused by, or thought to be caused by, police action. The Independent Police Complaints Commission is a UK organisation tasked with overseeing and investigating complaints against UK police forces. ...


Prevention and redress

Independent oversight

Various community groups have criticized police brutality. These groups often stress the need for oversight by independent citizen review boards and other methods of ensuring accountability for police action.


Copwatch is a U.S.-based network of organizations that actively monitors and videotapes the police to prevent police brutality. Umbrella organizations and justice committees (often named after a deceased individual or those victimized by police violence) usually engage in a solidarity of those affected. Amnesty International is another organization active in the issue of police brutality. Phoenix Copwatch logo Copwatch protest image Anti-ticketing campaign poster General Copwatch protest poster Copwatch (also Cop Watch) is a network of United States and Canadian volunteer organizations that police the police. Copwatch groups usually engage in monitoring of the police, videotaping police activity, and educating the public about police... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


Tools used by these groups include video recordings, which are sometimes broadcast using websites such as YouTube.[25] YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...


Legislation protecting against police brutality

Canada

Section Seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a constitutional provision that protects an individuals autonomy and personal legal rights from actions of the government. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... Section 8 - SEARCH OR SEIZURE. 8. ... Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law countries whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... Section Nine of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, found under the Legal rights heading in the Charter, guarantees the right against arbitrary detainment and imprisonment. ... 10. ... In common law countries, habeas corpus () (Latin: [We command that] you have the body) is the name of a legal action, or writ, through which a person can seek relief from unlawful detention of themselves or another person. ...

United States

The Bill of Rights in the National Archives. ... Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law countries whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... In United States law, adopted from English Law, due process (more fully due process of law) is the principle that the government must normally respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights when the government deprives a person of life... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1871, now codified and known as , is one of the most important federal statutes in force in the United States. ... The Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 U.S.C. 2680(h) (FTCA), is a statute enacted by the United States Congress in 1946 which permits private parties to sue the United States in a federal court for most torts committed by persons acting on behalf of the U.S. Liability...

Notable cases of police brutality

See: List of cases of police brutality This list compiles incidents of police brutality that have garnered significant media and/or historical attention. ...


See also

Police misconduct refers to brutality, corruption or other objectionable actions taken by police officers in connection with their official duties. ... Police riot is a pejorative term that became increasingly more common through the late 20th century, implying the wrongful, disproportionate, unlawful and illegitimate use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Independent Commission on the Los Angeles Police Department, informally known as the Christopher Commission, was formed in July 1991, in the wake of the Rodney King beating, by then-mayor of Los Angeles Tom Bradley. ... Phoenix Copwatch logo Copwatch protest image Anti-ticketing campaign poster General Copwatch protest poster Copwatch (also Cop Watch) is a network of United States and Canadian volunteer organizations that police the police. Copwatch groups usually engage in monitoring of the police, videotaping police activity, and educating the public about police... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... The International Day Against Police Brutality occurs on March 15. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Amnesty International Report 2007. Amnesty International (2007).
  2. ^ Johnson, Marilynn S. (2004). in Johnson: Street Justice: A History of Police Violence in New York City. Beacon Press, 365. ISBN 0807050237. 
  3. ^ Wicker shambles. Time Magazine (1931-02-02). Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  4. ^ University Publications of America (1997-12). Records of the Wickersham Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. LexisNexis. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  5. ^ United States Supreme Court (1936-02-17). BROWN et al. v. STATE OF MISSISSIPPI.. www.injusticeline.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  6. ^ Walker, Daniel (1968). in Johnson: Rights in Conflict: The violent confrontation of demonstrators and police in the parks and streets of Chicago during the week of the Democratic National Convention of 1968. A report submitted by Daniel Walker, director of the Chicago Study Team, to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence.. Braceland Brothers, 233. 
  7. ^ Joseph D. McNamara. "Has the Drug War Created an Officer Liars' Club?", Los Angeles Times, 1996-02-11. Retrieved on 2007-09-06. 
  8. ^ Joel Miller. "Kill Zone", WorldNetDaily.com, 2004-07-17. Retrieved on 2007-09-06. 
  9. ^ In the Shadows of the War on Terror: Persisitent Police Brutality and Abuse in the United States (PDF date = 2006-06). United Nations Committee on Human Rights. Retrieved on 2007-09-11.
  10. ^ Contacts between Police and the Public: Findings from the 1999 National Survey. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2001-03-21).
  11. ^ Matthew Hickman (2006-06-26). Citizen Complaints about Police Use of Force. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  12. ^ Fighting Police Abuse: A Community Action Manual. American Civil Liberties Union (1997-12-1).
  13. ^ Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States. Human Rights Watch (June, 1998).
  14. ^ Powers, Mary D. (1995). "Civilian Oversight Is Necessary to Prevent Police Brutality", in Winters, Paul A.: Policing the Police. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 56–60. ISBN 1-56510-262-2. 
  15. ^ Cruel and Degrading: The Use of Dogs for Cell Extractions in U.S. Prisons. Human Rights Watch (2006).
  16. ^ Skolnick, Jerome H.; Fyfe, James D. (1995). "Community-Oriented Policing Would Prevent Police Brutality", in Winters, Paul A.: Policing the Police. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 45–55. ISBN 1-56510-262-2. 
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External links

  • Amnesty International 2005 World Report
  • PoliceCrimes.com: News on police brutality and other police misconduct
  • Bringing awareness of Excessive Force, Malicious Prosecution and Police Brutality.
  • Bad Cop News: Extensive archives on police misconduct
  • Names of Victims of Police Brutality In Canada
  • Police Misconduct, Brutality and Use of Force in Canada - 2001 - includes links to lists for Canadian brutality victims in years going back to 1975
  • Stolen Lives Project - project documenting cases of killings by U.S. law enforcement
  • Copwatch Project Includes the Copwatch Database: a permanent, searchable repository of complaints filed against police officers.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Police brutality - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1175 words)
Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers.
Brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which include; false arrest, intimidation, racial profiling, political repression, surveillance abuse, sexual abuse, and police corruption.
Police are employed by society to maintain order but by dealing largely with disorderly elements of the society, some people working in law enforcement may gradually develop an attitude or sense of authority over society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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