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Encyclopedia > Police
Polish Police's Anti-Riot Detachment, filming a gathering. The film could later be presented during a trial as evidence. A water cannon is seen in the background.
The South African police in action against the Shack Dwellers' Movement, September, 2007

Police are agents or agencies empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimate use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. The word comes via French from the Latin politia (“civil administration”), which itself derives from the Ancient Greek πόλις, for polis ("city").[1] Look up police in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 445 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Police ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 445 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Police ... An emblem of Policja Policja is the generic name for the police in Poland. ... French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... // Water cannon of the French National Police deployed in prevision of rioting following Nicolas Sarkozys election, May 6, 2007 A water cannon is a device that shoots a high-pressure stream of water. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... NYPD redirects here. ... 1968 Chevrolet Impala at the weekly Garden Grove, California car show on April 16, 2004. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The first police force comparable to present-day police was established in 1667 under King Louis XIV in France, although modern police usually trace their origins to the 1800 establishment of the Marine Police in London, the Glasgow Police, and the Napoleonic police of Paris.[2][3][4] Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be Englands first Police force, was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott, in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The City of Glasgow Police was one of the first professional police forces in modern history. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties...


The first modern police force is also commonly said to be the London Metropolitan Police, established in 1829, which promoted the preventive role of police as a deterrent to urban crime and disorder.[5] The notion that police are primarily concerned with enforcing criminal law was popularized in the 1930s with the rise of the Federal Bureau of Investigation as the pre-eminent law enforcement agency in the United States; law enforcement however has only ever constituted a small portion of policing activity.[6] Policing has included an array of activities in different contexts, but the predominant ones are concerned with order maintenance and the provision of services.[7] Alternative names for police force include constabulary, gendarmerie, police department, police service, or law enforcement agency, and members can be police officers, constables, troopers, sheriffs, rangers, or peace officers. Russian police and police of the Soviet-era Eastern Europe are (or were) called militsiya. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... In urban planning, the notion of public order refers a city containing relatively empty (and orderly) spaces; which allow for flexibility in redesiging the citys layout; such perceptions played an important role in the establishments of suburbs. ... Constabulary may have several definitions. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Trooper can refer to: Canadian rock band Trooper the rank of Trooper in Canadian and British army groups. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... In the broad sense a peace officer is any public sector person charged to uphold the peace. ... A member of a Russian special purpose police team (OMSN), equipped with a 9A91 submachine gun. ...


In England and Wales, each police force or service is overseen by a police authority. Police authority - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Contents

History

Pre-modern Europe

In Ancient Greece, publicly-owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, manhandling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.[8] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Crowd control is controlling a crowd who are not a riot and not a demonstration. ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ...


Before its decline, the Roman Empire had a relatively effective law enforcement system. When under the reign of Augustus the capital had grown to almost one million inhabitants, he created 14 wards, which were protected by seven squads of 1,000 men called "Vigiles," who guarded against fires and served as nightwatchmen. If necessary, they might have called the Praetorian Guard for assistance. Beginning in the 5th century, policing became a function of clan chiefs and heads of state.[citation needed] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Look up ward in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani (watchmen of the City) or Cohortes Vigilum (cohorts of the watchmen) were the firefighters and police of Ancient Rome. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


The Anglo-Saxon system of maintaining public order was a private system of tithings, since the Norman conquest led by a constable, which was based on a social obligation for the good conduct of the others; more common was that local lords and nobles were responsible to maintain order in their lands, and often appointed a constable, sometimes unpaid, to enforce the law. For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... A tithe (from Old English teogotha tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a religious organization. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ...


European development

In Western culture, the contemporary concept of a police paid by the government was developed by French legal scholars and practitioners in the 17th and early 18th centuries, notably with Nicolas Delamare's Traité de la Police ("Treatise on the Police"), first published in 1705. The German Polizeiwissenschaft (Science of Police) was also an important theoretical formulation of police. Polizeiwissenschaft (German for Police science) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century. ...


The first police force in the modern sense was created by the government of King Louis XIV in 1667 to police the city of Paris, then the largest city in Europe. The royal edict, registered by the Parlement of Paris on March 15, 1667 created the office of lieutenant général de police ("lieutenant general of police"), who was to be the head of the new Paris police force, and defined the task of the police as "ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and of private individuals, purging the city of what may cause disturbances, procuring abundance, and having each and everyone live according to their station and their duties". This office was first held by Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie, who had 44 commissaires de police (police commissioners) under his authority. In 1709, these commissioners were assisted by inspecteurs de police (police inspectors). The city of Paris was divided into 16 districts policed by the commissaires, each assigned to a particular district and assisted by a growing bureaucracy. The scheme of the Paris police force was extended to the rest of France by a royal edict of October 1699, resulting in the creation of lieutenants general of police in all large French cities and towns. Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties... Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie is considered to be the founder of the first modern police force. ...


As conceptualized by the Polizeiwissenschaft, the police had an economic and social duty ("procuring abundance"). It was in charge of demographics concerns and of empowering the population, which, according to mercantilist theory, was to be the main strength of the state. Thus, its functions largely overreached simple law enforcement activities and included public health concerns, urban planning (which was important because of the miasma theory of disease; thus, cemeteries were moved out of town, etc.), and surveillance of prices.[9]. Polizeiwissenschaft (German for Police science) was a discipline born in the first third of the 18th century which lasted until the middle of the 19th century. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... The miasmatic theory of disease held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (Greek language: pollution), a noxious form of bad air. In general, this concept has been supplanted by the more scientifically founded germ theory of disease. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ... For people whose family name is Price see Price (disambiguation). ...


Development of modern police was contemporary to the formation of the state, later defined by sociologist Max Weber as achieving a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force" and which was primarily exercised by the police and the military. Marxist theory situates the development of the modern state as part of the rise of capitalism, in which the police are one component of the bourgeoisies repressive apparatus for subjugating the working class. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ...


19th century development

After the French Revolution, Napoléon I reorganized the police in Paris and other cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants on February 17, 1800 as the Prefecture of Police. On March 12, 1829, a government decree created the first uniformed police in France, known as sergents de ville ("city sergeants"), which the Paris Prefecture of Police's website claims were the first uniformed policemen in the world.[10] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Préfet de Police is an official of the Government of France who supervises police and emergency services to Paris and the surrounding eight departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, Yvelines and Val dOise, and has other security duties... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Police search the vehicle of a suspected drug smuggler at a border crossing. Wentworth, New South Wales, Australia.

In the United Kingdom, the development of police forces was much slower than in the rest of Europe. The word "police" was borrowed from French into the English language in the 18th century, but for a long time it applied only to French and continental European police forces. The word, and the concept of police itself, was "disliked as a symbol of foreign oppression" (according to Britannica 1911). Prior to the 19th century, the only official use of the word "police" recorded in the United Kingdom was the appointment of Commissioners of Police for Scotland in 1714 and the creation of the Marine Police in 1798 (set up to protect merchandise at the Port of London). Even today, many British police forces are suffixed with "Constabulary" rather than "Police". Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Wentworth is a small town in the far south west of New South Wales, Australia. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Marine Police Force, sometimes known as the Thames River Police and said to be Englands first Police force, was formed by magistrate Patrick Colquhoun and a Master Mariner, John Harriott, in 1798 to tackle theft and looting from ships anchored in the Pool of London and the lower... The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ...


On June 30, 1800, the authorities of Glasgow, Scotland successfully petitioned the government to pass the Glasgow Police Act establishing the City of Glasgow Police. This was the first professional police service in the country and differed from previous law enforcement in that it was a preventive police force. Other Scottish towns soon followed suit and set up their own police forces through acts of parliament.[11] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The City of Glasgow Police was one of the first professional police forces in modern history. ... Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime. ...


The first organized police force in Ireland came about through the Peace Preservation Act of 1814, but the Irish Constabulary Act of 1822 marked the true beginning of the Royal Irish Constabulary. Among its first duties was the forcible seizure of tithes during the "Tithe War" on behalf of the Anglican clergy from the mainly Catholic population as well as the Presbyterian minority. The Act established a force in each barony with chief constables and inspectors general under the control of the civil administration at Dublin Castle. By 1841 this force numbered over 8,600 men. The force had been rationalized and reorganized in an 1836 act and the first constabulary code of regulations was published in 1837. The discipline was tough and the pay poor. The police also faced unrest among the Irish rural poor, manifested in organizations like the Ribbonmen, which attacked landlords and their property. The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... The Tithe War in Ireland (1831-36) refers to a series of periodic skirmishes and violent incidents connected to resistance to the obligation of Roman Catholics in Ireland to pay tithes for the upkeep of the Anglican Clergy. ... Chief Constable is the title given to the commanding officer of every territorial police force in the United Kingdom except the two responsible for Greater London. ... Dublin Castle. ... Ribbonism, whose adherents were usually called Ribbonmen refers to the secret associations among 19th century lower class rural Irish Catholics, organised in opposition to Orangeism. ... A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or land which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ...


In London, night watchmen were the first paid law enforcement body in the country, augmenting the force of unpaid constables. They guarded the streets since 1663. On September 29, 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament, allowing Sir Robert Peel, the then home secretary, to found the London Metropolitan Police. These police are often referred to as ´Bobbies´ after Sir Robert (Bobby) Peel, who introduced the Police Act. They became a model for the police forces in most countries, such as the United States, and most of the British Empire. Bobbies can still be found in many parts of the Commonwealth of Nations. The primary role of the police in Britain was keeping the Queen's Peace, which continues into the present day.[12] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... There were various Metropolitan Police Acts Metropolitan Police Act 1829 Metropolitan Police Act 1839 Metropolitan Police Act 1856 Metropolitan Police Act 1860 Metropolitan Police Act 1864 Metropolitan Police Act 1886 Metropolitan Police Act 1887 Metropolitan Police Act 1899 And several Acts with related names: Metropolitan Police (Receiver) Act 1861 Metropolitan... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the name currently used by the territorial police force which is responsible for Greater London other than the City of London (the responsibility of the City of London Police). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... In English law, the Queens peace (or Kings peace, when a male is on the throne) is the peaceful, violence-free state that the realm should endure in at all times. ...


In Canada, the Toronto Police was founded in 1834, making it one of the first municipal police departments in North America. It was followed in 1838 by police forces in Montreal and Quebec City. The Toronto Police Service (TPS), also known colloqually as T.O.P.D., formerly the Metropolitan Toronto Police, is the local police force for the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government...


In the United States, the first organized police service was established in Boston in 1838, New York in 1844, and Philadelphia in 1854. However, in the Founding Era, and even well into the 20th century in some parts of the country, law enforcement was done by private citizens acting as militia. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


In Lebanon, modern police were established in 1861, with creation of the Gendarmerie.[13] A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ...

See also: History of criminal justice

Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. ...

Personnel and organization

In most Western police forces, perhaps the most significant division is between preventive (uniformed) police and detectives. Terminology varies from country to country. Police functions include protecting life and property, enforcing criminal law, criminal investigations, regulating traffic, crowd control, and other public safety duties. Gumshoe redirects here. ... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ...


Uniformed police

Preventive Police, also called Uniform Branch, Uniformed Police, Uniform Division, Administrative Police, Order Police, or Patrol, designates the police which patrol and respond to emergencies and other incidents, as opposed to detective services. As the name "uniformed" suggests, they wear uniforms and perform functions that require an immediate recognition of an officer's legal authority, such as traffic control, stopping and detaining motorists, and more active crime response and prevention. Preventive police almost always make up the bulk of a police service's personnel. In Australia and Britain, patrol personnel are also known as "general duties" officers.[14] Atypically, Brazil's preventive police are known as Military Police.[citation needed] For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A group of Polícia Militar troops from São Paulo In Brazil, the Military Police (Portuguese: Polícia Militar, or PM) is the name of the preventive state police forces in Brazil. ...


Detectives

Detective police, also called Criminal Investigation Department (CID), Investigations Police, Judiciary/Judicial Police, or Criminal Police, are responsible for investigations and detective work. They typically make up roughly 15% - 25% of a police service's personnel. Charles Vincent, founder of the Metropolitan Police CID The Criminal Investigation Department (CID) is the branch of all British Police and many other Commonwealth police forces to which plain clothes detectives belong. ...


Detectives, in contrast to uniform police, typically wear 'business attire' in bureaucratic and investigative functions where a uniformed presence would be either a distraction or intimidating, but a need to establish police authority still exists. "Plainclothes" officers dress in attire consistent with that worn by the general public for purposes of blending in. In some cases, police are assigned to work "undercover", where they conceal their police identity to investigate crimes, such as organized crime or narcotics crime, that are unsolvable by other means. In some cases this type of policing shares aspects with espionage. Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... 19th century Heroin bottle This article is about the drug classification. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Despite popular conceptions promoted by movies and television, many US police departments prefer not to maintain officers in non-patrol bureaus and divisions beyond a certain period of time, such as in the detective bureau, and instead maintain policies that limit service in such divisions to a specified period of time, after which officers must transfer out or return to patrol duties. This is done in part based upon the perception that the most important and essential police work is accomplished on patrol in which officers become acquainted with their beats, prevent crime by their presence, respond to crimes in progress, manage crises, and practice their skills. Detectives, by contrast, usually investigate crimes after they have occurred and after patrol officers have responded first to a situation. Investigations often take weeks or months to complete, during which time detectives spend much of their time away from the streets, in interviews and courtrooms, for example. Rotating officers also promotes cross-training in a wider variety of skills, and serves to prevent "cliques" that can contribute to corruption or other unethical behavior. Cross training also known as conditioning refers to training in different ways to improve overall performance. ...


Auxiliary

Police may also take on auxiliary administrative duties, such as issuing firearms licenses. The extent that police have these functions varies among countries, with police in France, Germany, and other continental European countries handling such tasks to a greater extent than British counterparts.[14] A CISCO Security auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Raffles Place, Singapore. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...

Many law enforcement agencies have heavily armed units for dealing with dangerous situations, such as these U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers.
Police officers from Thames Valley Police, England.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2618x1925, 1390 KB) U.S. Customs and Border Protection counterterrorism officers. ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security, is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. trade laws. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (2142 × 1571 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) PC McKENZIE and PC BRACKLEY from The Thames Valley Police, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (2142 × 1571 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) PC McKENZIE and PC BRACKLEY from The Thames Valley Police, England. ... Thames Valley Police is one of the largest Home Office police services in England and the largest non-metropolitan one, covering 2200 sq mi (5,700 km²) and a population of 2. ...

Specialized units

Specialized preventive and detective groups exist within many law enforcement organizations either for dealing with particular types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, homicide, or fraud; or for situations requiring specialized skills, such as underwater search, aviation, explosive device disposal ("bomb squad"), and computer crime. Most larger jurisdictions also employ specially-selected and trained quasi-military units armed with military-grade weapons for the purposes of dealing with particularly violent situations beyond the capability of a patrol officer response, including high-risk warrant service and barricaded suspects. In the United States these units go by a variety of names, but are commonly known as SWAT (Special Weapons And Tactics) teams. Because their situational mandate typically focuses on removing innocent bystanders from dangerous people and dangerous situations, not violent resolution, they are often equipped with non-lethal tactical tools like chemical agents, "flashbang" and concussion grenades, and rubber bullets. The London Metropolitan police's Specialist Firearms Command (CO19) is a group of armed police used in dangerous situations including, hostage taking, armed robbery/assault and terrorism. Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... The Longest Walk: a British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland. ... Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous devices are rendered safe. ... Computer crime, cybercrime, e-crime, hi-tech crime or electronic crime generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime. ... This is a list of Special Response units in the United States. ... This article is about Special Weapons and Tactics. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Grenade redirects here. ... The Specialist Firearms Command (CO19) (better known by its former Specialist Operations designation SO19) is the department of Londons Metropolitan Police which provides firearms-related support to the generally unarmed force. ...


Military police

There are several types of military police services:

  • Gendarmeries are military force which polices a civilian population.
  • Provost services are military police services that work within the armed forces.
  • Constabulary A civilian police force trained and organized along military lines.

A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... Provosts are military police whose duties are policing within the Armed Forces, as opposed to Gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. ... Constabulary may have several definitions. ...

Varying jurisdictions

Main article: :Category:United States specialist police departments

In addition to conventional urban or regional police forces, there are other police forces with specialized functions or jurisdiction.In the United States, the federal government has a number of police forces with their own specialized jurisdictions. Some example are the Federal Protective Service, which patrols and protects government buildings; the postal police, which protect postal building, vehicles and items; the Park Police, which protect national parks, or Amtrak Police which patrol Amtrak stations and trains.. The word federal in a general sense refers to the nature of an agreement between or among two or more states, nations, or other groups to merge into a union in which control of common affairs is held by a central authority created by and with the consent of the... Federal Protective Service vehicle. ... The United States Postal Inspection Service (or USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. ... The United States Park Police is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. ... The Amtrak Police is a railroad police agency that acts as the security and law enforcement agency of Amtrak, a passenger train system in the United States. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ...


There are also some government agencies which perform police functions in addition to other duties. The U.S. Coast Guard carries out many police functions for boaters. USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


In major cities, there may be a separate police agency for public transit systems, such as the New York City Port Authority Police or the MTA police, or for major government functions, such as sanitation, or environmental functions. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Police Department, or PAPD, is one of the largest police departments in the United States with 1,600 officers as of 2006. ... The Metropolitan Transportation Authority Police is the police agency of New Yorks Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or MTA. Officers of the MTA Police are fully empowered under the New York State Public Authorities Law and are commissioned in the state of Connecticut. ...


Armament and equipment

In many jurisdictions, police officers carry firearms, primarily handguns, in the normal course of their duties. Firearms redirects here. ...


Police often have specialist units for handling armed offenders, and similar dangerous situations, and can (depending on local laws), in some extreme circumstances, call on the military (since Military Aid to the Civil Power is a role of many armed forces). Perhaps the most high-profile example of this was, in 1980 the Metropolitan Police handing control of the Iranian Embassy Siege to the Special Air Service. They can also be equipped with non-lethal (more accurately known as "less than lethal" or "less-lethal") weaponry, particularly for riot control. Non-lethal weapons include batons, riot control agents, rubber bullets and electroshock weapons. The use of firearms or deadly force is typically a last resort only to be used when necessary to save human life, although some jurisdictions allow its use against fleeing felons and escaped convicts. Police officers often carry handcuffs to restrain suspects. Military aid to the civil power (MACP) is assistance by the armed forces to the police in maintaining law and order. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian embassy in London, United Kingdom. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Non-lethal round. ... An electroshock weapon is an incapacitant weapon used for subduing a person by administering electric shock aimed at disrupting superficial muscle functions. ... Deadly force or shoot to kill is that level of force which is inherently likely to cause death or great bodily injury. ... A pair of handcuffs Handcuffs are restraint devices designed to secure an individuals wrists close together. ...


Modern police forces make extensive use of radio communications equipment, carried both on the person and installed in vehicles, to co-ordinate their work, share information, and get help quickly. In recent years, vehicle-installed computers have enhanced the ability of police communications, enabling easier dispatching of calls, criminal background checks on persons of interest to be completed in a matter of seconds, and updating the officer's daily activity log and other required reports on a real-time basis. Other common pieces of police equipment include flashlights/torches, whistles, and police notebooks and "ticketbooks" or citations. For the Parliament song, see Flash Light (song). ... For other uses, see Whistle (disambiguation). ... A police notebook holder. ... A summons is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes. ...


Vehicles

Polish Police Prevention Detachment
Main article: Police car

Police vehicles are used for detaining, patrolling and transporting. The common Police patrol vehicle is an improved four door sedan (saloon in British English). Police vehicles are usually marked with appropriate logos and are equipped with sirens and lightbars to aid in making others aware of police presence. Unmarked vehicles are used primarily for sting operations or apprehending criminals without alerting them to their presence. Some cities and counties have started using unmarked cars, or cars with minimal markings for traffic law enforcement, since drivers slow down at the sight of marked police vehicles and unmarked vehicles make it easier for officers to catch speeders and traffic violators. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1519x2329, 418 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Police ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1519x2329, 418 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Police ... Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor of the United States Federal Protective Service. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ...


Motorcycles are also commonly used, particularly in locations that a car may not be able to access, to control potential public order situations involving meetings of motorcyclists and often in escort duties where the motorcycle policeman can quickly clear a path for the escorted vehicle. Bicycle patrols are used in some areas because they allow for more open interaction with the public. In addition, their quieter operation can facilitate approaching suspects unawares and can help in pursuing them attempting to escape on foot. For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


Police departments utilize an array of specialty vehicles such as helicopters, watercraft, command post, vans, trucks, all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, and SWAT armored vehicles.

Police Lenco Bearcat CBRNE Armored Rescue Vehicle Metropolitan Nashville Police SWAT

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 472 pixelsFull resolution (1938 × 1143 pixel, file size: 946 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 472 pixelsFull resolution (1938 × 1143 pixel, file size: 946 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Metropolitan Nashville Police Special Weapons and Tactics Team (S.W.A.T.) In 1976 the Metropolitan Nashville Government formed a highly flexible mobile strike force to concentrate on police problems that might otherwise go unchecked in our community due to the limitations imposed on field personnel in supplying day-to...

Strategies

The advent of the police car, two-way radio, and telephone in the early 20th century transformed policing into a reactive strategy that focused on responding to calls for service.[15] With this transformation, police command and control became more centralized. August Vollmer introduced other reforms, including education requirements for police officers.[16] O.W. Wilson, a student of Vollmer, helped reduce corruption and introduce professionalism in Wichita, Kansas, and later in the Chicago Police Department.[17] Strategies employed by O.W. Wilson included rotating officers from community to community to reduce their vulnerability to corruption, establishing of a non-partisan police board to help govern the police force, a strict merit system for promotions within the department, and an aggressive, recruiting drive with higher police salaries to attract professionally qualified officers.[18] During the professionalism era of policing, law enforcement agencies concentrated on dealing with felonies and other serious crime, rather than broader focus on crime prevention.[19] Motorola HT1000 hand-held two-way radio A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive (a transceiver), unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content one way. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... August Vollmer, circa 1925 August Gus Vollmer (March 7, 1876 - November 4, 1955) was a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century. ... Orlando Winfield Wilson (May 15, 1900-October 18, 1972), also known as O.W. Wilson, was an influential leader in policing, having served as Superintendent of Police of the Chicago Police Department, chief of police in Fullerton, California and Wichita, Kansas, and authored several books on policing. ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of Chicago, under the jurisdiction of the mayor of Chicago. ... Look up Merit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... Crime prevention is a term describing techniques used for reducing victimization as well as deterring crime and criminals. ...

Anti-riot armoured vehicle of the police of the Canton of Vaud in Lausanne, Switzerland

The Kansas City Preventive Patrol study in the 1970s found this approach to policing to be ineffective. Patrol officers in cars were disconnected from the community, and had insufficient contact and interaction with the community.[20] In the 1980s and 1990s, many law enforcement agencies began to adopt community policing strategies, and others adopted problem-oriented policing. Broken windows policing was another, related approach introduced in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, who suggested that police should pay greater attention to minor "quality of life" offenses and disorderly conduct. This method was first introduced and made popular by New York City Mayor, Rudy Guiliani, in the early 1990's. The concept is simple, the ideology is that broken windows, grafitti, and other physical destruction or degradation of property, greatly increases the chances of more criminal activities and destruction of property. When criminals see the abandoned vehicles, trash, and deplorable property, they assume that authorities do not care and do not take active approaches to correct problems in these areas. [21] Building upon these earlier models, intelligence-led policing has emerged as the dominant philosophy guiding police strategy. Intelligence-led policing and problem-oriented policing are complementary strategies, both which involve systematic use of information.[22] Although it still lacks a universally accepted definition, the crux of intelligence-led policing is an emphasis on the collection and analysis of information to guide police operations, rather than the reverse.[23] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 846 KB) Camion de police anti-émeutes à Lausanne, Suisse Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Police ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 846 KB) Camion de police anti-émeutes à Lausanne, Suisse Work by Rama File links The following pages link to this file: Police ... Capital Lausanne Population (2004) 657,700 (Ranked 3rd)   - Density 205 /km² Area 3212 km² (Ranked 4th) Highest point Les Diablerets 3210 m Joined 1803 Abbreviation VD Languages French Executive Conseil dEtat (7) Legislative Grand Conseil (150) Municipalities 382 municipalities Districts 19 districts Website www. ... Lausanne (pronounced ) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: Lac Léman), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north. ... The Kansas City preventive patrol experiment was a landmark experiment carried out between 1972 and 1973 by the Kansas City Police Department. ... In 1967, state-of-the-art policing was exemplified by a fast response to radio calls in this Black-and-White and a crowd drawn by the siren and flashing lights. ... Problem-oriented policing (POP), coined by University of Wisconsin-Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a policing strategy that involves identifying specific crime and disorder problems, such as occur in crime hot spots. ... Broken windows in the Pruitt-Igoe housing development Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L. Kelling and Catherine Coles is a criminology book published in 1996, about petty crime and strategies to contain or eliminate it from urban neighbourhoods. ... James Q. Wilson (born May 27, 1931) is the Ronald Reagan professor of public policy at Pepperdine University in California, and a professor emeritus at UCLA. He has a Ph. ... George L. Kelling is a Professor at Rutgers University, a Research Fellow at Harvard University, and an Adjunct Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. ... Intelligence-led policing (ILP) is a policing model that has emerged in recent years which is “built around risk assessment and risk management. ...


Power restrictions

Mounted police vehicle of the Australian Federal Police stationed in Canberra, Australia

In many nations, criminal procedure law has been developed to regulate officers' discretion, so that they do not arbitrarily or unjustly exercise their powers of arrest, search and seizure, and use of force. In the United States, Miranda v. Arizona led to the widespread use of Miranda warnings or constitutional warnings. Police in the United States are also prohibited from holding criminal suspects for more than a reasonable amount of time (usually 72 hours) before arraignment, using torture to extract confessions, using excessive force to effect an arrest, and searching suspects' bodies or their homes without a warrant obtained upon a showing of probable cause. Using deception for confessions is permitted, but not coercion. There are exceptions or exigent circumstances such as an articulated need to disarm a suspect or searching a suspect who has already been arrested (Search Incident to an Arrest). The Posse Comitatus Act severely restricts the use of the military for police activity, giving added importance to police SWAT units. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mounted police vehicle of the Australian Federal Police stationed in Canberra, Australia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mounted police vehicle of the Australian Federal Police stationed in Canberra, Australia. ... Criminal procedure refers to the legal process for adjudicating claims that someone has violated the criminal law. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... A use of force doctrine is employed by police forces, as well as soldiers on guard duty, to regulate the actions of police and guards. ... Holding The Fifth Amendment privilege against self-incrimination requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney. ... The Miranda warning is a police warning that is given to criminal suspects in police custody or in a custodial situation in the United States before they are asked questions relating to the commission of a crime. ... Arraignment is a common law term for the formal reading of a criminal complaint, in the presence of the defendant, to inform him of the charges against him. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... In United States criminal law, probable cause refers to the standard by which a police officer may make an arrest, conduct a personal or property search or obtain a warrant. ... The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law () passed on June 16, 1878 after the end of Reconstruction. ... This article is about Special Weapons and Tactics. ...


British police officers are governed by similar rules, particularly those introduced under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), but generally have greater powers. They may, for example, legally search any suspect who has been arrested, or their vehicles, home or business premises, without a warrant, and may seize anything they find in a search as evidence. All police officers in the United Kingdom, whatever their actual rank, are 'constables' in terms of their legal position. This means that a newly appointed constable has the same arrest powers as a Chief Constable or Commissioner. However, certain higher ranks have additional powers to authorize certain aspects of police operations, such as a power to authorize a search of a suspect's house (section 18 PACE) by an officer of the rank of Inspector, or the power to authorize a suspect's detention beyond 24 hours by a Superintendent. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) (1984 c. ...

See also: Police power

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Conduct and accountability

Investigation of police corruption is sometimes made more difficult by a code of silence that encourages unquestioning loyalty to comrades over the cause of justice. If an officer breaks this code, they may receive death threats or even be left for dead, as in the case of Frank Serpico. One way to fight such corruption is by having an independent or semi-independent organization investigate, such as (in the United States) the Federal Justice Department, state Attorneys General, local District Attorneys, a police department's own internal affairs division, or specially appointed commissions. However, independent organizations are generally not used except for the most severe cases of corruption. A Code of Silence is when someone, usually with some sort of authority of power, but not always, witnesses or is privy to the knowledge of an illegal or embarassing act, but puts comradery, or loyalty to the unit (which can be police, military, gangs, among other things) above informing... Frank Serpico Francisco Vincent Frank Serpico (born April 14, 1936) is a former New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer who gained fame in 1971 as the first police officer to testify against police corruption. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... The internal affairs (United States terminology) division of a law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force. ...


Police services commonly include units for investigating crimes committed by the police themselves. These units are typically called Inspectorate-General, or in the USA, "internal affairs". In some countries separate organizations outside the police exist for such purposes, such as the British Police Complaints Authority (now Independent Police Complaints Commission). Likewise, some state and local jurisdictions, for example, Springfield, Illinois[24] have similar outside review organizations. The Police Service of Northern Ireland is investigated by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland, an external agency set up as a result of the Patten report into policing the province. The internal affairs (United States terminology) division of a law enforcement agency investigates incidents and plausible suspicions of lawbreaking and professional misconduct attributed to officers on the force. ... Police Complaints Authority The Police Complaints Authority no longer exists as it was replaced in April 2004 by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC). ... The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) is a non-departmental public body in England and Wales responsible for overseeing the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales. ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart na hÉireann) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... The Northern Ireland Police Ombudsman provides an independent, impartial police complaints system for the people and police under the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998 and 2000. ...

Norway mounted policeman, Oslo

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 755 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1900 × 1509 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 755 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1900 × 1509 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... The Carabinieri are the military police of Italy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 393 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lamborghini Gallardo ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 393 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lamborghini Gallardo ... Lamborghini Gallardo coupe The Lamborghini Gallardo, (Pronounced Gai-Arh-Doh. ... One of the Lamborghini Gallardo of the Polizia Stradale Police trucks in Venice Railway Station The Polizia di Stato (State Police) is one of the national police forces of Italy. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ...

Use of force

Police forces also find themselves under criticism for their use of force, particularly deadly force. Specifically, tension increases when a police officer of one race harms or kills a suspect of another race. In the United States, such events routinely spark protests and accusations of racism against police and allegations that police departments practice racial profiling. Deadly force or shoot to kill is that level of force which is inherently likely to cause death or great bodily injury. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ...


In the United States since the 1960s, concern over such issues has increasingly weighed upon law enforcement agencies, courts and legislatures at every level of government. Incidents such as the 1965 Watts Riots, the videotaped 1991 beating by Los Angeles Police officers of Rodney King, and the riot following their acquittal have been seen as evidence that American police as dangerously lacking in appropriate controls. The fact that this trend has occurred contemporaneously with the rise of the US civil rights movement, the "War on Drugs," and a precipitous rise in violent crime from the 1960s to the 1990s has made questions surrounding the role, administration and scope of police authority increasingly complicated.[citation needed] The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. ... LAPD and L.A.P.D. redirect here. ... Rodney King This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Truck driver Reginald Denny lies beaten in an intersection as his assailant, Damian Williams, celebrates. ... Various movements seeking civil rights, human rights and social justice since the Second World War have become known as a civil rights movement. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ...


Police departments and the local governments that oversee them in some jurisdictions have attempted to mitigate some of these issues through community outreach programs and community policing to make the police more accessible to the concerns of local communities, by working to increase hiring diversity, by updating training of police in their responsibilities to the community and under the law, and by increased oversight within the department or by civilian commissions. In cases in which such measures have been lacking or absent, civil law suits have been brought by the United States Department of Justice against local law enforcement agencies, authorized under the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. This has compelled local departments to make organizational changes, enter into consent decree settlements to adopt such measures, and submit to oversight by the Justice Department.[25][citation needed] Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public. ... In 1967, state-of-the-art policing was exemplified by a fast response to radio calls in this Black-and-White and a crowd drawn by the siren and flashing lights. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) is a piece of legislation, sponsored by Rep. ... DECREE - The judgment or sentence of a court of equity which corresponds to the judgment of a court of law. ...

Serbian organized crime division SWAT unit UBPOK in action

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about Special Weapons and Tactics. ... MUP or Serbian Ministry of the Interior (Ministarstvo Unutrašnjih Polsova/Mинистарство Uиутрашњих Послова) is the Serbian Ministry of the Interior bureau that deals with internal security of the Republic of Serbia and the apprehension of dangerous criminals. ...

International forces

Police highway patrol vehicle in Victoria, Australia

In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. The United States has a highly decentralized and fragmented system of law enforcement, with over 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies.[26] Other countries, such as Chile, Israel, and Austria, use a centralized system of policing.[27] Though the United States and other countries have multiple police forces, for the most part their jurisdictions do not overlap. In some countries, jurisdiction of multiple police agencies overlap, as with Guardia Civil and the Policía Nacional in Spain and the Polizia di Stato and Carabinieri in Italy.[14] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Dean. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 111 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Dean. ... In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. ... Río Nervión patrol boat, in Bilbao. ... Patrol car (Z car). ... One of the Lamborghini Gallardo of the Polizia Stradale Police trucks in Venice Railway Station The Polizia di Stato (State Police) is one of the national police forces of Italy. ... The Carabinieri are the military police of Italy. ...


Most countries are members of the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), established to detect and fight trans-national crime and provide for international co-operation and co-ordination of other police activities, such as notifying relatives of the death of foreign nationals. Interpol does not conduct investigations nor arrests by itself, but only serves as a central point for information on crime, suspects and criminals. Political crimes are excluded from its competencies. The International Criminal Police Organization – Interpol (ICPO-Interpol) was created in 1923 to assist international criminal police co-operation. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ...


References

  1. ^ police. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  2. ^ Dinsmor, Alastair (Winter 2003). Glasgow Police Pioneers. The Scotia News. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  3. ^ History. Marine Support Unit. Metropolitan Police. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  4. ^ La Lieutenance Générale de Police. La Préfecture de Police fête ses 200 ans Juillet 1800 - Juillet 2000. La Préfecture de Police au service des Parisiens.
  5. ^ Brodeur, Jean-Paul; Eds., Kevin R. E. McCormick and Livy A. Visano (1992). ”High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political Activities,” Understanding Policing. /dmirror/http/en.wikipedia.org/w/Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, 284-285, 295. ISBN 1-55130-005-2. 
  6. ^ Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books, 143. ISBN 978-0-6690-1292-7. 
  7. ^ Neocleous, Mark (2004). Fabricating Social Order: A Critical History of Police Power. /dmirror/http/en.wikipedia.org/w/London: Pluto Press, 93-94. ISBN 978-0-7453-1489-1. 
  8. ^ Hunter, Virginia J. (1994). Policing Athens: Social Control in the Attic Lawsuits, 420-320 B.C.. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 3. ISBN 978-1-4008-0392-7. 
  9. ^ Michel Foucault, Security, Territory, Population, 1977-78 course (published 2004)
  10. ^ http://www.prefecture-police-paris.interieur.gouv.fr/documentation/bicentenaire/theme_expo4.htm
  11. ^ http://www.scotia-news.com/issue5/ISSUE05a.htm
  12. ^ http://www.together.gov.uk/article.asp?c=442&aid=1275
  13. ^ Historical overview. Interior Security Forces (Lebanon). Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  14. ^ a b c Bayley, David H. (1979). "Police Function, Structure, and Control in Western Europe and North America: Comparative and Historical Studies". Crime & Justice 1: pp. 109-143. NCJ 63672. 
  15. ^ Reiss Jr, Albert J. (1992). "Police Organization in the Twentieth Century". Crime and Justice 51: p. 51. NCJ 138800. 
  16. ^ "Finest of the Finest", TIME Magazine, February 18, 1966. 
  17. ^ Guide to the Orlando Winfield Wilson Papers, ca. 1928-1972. Online Archive of California. Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  18. ^ "Chicago Chooses Criminologist to Head and Clean Up the Police", United Press International/The New York Times, February 22, 1960. 
  19. ^ Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (December 2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 198029. 
  20. ^ Kelling, George L., Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, Charles E. Brown (1974). The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment - A Summary Report. Police Foundation.
  21. ^ Kelling, George L., James Q. Wilson. "Broken Windows" (subscription), Atlantic Monthly, March 1982. 
  22. ^ Tilley, Nick (2003). "Problem-Oriented Policing, Intelligence-Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model". Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, University College London.
  23. ^ Intelligence-led policing: A Definition. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  24. ^ Amanda Reavy. "Police review board gets started", The State Journal-Register Online. 
  25. ^ Walker, Samuel (2005). The New World of Police Accountability. Sage, p. 5. 
  26. ^ Law Enforcement Statistics. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  27. ^ Das, Dilip K., Otwin Marenin (2000). Challenges of Policing Democracies: A World Perspective. Routledge, p. 17. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential for unique and often severe impositions as punishment for failure to comply. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Not to be confused with torte, an iced cake. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Conflict of laws, or private international law, or international private law is that branch of international law and interstate law that regulates all lawsuits involving a foreign law element, where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... Supranational law is a form of international law, based on the limitation of the rights of sovereign nations between one another. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... Human rights law is a system of laws, both domestic and international which is intended to promote human rights. ... Legal procedure is the body of law and rules used in the administration of justice in the court system, including such areas as civil procedure, criminal procedure, appellate procedure, administrative procedure, labour procedure, and probate. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Immigration law refers to national government policies which control the phenomenon of immigration to their country. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Commercial law (sometimes known as business law) is the body of law which governs business and commerce. ... Corporate law (also corporations law or company law) refers to the law establishing separate legal entities known as the company or corporation and governs the most prevalent legal models for firms, for instance limited companies (Ltd or Pty Ltd), publicly limited companies (plc) or incorporated businesses (Inc. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... The following analysis is based on English law. ... Restitution is the name given to a form of legal relief in which the plaintiff recovers something from the defendant that belongs, or should belong, to the plaintiff. ... Tax law is the codified system of laws that describes government levies on economic transactions, commonly called taxes. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... Antitrust redirects here. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ... Environmental law is a body of law, which is a system of complex and interlocking statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies which seeks to protect the natural environment which may be affected, impacted or endangered by human activities. ... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... Products liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist Legality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about law in society. ... Legal history is a term that has at least two meanings. ... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A lawyer is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law and in other forms of dispute resolution. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...

See also

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Police
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United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... // This is a list of government Security police and Bodyguard organizations. ... A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. ... Law Enforcement Agency (LEA) is a generic term used for local and state police, as well as federal agencies (such as the FBI, the BATF, DHS, Europol, Interpol, etc. ... In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Public safety. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Police - Encyclopedia Article (904 words)
Police are normally considered an emergency service and may provide a public safety function at large gatherings, as well as in emergencies, disasters, and search and rescue situations.
Police are also responsible for reporting minor offenses by issuing citations which typically may result in the imposition of fines, particularly for violations of traffic law.
Some police organizations, especially in multi-racial or multi-ethnic areas, may have be faced with a perception that racial profiling is occurring.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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