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Encyclopedia > Polemology
The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war.
The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war.

A war is a conflict involving the organized use of weapons and physical force between states or other large-scale armed groups. The warring parties hold territory, which they can win or lose; and each has a leading person or organization which can surrender, or collapse, thus ending the war. Up until the end of World War II, the participants usually issued formal declarations of war. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1449, 251 KB) This is a picture of the bombing of Nagasaki by an atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1449, 251 KB) This is a picture of the bombing of Nagasaki by an atomic bomb. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... Hiroshima City Hall Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba Address 〒730-8586 Hiroshima-shi, Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34 Phone number 082-245-2111 Official website: Hiroshima City , // The city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, that enforces a monopoly on the use of force. ... A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution (from the word terra, meaning land). In politics, a territory is an area of land under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


The term is also used in constructs naming basically physical forms of conflict, but where the goal is the submission of one part by the other: trade war, psychological war, cold war.


The word war is sometimes used rhetorically to refer to a campaign against something, without territory to capture or an authority to defeat; e.g. the war on drugs, the war on terror. Operation Mallorca, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2005 [1] Massive mark-ups for drugs, UK Govt report No significant impact on retail or wholesale prices, UK Govt report The War on Drugs is an initiative undertaken by the United States to carry out an all-out offensive (as President Nixon... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...


Other terms for war, often used euphemistically, include armed conflict, hostilities, and police action (note). A time when no formal war is taking place, although there may be international and internal tensions, is called peacetime or peace. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... link titleThe word international can mean: Between nations or encompassing several nations. ... ... Tension may mean: In physics, tension is a force related to the stretching of a string or a similar object. ... Widely-recognized peace symbol Peace is commonly understood to mean the Other definitions include freedom from disputes, harmonious relations and the absence of mental stress or anxiety, as the meaning of the word changes with context. ...


Wars usually take the form of a series of military campaigns between two opposing sides involving a dispute over, amongst others issues, sovereignty, territory, resources, religion, ideology. A war to liberate an occupied country is called a "war of liberation"; a war between internal factions within a state is a civil war. In the military sciences, a military campaign encompass related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... A territory is a defined area (including land and waters), usually considered to be a possession of an animal, person, organization, or institution (from the word terra, meaning land). In politics, a territory is an area of land under the jurisdiction of a governmental authority. ... Natural resources are naturally occuring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military occupation occurs where territory belonging to one country falls under the control and authority of the armed forces of a belligerent or enemy country following an invasion or annexation. ... A War of Liberation is a conflict which is primarily intended to bring freedom or independence to a nation or group. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ...

Contents


History of war

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

History of Warfare
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval ·
Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern
Theaters
Aerial · Amphibious · Arctic · Desert ·
Jungle · Mountain · Naval ·
Ski · Space · Urban ·
Weapons
Armoured · Artillery · Biological ·
Cavalry · Chemical · Electronic ·
Infantry · Information · Mechanized ·
Nuclear · Psychological ·
Radiological · Submarine
Tactics

Asymmetric · Attrition · Conventional ·
Fortification · Ground · Guerrilla ·
Hand to hand · Invasion · Maneuver ·
Naval · Network-centric · Siege ·
Total · Trench · Unconventional Military history is information composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, states and other such large social organizations. ... Ancient warfare is war as condjn/ooucted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the European Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare is a complex affair, involving the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ... US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. An infantry is a body of soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Asymmetric warfare describes the potential for an optimal interaction between the respective strengths and weaknessess of two belligerents. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... Network-centric warfare (NCW), or Network-centric operations (NCO), is a new military doctrine pioneered by the United States. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This article is about Total War. ... Trench Warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the ground, facing each other. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Lists
Battles · Civil wars · Commanders ·
Invasions · Operations · Sieges ·
Tactics · Wars
Main article: History of warfare
"Warfare is the greatest affair of state, the basis of life and death. The Tao to survival or extinction, it must be thoroughly pondered and analyzed."
The Art of War by Sun Tzu

War seems as old as human society, and certainly features prominently in the recorded histories of state-cultures. In tribal societies engaging in endemic warfare, it is typical for the tribes armed force to consist entirely or mostly of militia or a warrior caste. The earliest city states and empires in Mesopotamia became the first to employ standing armies. Organization and structure has since been central to warfare, as illustrated by the success of highly disciplined troops of the Roman Empire. History -- Military history -- Lists of battles This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Principles Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of a reserve Economy of Force Force protection Dispersal or spacing Camouflage Deception Electronic Counter Measures Electronic Counter Counter Measures Radio silence Use of fortifications Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... Taijitu This article is about the Chinese character. ... The Art of War (Chinese: 孫子兵法 sūn zi bīng fǎ) was a Chinese military text written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For the Brian Yuzna film, see Society (film). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, and usually having sovereignty. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An army composed of full time professional soldiers form a standing army. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


As well as organizational change, technology has played a central role in the evolution of warfare. Armies with steel weapons easily defeated armies armed with copper. Inventions created for warfare play an important role in advances in other fields, but modern technology has greatly increased the potential cost and destruction of war. ...


The study of warfare is known as military history. Military history is information composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ...


Morality of war

Throughout history, war has been the source of serious moral questions. Although many ancient nations and some more modern ones viewed war as noble, over the sweep of history concerns about the morality of war have gradually increased. Today war is generally seen as undesirable and, by some, morally problematic, although many view war, or at least the preparation and readiness and willingness to engage in war, as a necessary precursor to the defense of their country against aggressors. Pacifists of various sorts believe that war is inherently immoral and that no war should ever be fought. This position was passionately defended by the Indian leader Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 374 KB) Plaque at center of Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 374 KB) Plaque at center of Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: War ... A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, is a plate of metal attached to a wall or other vertical surface and bearing text in memory of an important figure or event. ... Melbourne is the state capital and largest city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-largest city in Australia, with a population of approximately 3. ... The Shrine of Remembrance, located in St Kilda Road, Melbourne, is one of the largest war memorials in Australia. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ... Pacifism is opposition to the practice of war. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


The negative view of war has not always been held as widely as it is today. Many thinkers, such as Heinrich von Treitschke saw war as humanity's highest activity where courage, honor, and ability were more necessary than in any other endeavour. At the outbreak of World War I the writer Thomas Mann wrote, "Is not peace an element of civil corruption and war a purification, a liberation, an enormous hope?" This attitude has been embraced by societies from Sparta and Rome in the ancient world to the fascist states of the 1930s. The defeat and repudiation of the fascist states and their militarism in the Second World War, the shock of the first use of nuclear weapons and increased respect for the sanctity of individual life, as enshrined in the concept of human rights, for example, have contributed to the current view of war. Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ... Fortitudo, by Sandro Botticelli Courage, also known as fortitude, is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. ... Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... Thomas Mann Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and Nobel Prize laureate, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist... Sparta (Doric: Σπάρτα, Attic: Σπάρτη) is a city in southern Greece. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Today, some see only just wars as legitimate, and believe that it is the goal of organizations such as the United Nations to unite the world against wars of unjust aggression. Others believe that the United Nations has no more moral advantage than that of a sovereign country. Just War theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces. ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Limitations on war

At times throughout history, societies have attempted to limit the cost of war by formalizing it in some way. Limitations on the targeting of civilians, what type of weapons can be used, and when combat is allowed have all fallen under these rules in different conflicts. Total war is the modern term for the targeting of civilians and the mobilization of an entire society; when every member of the society has to contribute to the war effort. A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... This article is about Total War. ... Mobilization or mobilisation is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war. ... In military affairs, the war effort refers to the harnessing of economic and human resources towards support of a military force. ...


While culture, law, and religion have all been factors in causing wars, they have also acted as restraints at times. In some cultures, for example, conflicts have been highly ritualized to limit actual loss of life. In modern times, increasing international attention has been paid to peacefully resolving conflicts which lead to war. The United Nations is the latest and most comprehensive attempt to, as stated in the preamble of the U.N. Charter, "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war." Law (from the late Old English lagu of probable North Germanic origin) in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, forbid or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, intended to provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide...


A number of treaties regulate warfare, collectively referred to as the laws of war. The most pervasive of those are the Geneva Conventions, the earliest of which began to take effect in the mid 1800s. A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The two parts of the laws of war: Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called Jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called Jus ad bellum. ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949 The Geneva Conventions consist of four treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ...


Treaty signing has since been a part of international diplomacy, and too many treaties to mention in this article have been signed. A couple of examples are: Resolutions of the Geneva International Conference, Geneva, 26 October-29 October 1863 and Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 135, entered into force 21 October 1950. It must be noted that in war such treaties are generally ignored if they interfere with the vital interests of either side;[citation needed] some have criticized such conventions as simply providing a fig leaf for the inhuman practice of war. By only illegalising "war against the rules", it is alleged, such treaties and conventions, in effect, sanction certain types of war. The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization. ... The Geneva convention signed during the 26-29 October 1863 signed the following treaty. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (French Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla - Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus... Sanction is an interesting word, in that, depending on context, it can have diametrically opposing meanings. ...


Redefining "war" for legal reasons

Sometimes the term "war" is restricted by legal definition to those conflicts where one or both belligerents have formally declared war. This has resulted in wars (in the sense defined in the introduction to this article) without formal declaration and combatants who officially choose terms other than "war," such as: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...

For example, the United States Government referred to the Korean War as a "police action", and the British Government was very careful to use the term "armed conflict" instead of "war" during the Falklands War in 1982 to comply with the letter of international law. Sometimes the term "war" will not be used in order to circumvent national constitutions which restrict the power of the executive to wage war without the agreement of other branches of government. Armed forces are the military forces of a state. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... Combatants Western Allied/UN combatants: South Korea, United States Communist combatants: North Korea, Peoples Republic of China, Soviet Union Commanders Douglas Macarthur Park Chang-Ju Jang Tak-Sang Kim Il Sung Oh Chol-Lyong Mun Dong-Gee Choi Un-Hyeok Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an effective state of war in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Causes of war

There is great debate over why wars happen, even when most people do not want them to. Representatives of many different academic disciplines have attempted to explain war. Reasons for war could vary from fear of being attacked to just getting back at countries for doing something they didn't want them to do. Resources are also an important fact in warfare Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ...


Historical theories

Historians tend to be reluctant to look for sweeping explanations for all wars. A.J.P. Taylor famously described wars as being like traffic accidents. There are some conditions and situations that make them more likely but there can be no system for predicting where and when each one will occur. Social scientists criticize this approach arguing that at the beginning of every war some leader makes a conscious decision and that they cannot be seen as purely accidental. For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ... A car accident in Yate, near Bristol, England, in July 2004. ... Terms like SOSE (Studies of Society & the Environment) not only refer to social sciences but also studies of the environment. ...


Psychological theories

Psychologists such as E.F.M. Durban and John Bowlby have argued that human beings, especially men, are inherently violent. While this violence is repressed in normal society it needs the occasional outlet provided by war. This combines with other notions, such as displacement where a person transfers their grievances into bias and hatred against other ethnic groups, nations, or ideologies. While these theories may have some explanatory value about why wars occur, they do not explain when or how they occur. In addition, they raise the question why there are sometimes long periods of peace and other eras of unending war. If the innate psychology of the human mind is unchanging, these variations are inconsistent. A solution adapted to this problem by militarists such as Franz Alexander is that peace does not really exist. Periods that are seen as peaceful are actually periods of preparation for a later war or when war is suppressed by a state of great power, such as the Pax Britannica. Psychology (Gk: psyche, soul or mind + logos, speech) is an academic and applied field involving the study of the mind, brain, and behavior, both human and nonhuman. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, and obligations upon the death of an individual. ... Look up displacement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For Wikipedias policy on avoiding bias, see Wikipedia:Neutral point of view. ... For the emotion Hatred please see Hate Hatred (Nenavist) is a Soviet film of 1975 directed by Samvel Gasparov. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Franz Alexander, (1891–1964) was a graduate of the Berlin Psychoanalytic born in Budapest. ... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the Battle of Waterloo, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ...


If war is innate to human nature, as is presupposed by many psychological theories, then there is little hope of ever escaping it. One alternative is to argue that war is only, or almost only, a male activity and if human leadership was in female hands wars would not occur. This theory has played an important role in modern feminism. Critics, of course, point to various examples of female political leaders who had no qualms about using military force, such as Margaret Thatcher, Indira Gandhi or Golda Meir. It has, however, been observed that while men often fight wars that last for years, wars fought with female leadership are over in a matter of weeks.[citation needed] Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and again from January 14, 1980 until her assassination on October 31, 1984. ... Golda Meir (Hebrew: ) (b. ...


Other psychologists have argued that while human temperament allows wars to occur, they only do so when mentally unbalanced men are in control of a nation. This extreme school of thought argues leaders that seek war such as Napoleon, Hitler, and Stalin were mentally abnormal. In psychology, temperament is the general nature of an individuals personality, such as introversion or extraversion, it derives from the theory of the humours. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ...


A distinct branch of the psychological theories of war are the arguments based on evolutionary psychology. This school tends to see war as an extension of animal behaviour, such as territoriality and competition. However, while war has a natural cause, the development of technology has accelerated human destructiveness to a level that is irrational and damaging to the species. We have the same instincts of a chimpanzee but overwhelmingly more power. The earliest advocate of this theory was Konrad Lorenz. These theories have been criticized by scholars such as John G. Kennedy, who argue that the organized, sustained war of humans differs more than just technologically from the territorial fights between animals. Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated ev-psych or EP) is the claim that many mental capacities and faculties can be explained by considering them to be adaptations in an evolutionary biological sense, as traits or capacities whose natures can be explained as a product of natural selection. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... Type Species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species in the genus Pan. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903–February 27, 1989) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ...


In his fictional book Nineteen-Eighty-Four, George Orwell talks about a state of constant war being used as one of many ways to distract people. War inspires fear and hate among the people of a nation, and gives them a 'legitimate' enemy upon whom they can focus this fear and hate. Thus the people are prevented from seeing that their true enemy is in fact their own repressive government. By this theory, war is another 'opiate of the masses' by which a state controls its people and prevents revolution. Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a darkly satirical political novel by George Orwell. ... Eric Arthur Blair (June 25, 1903 – January 21, 1950), much better known by the pen name George Orwell (pronounced ), was a British author and journalist. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... The term opiate refers to the alkaloids found in opium, an extract from the seed pods of the opium poppy (). It has also traditionally referred to natural and semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, that enforces a monopoly on the use of force. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ...


Anthropological theories

Several anthropologists take a very different view of war. They see it as fundamentally cultural, learned by nurture rather than nature. Thus if human societies could be reformed, war would disappear. To this school the acceptance of war is inculcated into each of us by the religious, ideological, and nationalistic surroundings in which we live. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Fishers of Men, oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Various religious symbols Religion is commonly defined as a group of beliefs concerning the myth of the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such belief. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate...


Many anthropologists also see no links between various forms of violence. They see the fighting of animals, the skirmishes of hunter-gatherer tribes, and the organized warfare of modern societies as distinct phenomena each with their own causes. Theorists such as Ashley Montagu emphasize the top down nature of war, that almost all wars are begun not by popular pressure but by the whims of leaders and that these leaders also work to maintain a system of ideological justifications for war. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ... Ashley Montagu (June 28, 1905, London, England - November 26, 1999, Princeton, New Jersey), was an English anthropologist and humanist who popularized issues such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. ...


Sociological theories

Sociology has long been very concerned with the origins of war, and many thousands of theories have been advanced, many of them contradictory. Some use detailed formulas taking into account hundreds of demographic and economic values to predict when and where wars will break out. The statistical analysis of war was pioneered by Lewis Fry Richardson following World War I. More recent databases of wars and armed conflict have been assembled by the Correlates of War Project, Peter Brecke and the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research. So far none of these formulas have successfully predicted the outbreak of future conflicts. A detailed study by Michael Haas found that no single variable has a strong correlation to the occurrence of wars. [1](please verify the credibility of this source) One correlation that has found much support is that states that are democracies do not go to war with each other, an idea known as the democratic peace theory, see below under political science. Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Lewis Fry Richardson (October 11, 1881 - September 30, 1953) was a mathematician, physicist and psychologist. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...


Many sociologists have attempted to divide wars into types to get better correlations, but this has also produced mixed results. Data looked at by R.J. Rummel has found that civil wars and foreign wars are very different in origin[citation needed] , but Jonathan Wilkenfield using different data found just the opposite.[citation needed] Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Rudolph Joseph Rummel (born October 21, 1932) is professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii and alternative historian. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ...


Sociology has thus divided into a number of schools. One, the Primat der Innenpolitik (Primacy of Domestic Politics) school based on the works of Eckart Kehr and Hans-Ulrich Wehler sees war as the product of domestic conditions, with only the target of aggression being determined by international realities. Thus World War I was not a product of international disputes, secret treaties, or the balance of power but a product of the economic, social, and political situation within each of the states involved. Hans-Ulrich Wehler (September 11, 1931-) is a well-known left-wing German historian. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... A controversy is a contentious dispute, a disagreement over which parties are actively arguing. ...


This differs from the traditional Primat der Aussenpolitik (Primacy of Foreign Politics) approach of Carl von Clausewitz and Leopold von Ranke that argue it is the decisions of statesmen and the geopolitical situation that leads to war. A young Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (June 1, 1780 - November 16, 1831) was a Prussian general and influential military theorist. ... Leopold Von Ranke in 1877 Leopold von Ranke (December 21, 1795- May 23, 1886) was one of the greatest German historians of the 19th century, and is frequently considered the founder of scientific history. ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ...


Malthusian theories

Pope Urban in 1095, on the eve of the First Crusade, wrote, "For this land which you now inhabit, shut in on all sides by the sea and the mountain peaks, is too narrow for your large population; it scarcely furnishes food enough for its cultivators. Hence it is that you murder and devour one another, that you wage wars, and that many among you perish in civil strife. Let hatred, therefore, depart from among you; let your quarrels end. Enter upon the road to the Holy Sepulcher; wrest that land from a wicked race, and subject it to yourselves." Pope Urban may refer to one of several people: Pope Urban I, 222/223 to 230 - a Saint Pope Urban II, 12 March 1088 to 29 July 1099 - the Blessed Pope Urban Pope Urban III, 25 November 1185 to 19 October 1187 Pope Urban IV, 29 August 1261 to 2... Events The country of Portugal is established for the second time. ...


This is one of the earliest expressions of what has come to be called the Malthusian theory of war, in which wars are caused by expanding populations and limited resources. Thomas Malthus (1766 - 1834) wrote that populations always increase until they are limited by war, disease, or famine. The Rev. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


This theory is thought by Malthusians to account for the relative decrease in wars during the past fifty years, especially in the developed world, where advances in agriculture have made it possible to support a much larger population than was formerly the case, and where birth control has dramatically slowed the increase in population.


Information theories

A popular new approach is to look at the role of information in the outbreak of wars. This theory, advanced by scholars of international relations such as Geoffrey Blainey, argues that all wars are based on a lack of information. If both sides at the outset knew the result neither would fight, the loser would merely surrender and avoid the cost in lives and infrastructure that a war would cause. Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. ... Professor Geoffrey Blainey AO (born 11 March 1930), is recognised as one of Australias most significant and popular historians. ...


This is based on the notion that wars are reciprocal, that all wars require both a decision to attack and also a decision to resist attack. This notion is generally agreed to by almost all scholars of war since Clausewitz. This notion is made harder to accept because it is far more common to study the cause of wars rather than events that failed to cause wars, and wars are far more memorable. However, throughout history there are as many invasions and annexations that did not lead to a war, such as the U.S.-led invasion of Haiti in 1994, the Nazi invasions of Austria and Czechoslovakia preceding the Second World War, and the annexation of the Baltic states by the Soviet Union in 1940. On the other hand, Finland's decision to resist a similar Soviet aggression in 1939 led to the Winter War. The 1944 Invasion of Normandy An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geo-political entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, often resulting in the invading power occupying the area, whether briefly or for a long period, and sometimes permanently. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Motto: (1789 to 1956) (Latin for Out of many, one) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - • President George W. Bush (R)  - • Vice... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered a fourth Baltic state. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000...


The leaders of these nations chose not to resist as they saw the potential benefits being not worth the loss of life and destruction such resistance would cause. Lack of information may not only be to who wins in the immediate future. The Norwegian decision to resist the Nazi invasion was taken with the certain knowledge that Norway would fall. The Norwegians did not know whether the German domination would be permanent and also felt that noble resistance would win them favour with the Allies and a position at the peace settlement in the event of an Allied victory. If in 1940 it had been known with certainty the Germans would dominate central Europe for many decades, it is unlikely the Norwegians would have resisted. If it had been known for certainty that the Third Reich would collapse after only a few years of war, the Nazis would not have launched the invasion at all. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


This theory is predicated on the notion that the outcome of wars is not randomly determined, but fully determined on factors such as doctrine, economies, and power. While purely random events, such as storms or the right person dying at the right time, might have had some effect on history, these only influence a single battle or slightly alter the outcome of a war, but would not mean the difference between victory and defeat. Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ...


There are two main objectives in the gathering of intelligence. The first is to find out the ability of an enemy, the second their intent. In theory to have enough information to prevent all wars both need to be fully known. The Argentinean dictatorship knew that the United Kingdom had the ability to defeat them, but their intelligence failed them on the question of whether the British would use their power to resist the annexation of the Falkland Islands. The American decision to enter the Vietnam War was made with the full knowledge that the communist forces would resist them, but did not believe that the guerrillas had the capability to long oppose American forces. Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230,000 South Vietnamese wounded: 300,000 US dead... This article needs to be updated. ...


One major difficulty is that in a conflict of interests, some deception or at least not telling everything is a standard tactical component on both sides. If you think that you can convince the opponent that you will fight, the opponent might desist. For example, Sweden made efforts to deceive Nazi Germany that it would resist an attack fiercely partly by playing on the myth of Aryan superiority, and by making sure that Hermann Göring only saw elite troops in action, often dressed up as regular soldiers, when he came to visit. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader known for being second in command of the Third Reich, a leading member of the Nazi party, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


Economic theories

Another school of thought argues that war can be seen as an outgrowth of economic competition in a chaotic and competitive international system. In this view, wars begin as a pursuit of new markets, of natural resources, and of wealth. Unquestionably a cause of some wars, from the empire building of Britain to the 1941 Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in pursuit of oil, this theory has been applied to many other conflicts. It is most often advocated by those to the left of the political spectrum, who argue that such wars serve the interests of the wealthy, but are fought by the poor. Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... A physical marketplace in Portugal enables buyers and sellers of produce to do business with each other. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition...


Political science theories

The statistical analysis of war was pioneered by Lewis Fry Richardson following World War I. More recent databases of wars and armed conflict have been assembled by the Correlates of War Project, Peter Brecke and the Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research. For Wikipedia statistics, see m:Statistics Statistics is the science and practice of developing human knowledge through the use of empirical data expressed in quantitative form. ... Lewis Fry Richardson (October 11, 1881 - September 30, 1953) was a mathematician, physicist and psychologist. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First...


There are several different international relations theory schools. Supporters of realism in international relations argue that the motivation of states is in the first place the strive for (mostly) military and economic power or security. War is one tool in achieving this goal. International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Critical theory & Constructivism The term realism or political realism collects a wide variety of theories and modes of thought about International Relations that have in common that the motivation of states is in the...


One claim, sometimes argued to contradict the realist view, is that there is much empirical support that states that are democracies do not go to war with each other, an idea known as the democratic peace theory. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ...


Marxist theories

The economic theories also form a part of the Marxist theory of war, which argues that all war grows out of the class war. It sees wars as imperial ventures to enhance the power of the ruling class and divide the proletariat of the world by pitting them against each other for contrived ideals such as nationalism or religion. Wars are a natural outgrowth of the free market and class system, and will not disappear until a world revolution occurs. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about the organisation and newspaper Class War. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


See also

  • Category:Causes of war

Types of war and warfare

By cause

Type Example
Extortionate Pecheneg and Cuman forays on Rus in 9th–13th centuries AD
Aggressive the wars of Cyrus II in 550529 BC
Colonial Franco-Chinese War
National liberation Algerian War of Independence
Religious Huguenot Wars
Dynastic The War of the Spanish Succession
Trade Opium Wars

Marxism, succeeded by the Soviet ideology, distinguished the just and unjust war. The just war was considered to be the slave rebellions or the national liberation movements while the second type carried the imperialistic character. Smaller armed conflicts are often called riots, rebellions, coups, etc. The Pechenegs or Patzinaks (in Hungarian: Besenyők, Russian: Печенеги, Ukrainian: Печеніги ) were a semi-nomadic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking a Turkic language. ... Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Cyrus the Great Cyrus the Great also Cyrus II of Persia or Cyrus the Elder, (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... The Sino-French War or Franco-Chinese War was a war fought between the French Third Republic and Qing Empire that lasted from September 1884 to June 1885. ... The Algerian War of Independence (1954–62) was a period of guerrilla strikes, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians on both sides, and riots between the French army and colonists, or the colons as they were called, in French special département Algeria and the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... The Opium Wars were two wars that were the climax of a long dispute between Britain and China. ... Soviet redirects here. ... A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Riots occur when crowds of people have gathered and are committing crimes or acts of violence usually due to a perceived grievance or out of dissent. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ...


When one country sends armed forces to another, allegedly to restore order or prevent genocide or other crimes against humanity, or to support a legally recognized government against insurgency, that country sometimes refers to it as a police action. This usage is not always recognized as valid, however, particularly by those who do not accept the connotations of the term. Genocide is defined by the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) Article 2 as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: Killing members of the group; Causing... This article is in need of attention. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ...


"Conventional warfare" describes either: Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ...

  • A war between nation-states
  • War where nuclear or biological weapons are not used.

(Compare with unconventional warfare and nuclear warfare.) Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ... Mushroom cloud of a nuclear explosion. ...


A war where the forces in conflict belong to the same country or empire or other political entity is known as a civil war. Asymmetrical warfare is a conflict between two populations of drastically different levels of military mechanization. This type of war often results in guerrilla tactics. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a common example of asymmetrical warfare. Terrorism can be considered an extreme form of asymmetrical warfare. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... Asymmetric warfare is a military term to describe warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or accustomed methods of engagement such that the militarily diasadvantaged power must press its special advantages or effectively exploit its enemys particular weaknesses if they are to have any... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Military action produces a very small percentage of air pollution emissions. Intentional air pollution in combat is one of a collection of techniques collectively called chemical warfare. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War I, and resulted in an estimated 91,198 deaths and 1,205,655 injuries. Various treaties have sought to ban its further use. Non-lethal chemical weapons, such as tear gas and pepper spray, are widely used. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Pepper spray (also known as OC spray (from Oleoresin Capsicum), OC gas, or capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even temporary blindness) that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs. ...


Geographic warfare

The terrain over which a war is fought has a big impact on the type of combat which takes place. This in turn means that soldiers have to be trained to fight in a specific type of terrain. These include:

Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Finnish sissi troops on skis. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Captain John Ericsson invented sub-aquatic warfare. A ship would have the majority of its hull underneath the water The first example is probably the U.S. Moniter which existed during the Civil War Time era. ... A typically white color clothes of a soldier trained for mountain warfare. ... US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... Space warfare is warfare that takes place in outer space. ...

Termination of war

How a war affects the political and economic circumstances in the peace that follows usually depends on the "facts on the ground". Where evenly matched adversaries decide that the conflict has resulted in a stalemate, they may cease hostilities to avoid further loss of life and property. They may decide to restore the antebellum territorial boundaries, redraw boundaries at the line of military control, or negotate to keep or exchange captured territory. Negotiations at the end of a war often result in a treaty, such as the Treaty of Versailles of 1919, which ended the First World War. Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before the war (ante means before and bellum war). ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


A warring party that surrenders may have little negotiating power, with the victorious side either imposing a settlement, or dictating most of the terms of any treaty. A common results is that conquered territory is brought under the dominion of the stronger military power. An unconditional surrender is made in the face of overwhelming military force as an attempt to prevent further harm to life and property. For example, the Empire of Japan gave an unconditional surrender to the Allies in World War II after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (See Surrender of Japan.) A settlement or surrender may be also be obtained through deception or bluffing. To surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... The flag of Imperial Japan is still used as the flag of Japan. ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The Surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... Deception (or mystification) is to intentionally distort the truth in order to mislead others. ... Bluffing is a form of Deception that involves a false show of confidence. ...


Many other wars, however, have ended in complete destruction of the opposing territory, such as the Battle of Carthage of the Third Punic War between the Phoenician city of Carthage and Ancient Rome in 149 BC. In 146 BC, the Romans overtook the city, enslaved its citizens, and poured salt over the earth to ensure that nothing would ever grow there again. The Battle of Carthage was the major act of the Third Punic War between the Phoenician city of Carthage in Africa (near present-day Tunis) and the Roman Republic. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Roman Republic. ... Phoenician can mean: The Phoenician ancient civilization The Phoenician alphabet The Phoenician languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Carthaginian settlements in the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. The term Carthage can refer either to an ancient city in North Africa, located on the eastern side of Lake Tunis across from the center of modern Tunis in Tunisia, or to the civilization within the citys... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 151 BC 150 BC 149 BC 148 BC 147 BC - 146 BC - 145 BC 144 BC...


Some wars or war-like actions end when the military objective of the victorious side has been achieved. Conquered territories may be brought under the permanent dominion of the victorious side. A raid for the purposes of looting may be completed with the successful capture of goods. In other cases an aggressor may decide to avoid continued losses and cease hostilities without obtaining the original objective. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack...


Some hostilities, such as insurgency or civil war, may persist for long periods of time with only a low level of military activity. In some cases there is no negotiation of any official treaty, but fighting may trail off and eventually stop after the political demands of the belligerent groups have been reconciled, or combatants are gradually killed or decide the conflict is futile. An insurgency is an armed revolt or insurrection against an established civil or political authority, such as a constituted government or an occupation by an invading force. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ...


Effects of war

  • Death, injury, and destruction of property
  • Unexploded ordinance
  • Territorial changes
  • Liberation
  • Resolution of political, economic, or social conflict
  • Increased or decreased probability of future armed conflicts
  • Environmental damage
  • Scientific Advances

Death is the cessation of life. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... A German Thrash metal band formed in Lörrach, Germany in 1983. ... Unexploded ordnance (or UXOs) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, etc. ... Fatale is also the title of a comic book published in the mid-1990s by Broadway Comics. ...

Prevention of and alternatives to war

Widely-recognized peace symbol Peace is commonly understood to mean the Other definitions include freedom from disputes, harmonious relations and the absence of mental stress or anxiety, as the meaning of the word changes with context. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of violence. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... // Early life Gandhi and his wife Kasturba (1902) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born into a Hindu Modh family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India in 1869. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ...

See also

   
War Portal
Geographic areas with ongoing armed conflicts.
Geographic areas with ongoing armed conflicts.
General
Lists
Military knowlegebase
Other

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ongoing wars ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 50 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ongoing wars ... Just War theory is the attempt to distinguish between justifiable and unjustifiable uses of organized armed forces. ... We dont have an article called Undeclared war Start this article Search for Undeclared war in. ... War Cycles Wars are complex phenomena with multiple determinants. ... List of wars - List of wars before 1000 - List of wars 1000–1499 - List of wars 1500–1799 - List of wars 1800–1899 - List of wars 1900–1944 - List of wars 1945–1989 - List of wars 1990–2002- List of wars 2003–current - Ongoing wars Sites of armed conflicts worldwide... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... History -- Military history -- Lists of battles This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of orders of battle. ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... . ... Fight War, Not Wars - Crass Holy Wars - Megadeth To A Husband At War - I Hate Myself War - Wumpscut War Pigs - Black Sabbath War Story - Choking Victim World War III - TSOL See also List of lists of songs ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Military strategem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ... Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are mentioned in the Bible in chapter six of the Book of Revelation, which predicts that they will ride during the Apocalypse. ... The term military-industrial complex usually refers to the combination of the U.S. armed forces, arms industry and associated political and commercial interests, which grew rapidly in scale and influence in the wake of World War II, although it can also be used to describe any such relationship of... A private military contractor (PMC) is a corporation that provides armed forces trained in combat, private military, for other corporations, organizations, individuals and state military forces. ... The war film is a film genre that has to do with warfare, usually focusing on naval, air, or land battles, but sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training, or other related subjects. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ... Wargaming is the play of simulated military operations in the form of games known as war games. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Michael Haas Polity and Society: Philosophical Underpinnings of Social Science Paradigms ISBN: 0275935582 Publisher: Praeger Publishers (December 30, 1991)

References

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • Small, Melvin & Singer, David J. (1982). Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816- 1980. Sage Publications. ISBN 0803917775.
  • Van Creveld, M. (2000). The Art of War: War and Military Thought. Cassell, Wellington House. ISBN 0304362115.
  • Maniscalco, F. (2006). Protection of Cultural Property in Wea Areas - monographic series "Mediterraneum", vol. VI. Massa, Naples. ISBN 8887835187.

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote logo Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

External links

  • Spraying of Agent orange by US Army in Vietnam and its consequences, by André Bouny
  • Documents and Resources on War, War Crimes and Genocide
  • Correlates of War Project
  • Correlates of War 2
  • Reality of war. Experience of those who seen it...
  • Article by Peter Brecke
  • The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation
  • Uppsala Department of Peace and Conflict Research
  • New England Complex Systems Institute: The Complex World - Military
  • 1986 Seville Statement on Violence
  • The Seville Statement on Violence: A Progress Report
  • The Myth That War Is Intrinsic to Human Nature Discourages Action for Peace by Young People
  • Rough estimates of the number of deaths in various wars and conflicts
  • Observatory for Protection of Cultural Heritage in Areas of Crisis
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry
  • War Wikia:The free War encyclopedia

 
 

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